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the ports of the United States to those of other countries, shall pay the same duties and other imposts, that are paid by the most favored nations; and they shall not be vexed by the exaction of higher duties; and in traveling by sea and by land, all the privileges and distinctions observed towards the subjects of other Powers, shall serve as a rule, and shall be observed, towards the merchants and subjects of the Sublime Porte. In like manner, American merchants who shall come to the well defended countries and ports of the Sublime Porte, shall pay the same duties and other imposts, that are paid by merchants of the most favored friendly Powers, and they shall not, in any way, be vexed or molested. On both sides, travelling passports shall be granted.


The Sublime Porte may establish Shahbenders (Consuls) in the United States of America; and the United States may appoint their citizens to be Consuls or Vice-Consuls at the commercial places in the dominions of the Sublime Porte where it shall be found needful to superintend the affairs of commerce. These Consuls or Vice-Consuls shall be furnished with Berats or Firmans; they shall enjoy suitable distinction, and shall have necessary aid and protection.


American merchants established in the well-defended states of the Sublime Porte, for purposes of commerce, shall have liberty to employ Semsars (brokers) of any nation or religion, in like manner as merchants of other friendly powers; and they shall not be disturbed in their affairs, nor shall they be treated, in any way, contrary to established usages. American vessels arriving at or departing from the ports of the Ottoman Empire shall not be subjected to greater visit by the Officers of the Custom-House and the Chancery of the port than vessels of the most favored nations.


If litigations and disputes should arise, between subjects of the Sublime Porte and citizens of the United States, the parties shall not be heard, nor shall judgment be pronounced unless the American Dragoman be present. Causes, in which the sum may exceed five hundred piastres, shall be submitted to the Sublime Porte, to be decided according to the laws of equity and justice. Citizens of the United States of America, quietly pursuing their commerce, and not being charged or convicted, of any crime or offence, shall not be molested; and even when they may have committed some offence, they shall not be arrested and put in prison, by the local authorities, but they shall be tried by their Minister or Consul, and punished according to their offence, following in this respect, the usage observed towards other Franks.


American merchant vessels that trade to the dominions of the Sublime Porte, may go and come in perfect safety with their own flag; but they shall not take the flag of any other Power, nor shall they grant their flag to the vessels of other Nations and Powers, nor to vessels of Rayahs. The Minister, Consuls, and Vice-Consuls of the United States, shall not protect, secretly or publicly, the Rayahs of the Sublime Porte, and they shall never suffer a departure from the principles here laid down, and agreed to by mutual consent.


Vessels of war of the two contracting parties, shall observe towards each other, demonstrations of friendship and good intelligence, according to naval usage; and towards merchant vessels they shall exhibit the same kind and courteous manner.


Merchant vessels of the United States, in like manner as vessels of the most favored nations, shall have liberty to pass the canal of the Imperial Residence, and go and come in the Black sea, either laden or in ballast; and they may be laden with the produce, manufactures and effects of the Ottoman Empire, excepting such as are prohibited, as well as of their own country.


Merchant vessels of the two Contracting Parties shall not be forcibly taken, for the shipment of troops, munitions and other objects of war, if the Captains or Proprietors of the vessels, shall be unwilling to freight them.


If any merchant vessel of either of the contracting parties should be wrecked, assistance and protection shall be afforded to those of the crew that may be saved; and the merchandise and effects, which it may be possible to save and recover, shall be conveyed to the Consul nearest to the place of the wreck, to be, by him, delivered to the Proprietors.


The foregoing articles, agreed upon and concluded, between the Riasset (Chancery of State) and the above-mentioned Commissioner of the United States, when signed by the other two Commissioners, shall be exchanged. In ten months, from the date of this temessuck, or instrument of Treaty, the exchange of the ratifications of the two Powers shall be made, and the articles of this Treaty shall have full force and be strictly observed, by the two Contracting Powers.

Given the 14th day of the moon Zilcaade, and in the year of the Hegira, 1245, corresponding with the 7th day of May of the year 1830 of the Christian Æra.



(Reis Effendi.)



Concluded February 25, 1862; ratification advised by the Senate April 9, 1862; ratified by the President April 18, 1862; ratifications exchanged June 5, 1862; proclaimed July 2, 1862. (Treaties and Conventions, 1889, p. 800.)

This treaty of twenty-three articles is contended to have been abrogated upon notice given by the Turkish Government, to date from June 5, 1884. (See notes, Treaties and Conventions, 1889, p. 1372.)

a Federal case: Dainese v. Hale, 91 U. S., 13; 1 McArthur (D. C.), 86.



Concluded August 11, 1874; ratification advised by the Senate January 20, 1875; ratified by the President January 22, 1875; ratifications exchanged April 22, 1875; proclaimed May 26, 1875. (Treaties and Conventions, 1889, p. 821.)

