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by a release to the person entitled thereto, of the title to such lot or parcel of land, so described as best to include the improvements made thereon; and in all other respects the two contracting parties agree to deal upon the most liberal principles of equity with the settlers actually dwelling upon the territory falling to them, respectively, which has heretofore been in dispute between them.



Whereas, in the course of the controversy respecting the disputed territory on the northeastern boundary, some moneys have been received by the authorities of Her Britannic Majesty's Province of New Brunswick, with the intention of preventing depredations on the forests of the said territory, which moneys were to be carried to a fund called the “Disputed Territory Fund," the proceeds whereof it was agreed should be hereafter paid over to the Parties interested, in the proportions to be determined by a final settlement of boundaries: It is hereby agreed, that a correct account of all receipts and payments on the said fund, shall be delivered to the Government of the United States, within six months after the ratification of this treaty; and the proportion of the amount due thereon to the States of Maine and Massachusetts, and any bonds or securities appertaining thereto shall be paid and delivered over to the Government of the United States; and the Government of the United States agrees to receive for the use of, and pay over to the States of Maine and Massachusetts, their respective portions of said fund: And further to pay and satisfy said States, respectively, for all claims for expenses incurred by them in protecting the said heretofore disputed territory, and making a survey .thereof, in 1838; the Government of the United States agreeing with the States of Maine and Massachusetts to pay them the further sum of three hundred thousand dollars, in equal moieties, on account of their assent to the line of boundary described in this treaty, and in consideration of the conditions and equivalents received therefor, from the Government of Her Britannic Majesty.


It is furthermore understood and agreed that, for the purpose of running and tracing those parts of the line between the source of the S! Croix and the S? Lawrence river which will require to be run and ascertained, and for marking the residue of said line by proper monuments on the land, two Commissioners shall be appointed, one by the President of the United States, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate thereof, and one by Her Britannic Majesty: and the said commissioners shall meet at Bangor, in the State of Maine, on the first day of May next, or as soon thereafter as may be, and shall proceed to mark the line above described, from the source of the St Croix to the river S! John; and shall trace on proper maps the dividing line along said river, and along the river S: Francis to the outlet of the Lake Pohenagamook; and from the outlet of the said Lake they shall ascertain, fix, and mark by proper and durable monuments on the land, the line described in the first article of this treaty; and the said Commissioners shall make to each of their respective Governments in joint report or declaration, under their hands and seals, designating such line of boundary, and shall accompany such report or declaration with maps certified by them to be true maps of the new boundary.


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It is further agreed that the channels in the river St Lawrence on both sides of the Long Sault Islands and of Barnhart Island; the channels in the river Detroit on both sides of the Island Bois Blanc, and between that Island and both the American and Canadian shores; and all the several channels and passages between the various Islands lying near the junction of the river St. Clair with the lake of that name, shall be equally free and open to the ships, vessels, and boats of both parties.

ARTICLE VIII.4 The parties mutually stipulate that each shall prepare, equip, and maintain in service on the coast of Africa a sufficient and adequate squadron, or naval force of vessels, of suitable numbers and descriptions, to carry in all not less than eighty guns, to enforce, separately and respectively, the laws, rights, and obligations of each of the two countries, for the suppression of the Slave Trade, the said squadrons to be independent of each other, but the two Governments stipulating, nevertheless, to give such orders to the officers commanding their respective forces, as shall enable them most effectually to act in concert and coöperation, upon mutual consultation, as exigencies may arise, for the attainment of the true object of this article; copies of all such orders to be communicated by each Government to the other respectively.

ARTICLE IX. Whereas, notwithstanding all efforts which may be made on the coast of Africa for suppressing the slave trade, the facilities for carrying on that traffic and avoiding the vigilance of cruisers, by the fraudulent use of flags and other means, are so great, and the temptations for pursuing it, while a market can be found for Slaves, so strong, as that the desired result may be long delayed unless all markets be shut against the purchase of African negroes, the Parties to this treaty agree that they will unite in all becoming representations and remonstrances with any and all Powers within whose dominions such markets are allowed to exist; and that they will urge upon all such Powers the propriety and duty of closing such markets effectually at once and forever.

