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He further engages that no charge shall be made, in consequence of such additions and improvements, on American ships and their cargoes passing through the Sound and the Belts.
It is understood, however, to be optional for the masters of American vessels either to employ in the said waters Danish pilots at reasonable rates fixed by the Danish Government, or to navigate their vessels without such assistance.
In consideration of the foregoing agreements and stipulations on the part of Denmark whereby, the free and unincumbered navigation of American vessels through the Sound and the Belts is forever secured, the United States agree to pay to the Government of Denmark, once for all, the sum of seven hundred and seventeen thousand, eight hundred and twenty nine Rix dollars, or its equivalent, three hundred and ninety-three thousand and eleven dollars in United States currency, at London on the day when the said convention shall go into full effect as hereinafterwards provided.
It is further agreed that any other or further privileges, rights or advantages which may have been or may be granted by Denmark to the commerce and navigation of any other nation at the Sounds and Belts, or on her coasts and in her harbors, with reference to the transit by land through Danish territory of merchandise belonging to the citizens or subjects of such nation, shall also be fully extended to and enjoyed by the citizens of the United States, and by their vessels and property in that quarter.
The general convention of friendship, commerce and navigation," concluded between the United States and His Majesty the King of Denmark on the 26th of April, 1826, and which was abrogated on the 15th of April, 1856, and the provisions contained in each and all of its articles, the 5th article alone excepted, shall after the ratification of this present Convention, again become binding upon the United States and Denmark; it being, however, understood that a year's notice shall suffice for the abrogation of the stipulations of the said Convention hereby renewed.
The present Convention shall take effect as soon as the laws to carry it into operation shall be passed by the government of the contracting parties, and the sum stipulated to be paid by the United States shall be received by or tendered to Denmark; and for the fulfilment of these purposes, a period not exceeding twelve months from the signing of this Convention shall be allowed.
But if, in the interval, an earlier day shall be fixed upon and carried into effect for a free navigation through the Sound and Belts in favor
a See Convention of 1826, p. 229.
of any other power or powers, the same shall simultaneously be extended to the vessels of the United States and their cargoes, in anticipation of the payment of the sum stipulated in Article III; it being understood, however, that in that event the Government of the United States shall also pay to that of Denmark four per cent interest on the said sum from the day the said immunity shall have gone into operation until the principal shall have been paid as aforesaid.
The present Convention shall be duly ratified and the exchange of ratifications shall take place in Washington within ten months from the date hereof, or sooner if practicable.
In faith whereof the respective plenipotentiaries have signed the present Convention, in duplicate, and have thereunto affixed their seals. Done at Washington this eleventh day of April in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and fifty-seven, and of the Independence of the United States the eighty-first.
Concluded July 11, 1861; ratification advised by the Senate July 17, 1861; ratified by the President August 25, 1861; ratifications exchanged September 18, 1861; proclaimed September 20, 1861. (Treaties and Conventions, 1889, p. 240.)
(This convention consisted of two additional articles to the general convention of commerce and navigation, 1826, renewed April 11, 1857, extending the powers of consuls.)
I. Authority of consuls over shipping | II. Deserters from ships; ratification. disputes.
The United States of America and His Majesty the King of Denmark, wishing to favor their mutual commerce by affording, in their ports, every necessary assistance to their respective vessels, the Undersigned Plenipotentiaries, being duly empowered for that purpose, have agreed upon the following additional articles to the General Convention of friendship, commerce and navigation, concluded at Washington on the twenty-sixth day of April, 1826, between the contracting parties.
The respective Consuls General, Consuls, Vice Consuls and Commercial Agents, shall have the right as such to sit as judges and arbitrators in such differences as may arise, either at sea or in port. between the Captain, officers and crew of the vessels belonging to the
a See Convention of 1826, p. 229.
nation whose interests are committed to their charge, particularly in reference to the adjustment of wages and the execution of contracts, without the interference of the local authorities, unless the conduct. of the crew and the officers, or of the Captains, should disturb the order or tranquillity of the country.
It is however, understood that this species of judgment or arbitration shall not deprive the contending parties of the right they have to resort on their return to the judicial authority of their country.
The Consuls General, Consuls, Vice Consuls and Commercial Agents are authorized to require the assistance of the local authorities for the search, arrest and imprisonment of the deserters from the ships of war and merchant vessels of their country. For this purpose they shall apply to the competent tribunals, judges and officers, and shall in writing demand said deserters, proving by the exhibition of the registers of the vessels, the rolls of the crews, or by other official documents, or, if the vessel shall have departed, by copy of said documents duly certified by them, that such individuals form part of the crew; and on this reclamation being thus substantiated, the surrender shall not be refused, unless there be sufficient proof of the said persons being citizens or subjects of the country where their surrender is demanded. Such deserters when arrested shall be placed at the disposal of said Consuls General, Consuls, Vice Consuls or Commercial Agents, and may be confined in the public prisons at the request and cost of those who shall claim them, in order to be detained until the time when they shall be restored to the vessels to which they belonged, or sent back to their own country by a vessel of the same nation, or any other vessel whatsoever. But if not sent back within three months from the day of their arrest, they shall be set at liberty and shall not be again arrested for the same cause.
