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their Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary to His Britannick Majesty:
And His Majesty The King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, The Right Honourable Charles Grant, a Member of His said Majesty's Most Honourable Privy Council, a Member of Parliament, and Vice President of the Committee of Privy Council for Affairs of Trade and Foreign Plantations;—and Henry Unwin Addington, Esquire:
Who, after having communicated to each other their respective Full Powers, found to be in due and proper form, have agreed upon and concluded the following Articles:
All the Provisions of the Convention concluded between the United States of America, and His Majesty The King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, on the Third of July 1815, and further continued for the term of ten Years by the fourth Article of the Convention of the Twentieth of October 1818, with the exception therein contained, as to St Helena, are hereby further indefinitely, and without the said exception, extended and continued in force, from the date of the expiration of the said ten Years, in the same manner as if all the Provisions of the said Convention of the Third of July 1815, were herein specifically recited.
It shall be competent, however, to either of the Contracting Parties, in case either should think fit, at any time after the expiration of the said ten years,--that is, after the Twentieth of October, 1828,-on giving due notice of twelve months to the other Contracting Party, to annul and abrogate this Convention:--and it shall, in such case, be accordingly entirely annulled and abrogated, after the expiration of the said term of notice.
The present Convention shall be ratified, and the Ratifications shall be exchanged in Nine Months, or sooner if possible.
In Witnesz whereof, the respective Plenipotentiaries have signed the same, and have affixed thereto the Seals of their Arms.
Done at London the Sixth day of August, in the Year of Our Lord One Thousand Eight Hundred and Twenty-Seven.
[SEAL.] ALBERT GALLATIN
CONVENTION RELATIVE TO THE NORTHEASTERN BOUNDARY.
Concluded September 29, 1827; ratification advised by the Senate
January 14, 1828; ratified by the President February 12, 1828; ratificatims erchanged April 2, 1828; proclaimed May 15, 1828. (Treaties and Conventions, 1889, p. 429.)
The determination of the northeastern boundary by the commission as provided for in Article V of the Treaty of Ghent not having been agreed to, it was referred by this convention of eight articles to the King of the Netherlands, who on January 10, 1831, submitted an award which was not accepted by the two Governments. The boundary was finally determined by the Convention of August 9, 18+2,
CONVENTION AS TO BOUNDARIES, SUPPRESSION OF SLAVE TRADE,
(WEBSTER-ASHBURTON TREATY.) Concluded August 9, 1842; ratification advised by the Senate August
20, 1842; ratified by the President August 22, 1842; ratifications exchanged October 13, 1842; proclaimed November 10, 1842. (Treaties and Conventions, 1889, p. 432.)
I. Northeastern boundary agreed to. VII. Channels open to both parties. II. Northern boundary, Lake Huron to VIII. Suppression of slave trade. Lake of the Woods.
IX. Remonstrances with other powers. III. Navigation of St. John River.
X. Extradition of fugitives from jusIV. Confirmation of prior land grants.
tice. V. Distribution of Disputed terri- XI. Duration. tory fund."
XII. Ratification. VI. Cominission to mark northeastern
boundary line. Whereas certain portions of the line of boundary between the United States of America and the British Dominions in North America, described in the second article of the treaty of peace of 1783, have not
a Federal cases: In re Kaine, 14 How., 103; U.S. v. Rauscher, 119 U.S., 407; Bryant v. U. S., 167 U. S., 104; In re Kelly, 2 Lowell, 339; In re Dugau, 2 Lowell, 367; Ex parte Ross, 2 Bond, 252; The British Prisoners, 1 Wood. & M., 66; Ex parte Kaine, 3 Blatch., 1; Ex parte Van Aernam, 3 Blatch., 160; U.S. v. Caldwell, 8 Blatch., 131; In re MacDonnell, 11 Blatch., 79, 170; U. S. v. Lawrence, 13 Blatch., 295; In re Fowler, 4 Fed. Rep., 303; Ex parte Lane, 6 Fed. Rep., 34; U. S. v. Watts, 14 Fed. Rep., 130; In re Wadge, 15 Fed. Rep.,864, 16 Fed. Rep., 332; In re Tully, 20 Fed. Rep., 812; In re Miller, 23 Fed. Rep., 32; In re Kelley, 25 Fed. Rep., 268, 26 Fed. Rep., 852; Ex parte Hibbs, 26 Fed. Rep., 421; In re Ferrelle, 28 Fed. Rep., 878; In re McPhun, 30 Fed. Rep., 57; In re Fergus, 30 Fed. Rep., 607; In re Herres, 33 Fed. Rep., 165; In re Charleston, 34 Fed. Rep., 531; In re Reinitz, 39 Fed. Rep., 204; In re Cross, 43 Fed. Rep., 517; In re Mineau, 45 Fed. Rep., 188; Hall v. Patterson, 45 Fed. Rep., 352; In re Carrier, 57 Fed. Rep., 578; In re Sternaman, 77 Fed. Rep., 595, 80 Federal, 883, 83 Ferleral, 690; In re Newman, 79 Fed. Rep., 622; In re Bryant, 80 Fed. Rep., 282; In re Orpen, 86 Fed. Rep., 760.