ARLICLE X. It is agreed that the United States and Her Britannic Majesty shall, upon mutual requisitions by them, or their Ministers, Officers, or Authorities, respectively made, deliver up to justice, all persons who, being charged with the crime of Murder, or assault with intent to commit Murder, or Piracy, or Arson, or robbery, or forgery, or the utterance of forged paper, committed within the jurisdiction of either, shall seek an asylum, or shall be found, within the territories of the other: Provided, that this shall only be done upon such evidence of criminality as, according to the laws of the place where the fugitive or person so charged, shall be found, would justify his apprehen

See Treaty of 1862, p. 329; Treaty of 1863, p. 335; Convention of 1870, p. 336, and
General Act of July 2, 1890, p. 861.

b See Convention of 1889, p. 349.
Wright v. Henkel, 190 U. S., 45; Cohn 1. Jones, 100 Federal, 639.

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sion and commitment for trial, if the crime or offence had there been committed: And the respective Judges and other Magistrates of the two Governments shall bave power, jurisdiction, and authority, upon complaint made under oath, to issue a warrant for the apprehension of the fugitive or person so charged, that he may be brought before such Judges or other Magistrates, respectively, to the end that the evidence of criminality may be heard and considered; and if, on

, such hearing, the evidence be deemed sufficient to sustain the charge it shall be the duty of the examining Judge or Magistrate to certify the same to the proper Executive Authority, that a warrant may issue for the surrender of such fugitive.--The expense of such apprehension and delivery shall be borne and defrayed by the Party who makes the requisition, and receives the fugitive.



The eighth article of this treaty shall be in force for five years from the date of the exchange of the ratifications, and afterwards until one or the other party shall signify a wish to terminate it. The tenth article shall continue in force until one or the other of the parties shall signify its wish to terminate it, and no longer,


The present treaty shall be duly ratified, and the mutual exchange of ratifications shall take place in London, within six months from the date hereof, or earlier if possible.

In faith whereof, we, the respective Plenipotentiaries, have signed this treaty, and have hereunto affixed our seals.

Done, in duplicate, at Washington, the ninth day of August, Anno Domini one thousand eight hundred and forty-two.






Concluded June 15, 1846; ratification advised by the Senate June 18,

1846; ratified by the President June 19, 1846; ratifications exchangert July 17, 1846; proclaimed August 5, 1846. (Treaties and Conventions, 1889, p. 438.)

ARTICLES. I. Boundary established; free naviga- ; IV. Property of Puget's Sound Agricultion.

tural Company II. Navigation of Columbia River. V. Ratification. III. Property rights.

The United States of America and Her Majesty the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, deeming it to be desirable for the future welfare of both countries that the state of doubt

a Federal cases: McKay v. Campbell, 2 Sawy., 118; Town 1. DeHaven, 5 Sawyer,

and uncertainty which has hitherto prevailed respecting the sovereignty and government of the territory on the northwest coast of America lying westward of the Rocky or Stony Mountains, should be finally terminated by an amicable compromise of the rights mutually asserted by the two Parties over the said Territory, have respectfully named plenipotentiaries to treat and agree concerning the terms of such settlement, that is to say: the President of the United States of America, has, on his part, furnished with Full Powers, James Buchanan, Secretary of State of the United States, and Her Majesty the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, has, on her part, appointed the Right Honorable Richard Pakenham, a Member of Her Majesty's Most honorable Privy Council, and Her Majesty's Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary to the United States; who, after having communicated to each other their respective full Powers, found in good and due form, have agreed upon and concluded the following articles:


From the point on the forty-ninth parallel of north latitude where the boundary laid down in existing treaties and conventions between the United States and Great Britain terminates, the line of boundary between the territories of the United States and those of Her Britannic Majesty shall be continued westward along the said forty-ninth parallel of north latitude to the middle of the channel which separates the continent from Vancouver's Island; and thence southerly through the middle of the said channel, and of Fuca's Straits to the Pacific Ocean; Provided, however, that the navigation of the whole of the said channel and Straits, south of the forty ninth parallel of north latitude, remain free and open to both parties.