However if the deserter should be found to have committed any crime or offence, his surrender may be delayed until the tribunal before which his case shall be depending shall have pronounced its sentence, and such sentence shall have been carried into effect.
The present additional articles shall have the same force and value as if they were inserted, word for word, in the Convention signed at Washington on the twenty-sixth day of April, one thousand eight hundred and twenty-six, and being approved and ratified by the President of the United States, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate thereof, and by His Majesty the King of Denmark, the ratification shall be exchanged at Washington within six months from the date hereof, or sooner, if possible.
In faith whereof, we, the undersigned, in virtue of our respective full powers, have signed the present additional articles, and have thereto affixed our seals.
Done in triplicate at the City of Washington on the eleventh day of July, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and sixty one.
WILLIAM H. SEWARD. [SEAL.]
W. R. RAASLOFF.
Concluded July 20, 1872; ratification advised by the Senate January 13, 1873; ratified by the President January 22, 1873; ratifications exchanged March 14, 1873; proclaimed April 15, 1873. (Treaties and Conventions, 1889, p. 241.)
I. Naturalization recognized.
II. Readmission to former status. III. Renunciation of acquired status.
The United States of America and his Majesty the King of Denmark being desirous to regulate the citizenship of the citizens of the United States of America who have emigrated, or who may emigrate, from the United States of America to the Kingdom of Denmark, and of Danish subjects who have emigrated, or who may emigrate from the Kingdom of Denmark to the United States of America, have resolved to conclude a Convention for that purpose, and have named as their Plenipotentiaries, that is to say,
The President of the United States of America:
Michael J. Cramer,
Minister Resident of the United States of America at Copenhagen; and His Majesty the King of Denmark:
Otto Ditlev Baron Rosenörn-Lehn,
Commander of Danebrog and Danebrogsmand, Chamberlain, His Majesty's Minister for Foreign Affairs, &c., &c., &c.; who, after having communicated to each other their respective full Powers, found to be in good and due form, have agreed upon and concluded the following Articles, to wit:
Citizens of the United States of America who have become, or shall become, and are naturalized, according to law, within the Kingdom of Denmark as Danish subjects, shall be held by the United States of America to be in all respects and for all purposes Danish subjects, and shall be treated as such by the United States of America.
In like manner, Danish subjects who have become, or shall become, and are naturalized, according to law, within the United States of America as citizens thereof, shall be held by the Kingdom of Denmark to be in all respects and for all purposes as citizens of the United States of America, and shall be treated as such by the Kingdom of Denmark.
If any such citizen of the United States, as aforesaid, naturalized within the Kingdom of Denmark as a Danish subject, should renew his residence in the United States, the United States Government may, on his application, and on such conditions as that Government may see fit to impose, readmit him to the character and privileges of a citizen of the United States, and the Danish Government shall not, in that case, claim him as a Danish subject on account of his former naturalization.
In like manner, if any such Danish subject, as aforesaid, naturalized within the United States as a citizen thereof, should renew his residence within the Kingdom of Denmark, His Majesty's Government may, on his application, and on such conditions as that Government may think fit to impose, readmit him to the character and privileges of a Danish subject, and the United States Government shall not, in that case, claim him as a citizen of the United States on account of his former naturalization.
If, however, a citizen of the United States, naturalized in Denmark, shall renew his residence in the former country without the intent to return to that in which he was naturalized, he shall be held to have renounced his naturalization.
In like manner, if a Dane, naturalized in the United States, shall renew his residence in Denmark without the intent to return to the former country, he shall be held to have renounced his naturalization in the United States.
The intent not to return may be held to exist, when a person naturalized in the one country shall reside more than two years in the other country.
The present convention shall go into effect immediately on or after the exchange of the ratifications, and shall continue in force for ten years. If neither party shall have given to the other six months previous notice of its intention then to terminate the same, it shall further remain in force until the end of twelve months after either of the Contracting Parties shall have given notice to the other of such intention.
The present Convention shall be ratified by the President of the United States of America, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate thereof, and by His Majesty the King of Denmark, and the ratifications shall be exchanged at Copenhagen as soon as may be within eight months from the date hereof.
In witness whereof, the respective Plenipotentiaries have signed the same, and have affixed thereto their respective seals.
Done at Copenhagen the twentieth day of July, in the year of our Lord One Thousand Eight Hundred and Seventy Two. MICHAEL J. CRAMER.
O. D. ROSENÖRN-LEHN.