yet been ascertained and determined, notwithstanding the repeated attempts which have been heretofore made for that purpose, and whereas it is now thought to be for the interest of both Parties, that, avoiding further discussion of their respective rights, arising in this respect under the said Treaty, they should agree on a conventional line in said portions of the said boundary, such as may be convenient to both Parties, with such equivalents and compensations, as are deemed just and reasonable:-And whereas by the treaty concluded at Ghent, on the 24th day of December 1814, between the United States and His Britannic Majesty, an article was agreed to and inserted of the following tenor, viz. Art. 10.- Whereas the traffic in slaves is irreconcilable with the principles of humanity and justice: And whereas both His Majesty and the United States are desirous of continuing their efforts to promote its entire abolition, it is hereby agreed that both the contracting Parties shall use their best endeavors to accomplish so desirable an object:" and whereas, notwithstanding the laws which have at various times been passed by the two Governments, and the efforts made to suppress it, that criminal traffic is still prosecuted and carried on: and whereas the United States of America and Her Majesty the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland are determined that, so far as may be in their power, it shall be effectually abolished:—and whereas it is found expedient for the better administration of justice and the prevention of crime within the territories and jurisdiction of the two Parties, respectively, that persons committing the crimes hereinafter enumerated, and being fugitives from justice, should, under certain circumstances, be reciprocally delivered up: The United States of America and Her Britannic Majesty, having resolved to treat on these several subjects, have for that purpose appointed their respective Plenipotentiaries to negotiate and conclude a treaty, that is to say: the President of the United States has, on his part, furnished with full powers, Daniel Webster, Secretary of State of the United States; and Her Majesty the Queen of the United King dom of Great Britain and Ireland, has, on her part, appointed the Right honorable Alexander Lord Ashburton, a Peer of the said United Kingdom, a member of Her Majesty's most honorable Privy Council, and her Majesty's Minister Plenipotentiary on a special Mission to the United States; who, after a reciprocal communication of their respective full powers, have agreed to and signed the following articles:
It is hereby agreed and declared that the line of boundary shall be as follows: Beginning at the monument at the source of the river S. Croix, as designated and agreed to by the Commissioners under the fifth article of the treaty of 1794, between the Governments of the United States and Great Britain; thence, north, following the exploring line run and marked by the surveyors of the two Governments in the years 1817 and 1818, under the fifth article of the treaty of Ghent, to its intersection with the river S. John, and to the middle of the ehannel thereof; thence, up the middle of the main channel of the said river S. John, to the mouth of the river S. Francis; thence up the middle of the channel of the said river S. Francis, and of the lakes through which it flows, to the outlet of the Lake Pobenagamook; thence, southwesterly, in a straight line to a point on the northwest branch of the river S. John, which point shall be ten miles distant from the main branch of the S. John, in a straight line, and in the nearest direction; but if the said point shall be found to be less than seven miles from the nearest point of the summit or crest of the highlands that divide those rivers which empty themselves into the river Saint Lawrence from those which fall into the river Saint John, then the said point shall be made to recede down the said northwest branch of the river St. John, to a point seven miles in a straight line from the said summit or crest; thence, in a straight line, in a course about south eight degrees west, to the point where the parallel of latitude of 46° 25' north, intersects the southwest branch of the St. John's; thence, southerly, by the said branch, to the source thereof in the highlands at the Metjarmette Portage; thence, down along the said highlands which divide the waters which empty themselves into the river Saint Lawrence from those which fall into the Atlantic Ocean, to the head of Hall's Stream; thence, down the middle of said Stream, till the line thus run intersects the old line of boundary surveyed and marked by Valentine and Collins previously to the year 1774, as the 45th degree of north latitude, and which has been known and understood to be the line of actual division between the States of New York and Vermont on one side, and the British Province of Canada on the other; and, from said point of intersection, west, along the said dividing line as heretofore known and understood, to the Iroquois or S. Lawrence River.