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From the point at which the forty-ninth parallel of north latitude shall be found to intersect the great northern branch of the Columbia River, the navigation of the said branch shall be free and open to the Hudson's Bay Company, and to all British subjects trading with the same, to the point where the said branch meets the main stream of the Columbia, and thence down the said main stream to the ocean, with free access into and through the said River or Rivers, it being understood that all the usual portages along the line thus described shall in like manner be free and open. In navigating the said River or Rivers, British subjects, with their goods and produce, shall be treated on the same footing as citizens of the United States, it being however always understood that nothing in this article shall be construed as preventing, or intended to prevent, the Government of the United States from making any regulations respecting the navigation of the said river or rivers, not inconsistent with the present treaty.

ARTICLE III. In the future appropriation of the territory, south of the forty-nirth parallel of north latitude, as provided in the first article of this treaty, the possessory rights of the Hudson's Bay Company, and of all British subjects wbo inay be already in the occupation of land or other property lawfully acquired within the said territory, shall be respected.

ARTICLE IV. The farms, lands, and other property of every description belonging to the Puget's Sound Agricultural Company, on the north side of the Columbia River, shall be confirmed to the said company. In case however the situation of those farms and lands should be considered by the United States to be of public and political importance, and the United States' Government should signify a desire to obtain possession of the whole, or of any part thereof, the property so required shall be transferred to the said Government, at a proper valuation, to be agreed upon between the parties. a

ARTICLE V. The present treaty shall be ratified by the President of the United States, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate thereof, and by Her Britannic Majesty; and the ratifications shall be exchanged at London, at the expiration of six months from the date hereof, or sooner if possible.

In witness whereof, the respective Plenipotentiaries have signed the same, and have affixed thereto the seals of their arms.

Done at Washington the fifteenth day of June, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and forty-six.



Declaration approving and adopting the maps prepared by the Joint Commission of the

Northwest Boundary for surveying and marking the Boundary between the British possessions and the United States along the 49th Parallel of Norih Latitude, under the first article of the Treaty of 15th June, 1846.

The Undersigned Hamilton Fish, Secretary of State of the United States, and Edward Thornton, Esquire, Her Britannic Majesty's Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary to the United States, duly authorized by their respective Governments, having met together:

The set of maps, seven in number, which have been prepared by the Commissioners appointed by the two Powers to survey and mark out the Boundary between their respective Territories under the first Article of the Treaty concluded between them at Washington on the 15th of June 1846, having been produced:

And it appearing that they do correctly indicate the said Boundary, from the point where the Boundary laid down in Treaties and Conventions prior to June 154, 1846, terminates Westward on the 49th Parallel of North Latitude to the Eastern shore of the Gulf of Georgia, which Boundary has been defined by the Commissioners by marks upon the ground:

The Undersigned, without prejudice to the rights of their respective Governments as to the settlement and the determination of the remainder of the said Boundary, hereby declare that the said maps certified and authenticated under the signatures of Archibald Campbell, Esquire, the Commissioner of the United States, and of Colonel John Summerfield Hawkins, Her Britannic Majesty's Commissioner, and of which duplicate copies similarly certified and authenticated are in the possession of the Government of Her Britannic Majesty have been duly examined and considered, and, as well as the marks by which the Boundary to the Eastern shore of the Gulf of Georgia has been defined upon the ground, are approved, agreed to, and adopted by both Governments.

in witness whereof the respective Plenipotentiaries have signed the same and have affixed thereto their respective seals.

Done at Washington the Twenty fourth day of February, in the year of our Lord, one thousand eight hundred and seventy.




a See Treaty of July 1, 1863, p. 336.

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