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The United States of America and His Imperial Majesty the Sultan, having judged it expedient, with a view to the better administration of justice and to the prevention of crimes within their respective territories and jurisdiction, that persons convicted of or charged with the crimes hereinafter specified, and being fugitives from justice, should, under certain circumstances, be reciprocally delivered up, have resolved to conclude a convention for that purpose, and have appointed as their plenipotentiaries:

the President of the United States Geo: H. Boker, Minister Resident of the United States of America near the Sublime Porte;

and His Imperial Majesty the Sultan, His Excellency A. Aarifi Pasha, his Minister for Foreign Affairs;

who, after reciprocal communication of their full powers, found in good and due form, have agreed upon the following articles, to wit:


The Government of the United States and the Ottoman Government mutually agree to deliver up persons who, having been convicted of or charged with the crimes specified in the following article, committed within the jurisdiction of one of the contracting parties, shall seek an asylum or be found within the territories of the other: Provided, That this shall only be done upon such evidence of criminality as, according to the laws of the place where the fugitive or person so charged shall be found, would justify his or her apprehension and commitment for trial, if the crime had been there committed.


Persons shall be delivered up who shall have been convicted of, or be charged, according to the provisions of this convention, with any of the following crimes:

1st. Murder, comprehending the crimes designated by the terms of parricide, assassination, poisoning, and infanticide.

2d. The attempt to commit murder.

3d. The crimes of rape, arson, piracy and mutiny on board a ship, whenever the crew, or part thereof, by fraud or violence against the commander, have taken possession of the vessel.

4th. The crime of burglary, defined to be the action of breaking and entering by night into the house of another with the intent to commit felony; and the crime of robbery, defined to be the action of feloniously and forcibly taking from the person of another goods or money by violence or putting him in fear.

5th. The crime of forgery, by which is understood the utterance of forged papers, the counterfeiting of public, sovereign, or government acts.

6th. The fabrication or circulation of counterfeit money, either coin or paper, of public bonds, bank-notes, and obligations and in general of all things, being titles and instruments of credit, the counterfeiting of seals, dies, stamps, and marks of state and public administrations and the utterance thereof.

7th. The embezzlement of public moneys committed within the jurisdiction of either party, by public officers or depositors.

8th. Embezzlement by any person or persons hired or salaried, to the detriment of their employers, when these crimes are subject to infamous punishment.


The provisions of this treaty shall not apply to any crime or offence of a political character, and the person or persons delivered up for the crimes enumerated in the preceding article shall in no case be tried for any ordinary crime, committed previously to that for which his or their surrender is asked.


If the person whose surrender may be claimed, pursuant to the stipulations of the present treaty, shall have been arrested for the commission of offenses in the country where he has sought an asylum, or shall have been convicted thereof, his extradition may be deferred until he shall have been acquitted, or have served the term of imprisonment to which he may have been sentenced.


Requisitions for the surrender of fugitives from justice shall be made by the respective diplomatic agents of the contracting parties, or in the event of the absence of these from the country, or its seat of government, they may be made by superior consular officers. If the person whose extradition may be asked for shall have been convicted of a crime, a copy of the sentence of the court in which he may have been convicted, authenticated under its seal, and an attestation of the official character of the judge by the proper executive authority, and of the latter by the Minister or consul of the United States or of the Sublime Porte, respectively, shall accompany the requisition. When, however, the fugitive shall have been merely charged with crime, a duly authenticated copy of the warrant for his arrest in the country where the crime may have been committed, ora of the depositions upon which such warrant may have been issued, must accompany the requisition as aforesaid. The President of the United States or the proper executive authority in Turkey may then issue a warrant for the apprehension of the fugitive, in order that he may be brought before the proper judicial authority for examination. If it should then be decided that, according to law and the evidence, the extradition is due pursuant to the treaty, the fugitive may be given up according to the forms prescribed in such cases.

a In the French text the word et (and) follows the word commis (committed).


The expenses of the arrest, detention, and transportation of the persons claimed shall be paid by the government in whose name the requisition has been made.


Neither of the contracting parties shall be bound to deliver up its own citizens under the stipulations of this treaty.


This convention shall continue in force during five (5) years from the day of exchange of ratification, but if neither party shall have given to the other six (6) months' previous notice of its intention to terminate the same, the convention shall remain in force five years longer, and so on.

The present convention shall be ratified, and the ratifications exchanged at Constantinople, within twelve (12) months, and sooner, if possible.

In witness whereof, the respective plenipotentiaries have signed the present convention in duplicate, and have thereunto affixed their seals.

Done at Constantinople the eleventh day of August one thousand eight hundred and seventy four.




Protocol proclaimed by the President of the United States October 29, 1874.

The United States of America and His Majesty the Sultan being desirous to establish by a special act the agreement entered upon between them regarding the admission of American citizens to the right of holding real estate, granted to foreigners by the law promulgated on the 7th of Sepher 1284, (January 18, 1867) have authorized:

The President of the United States of America George H. Boker, Minister Resident of the United States of America near the Sublime Porte, and

His Imperial Majesty the Sultan His Excellency A. Aarifi Pasha, His Minister of Foreign Affairs, to sign the Protocol which follows:


The law granting foreigners the right of holding real estate does not interfere with the immunities specified by the treaties, and which will continue to protect the person and the movable property of foreigners who may become owners of real estate.

As the exercise of this right of possessing real property may induce foreigners to establish themselves in larger numbers in the Ottoman Empire, the Imperial Government thinks it proper to anticipate and to prevent the difficulties to which the application of this law may give rise in certain localities. Such is the object of the arrangements which follow.

a This protocol, the original of which is in the French language, is printed in this compilation as it states in detail the rights of citizens of the United States in respect to real estate in the Turkish dominions.

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