It is moreover agreed, that from the place where the joint Commissioners terminated their labors under the sixth article of the treaty of Ghent, to wit: at a point in the Neebish Channel, near Muddy Lake, the line shall run into and along the ship channel between Saint Joseph and St. Tammany Islands, to the division of the channel at or near the head of S. Joseph's Island; thence, turning eastwardly and northwardly, around the lower end of St. George's or Sugar Island, and following the middle of the channel which divides St. George's from St. Joseph's Island; thence, up the east Neebish channel, nearest to St. George's Island, through the middle of Lake George; thence, west of Jonas' Island, into St. Mary's River, to a point in the middle of that river, about one mile above St. George's or Sugar Island, so as to appropriate and assign the said Island to the United States; thence, adopting the line traced on the maps by the Commissioners, thro' the river St. Mary and Lake Superior, to a point north of Ile Royale in said Lake, one hundred yards to the north and east of Ile Chapeau, which last mentioned Island lies near the northeastern point of Ile Royale, where the line marked by the Commissioners terminates; and from the last mentioned point, southwesterly, through the middle of the Sound between Ile Royale and the northwestern mainland, to the mouth of Pigeon river, and up the said river to, and through, the north and south Fowl Lakes, to the Lakes of the height of land between Lake Superior and the Lake of the Woods; thence, along the water-communication to Lake Saisaginaga, and through that Lake; thence, to and through Cypress Lake, Lac du Bois Blanc, Lac la Croix, Little Vermilion Lake, and Lake Namecan, and through the several smaller lakes, straits, or streams, connecting the lakes here mentioned, to that point in Lac la Pluie, or
Rainy Lake, at the Chaudière Falls, from which the Commissioners traced the line to the most northwestern point of the Lake of the Woods--thence, along the said line, to the said most northwestern point, being in latitude 19° 23' 55" north, and in longitude 95° 14' 38'' west from the Observatory at Greenwich; thence, according to existing treaties, due south to its intersection with the 49th parallel of north latitude, and along that parallel to the Rocky Mountains. It being understood that all the water-communications and all the usual portages along the line from Lake Superior to the Lake of the Woods; and also Grand Portage, from the shore of Lake Superior to the Pigeon river, as now actually used, shall be free and open to the use of the citizens and subjects of both countries.
ARTICLE III. In order to promote the interests and encourage the industry of all the inhabitants of the countries watered by the river S. John and its tributaries, whether living within the State of Maine or the Province of New Brunswick, it is agreed that, where, by the provisions of the present treaty, the river S. John is declared to be the line of boundary, the navigation of the said river shall be free and open to both Parties, and sball in no way be obstructed by either: that all the produce of the forest, in logs, lumber, timber, boards, staves, or shingles, or of agriculture not being manufactured, grown on any of those parts of the State of Maine watered by the river St. John, or by its tributaries, of which fact reasonable evidence shall, if required, be produced, shall have free access into and through the said river and its said tributaries, having their source within the State of Maine, to and from the seaport at the mouth of the said river St. John's, and to and round the Falls of the said river, either by boats, rafts, or other conveyance: that when within the Province of New Brunswick, the said produce shall be dealt with as if it were the produce of the said Province: that, in like manner, the inhabitants of the territory of the upper S' John, determined by this treaty to belong to her Britannic Majesty, shall have free access to and through the river for their produce, in those parts where the said river runs wholly through the State of Maine: Provided always, that this agreement shall give no right to either party to interfere with any regulations not inconsistent with the terms of this treaty which the Governments, respectively, of Maine or of New Brunswick may make respecting the navigation of the said river, where both banks thereof shall belong to the same party.
ARTICLE IV. All grants of land heretofore made by either Party, within the limits of the territory which by this treaty falls within the dominions of the other Party, shall be held valid, ratitied, and confirmed to the persons in possession under such grants, to the same extent as if such territory had by this treaty fallen within the dominions of the Party by whom such grants were made: And all equitable possessory claims, arising from a possession and improvement of any lot or parcel of land by the person actually in possession, or by those under whom such person claims, for more than six years before the date of this treaty, shall, in like manner, be deemed valid, and be confirmed and quieted
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