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in their respective countries. The government of each of the two high contracting powers shall furnish them the necessary exequatur free of charge, and, on the exhibition of this instrument they shall be permitted to enjoy the rights, privileges, and immunities granted by this convention.
ARTICLE III. Consuls-general, consuls, vice-consuls, and consular agents, citizens of the State by which they are appointed, shall be exempt from preliminary arrest except in the case of offences which the local legislation qualifies as crimes and punishes as such; they shall be exempt from military billetings, from service in the regular army or navy, in the militia, or in the national guard; they shall likewise be exempt from all direct taxes, national, State or municipal, imposed upon persons, either in the nature of capitation tax or in respect to their property, unless such taxes become due on account of the possession of real estate, or for interest on capital invested in the country where the said officers exercise their functions.
This exemption shall not, however, apply to consuls-general, consuls, vice-consuls, or consular agents engaged in any profession, business, or trade, but the said officers shall in such case be subject to the payment of the same taxes that would be paid by any other foreigner under the like circumstances.
It is understood that the respective consuls, if they are merchants, shall be entirely submitted, as far as concerns preliminary arrest for commercial acts, to the legislation of the country in which they exercise their functions.
When a court of one of the two countries shall desire to receive the judicial declaration or deposition of a consul-general, consul, viceconsul, or consular agent, who is a citizen of the State which appointed him, and who is engaged in no commercial business, it shall request him, in writing, to appear before it, and in case of his inability to do so, it shall request him to give his testimony in writing, or shall visit his residence or office to obtain it orally.
It shall be the duty of such officer to comply with this request with as little delay as possible.
In all criminal cases, contemplated by the sixth article of the amendments to the Constitution of the United States, whereby the right is secured to persons charged with crimes to obtain witnesses in their favour, the appearance in court of said consular officer shall be demanded, with all possible regard to the consular dignity and to the duties of his office. A similar treatment shall also be extended to the consuls of the United States in Roumania in the like cases.
Consuls-general, consuls, vice-consuls, and consular agents may place over the outer door of their offices the arms of their nation, with this inscription: Consulate-General, or Consulate, or Vice Consulate or Consular Agency of the United States, or of Roumania.
They may also raise the flag of their country on their offices, except in the capital of the country when there is a legation there They may in liko manner, raise the flag of their country over the boat employed by them in the port for the exercise of their functions.
The consular offices shall at all times be inviolable. The local authorities shall not, under any pretext, invade them. In no case shall they examine or seize the papers there deposited. In no case shall those offices be used as places of asylum. When a consular officer is engaged in other business, the papers relating to the consulate shall be kept separate.
ARTICLE VII. In the event of the death, incapacity, or absence of consuls-general, consuls, vice-consuls, and consular agents, their chancellors or secretaries, whose official character may have previously been made known to the Department of State at Washington, or to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in Roumania, may temporarily exercise their funetions, and while thus acting they shall enjoy all the rights, prerogatives and immunities granted to the incumbents.
Consuls-general and consuls may, so far as the laws of their country allow, with the approbation of their respective governments, appoint vice-consuls and consular agents in the cities, ports, and places within their consular jurisdiction. These agents may be selected from among citizens of the United States, Roumanians, or citizens of other countries. They shall be furnished with a regular commission, and shall enjoy the privileges stipulated for consular officers in this convention, subject to the exceptions specified in Articles 3 and 4.
Consuls-general, consuls, vice-consuls, and consular agents, shall have the right to address the administrative and judicial authorities, whether in the United States, of the Union, the States or the municipalities, or in Roumania, of the State, the district or the commune, throughout the whole extent of their consular jurisdiction, in order to complain of any infraction of the treaties and conventions between the United States and Roumania, and for the purpose of protecting the rights and interests of their countrymen. If the complaint should not be satisfactorily redressed, the consular officers aforesaid, in the absence of a diplomatic agent of their country, may apply directly to the government of the country where they exercise their functions.
Consuls-general, consuls, vice-consuls, and consular agents may take at their offices, at their private residence, at the residence of the parties, or on board ship, the depositions of the captains and crews of vessels of their own country, of passengers on board of them, and of any other citizen of their nation. They may also receive at their offices, conformably to the laws and regulations of their country, all contracts between the citizens of their country and the citizens or other inhabitants of the country where they reside, and even all contracts between the latter, provided they relate to property situated or to business to be transacted in the territory of the nation to which the said consular officer may belong.
Such papers and official documents of every kind, whether in the original, in copies or in translation, duly authenticated and legalized by the consuls-general, consuls, vice-consuls, and consular agents, and sealed with their official seal, shall be received as legal docuinents in courts of justice throughout the United States and Roumania.
ARTICLE XI. The respective consuls-general, consuls, vice-consuls, and consular agents shall have exclusive charge of the internal order of the merchant vessels of their nation, and shall alone take cognizance of all differences which may arise, either at sea or in port, between the captains, officers, and crews, without exception, particularly in reference to the adjustment of wages and the execution of contracts. The local authorities shall not interfere except when the disorder that has arisen is of such a nature as to disturb tranquillity and public order on shore, or in the port, or when a person of the country or not belonging to the crew shall be concerned therein.
In all other cases, the aforesaid authorities shall confine themselves to lending aid to the consuls and vice-consuls or consular agents, if they are requested by them to do so, in causing the arrest and imprisonment of any person whose name is inscribed on the crew-list, whenever, for any cause, the said officers shall think proper.
ARTICLE XII. The respective consuls-general, consuls, vice-consuls, and consular agents may cause to be arrested the officers, sailors and all other persons making part of the crews, in any manner whatever, of ships of war or merchant vessels of their nation, who may be guilty, or be accused, of having deserted said ships and vessels, for the purpose of sending them on board or back to their country. To this end they shall address the competent local authorities of the respective countries, in writing, and shall make to them a written request for the deserters, supporting it by the exhibition of the register of the vessel and list of the crew, or by other official documents, to show that the persons claimed belong to the said ship's company.
Upon such request thus supported, the delivery to them of the deserters cannot be refused, unless it should be duly proved that they were citizens of the country where their extradition is demanded at the time of their being inscribed on the crew-list. All the necessary aid and protection shall be furnished for the pursuit, seizure, and arrest of the deserters, who shall even be put and kept in the prisons of the country, at the request and expense of the consular officers until there may be an opportunity for sending them away. If, however, such an opportunity should not present itself within the space of three mouths, counting from the day of the arrest, the deserters shall be set at liberty, nor shall they again be arrested for the same cause.
If the deserter has committed any misdemeanour, and the court having the right to take cognizance of the offence shall claim and exercise it, the delivery of the deserter shall be deferred until the decision of the court has been pronounced and executed.
ARTICLE XIII. In the absence of an agreement to the contrary between the owners, freighters, and insurers, all damages suffered at sea by the vessels of the two countries, whether they enter port voluntarily, or are forced by stress of weather, shall be settled by the consuls-general, consuls, vice-consuls, and consular agents of the respective countries. If, however, any inhabitant of the country, or citizen or subject of a third power, shall be interested in the matter, and the parties cannot agree, the competent local authorities shall decide.
ARTICLE XIV. All proceedings relative to the salvage of vessels of the United States wrecked upon the coasts of Roumania, and of Roumanian vessels wrecked upon the coasts of the United States, shall be directed by the consuls-general, consuls, and vice-consuls of the two countries respectively, and until their arrival, by the respective consular agents, wherever an agency exists. In the places and ports where an agency does not exist, the local authorities until the arrival of the consul in whose district the wreck may have occurred, and who shall be immediately informed of the occurrence, shall take all necessary measures for the protection of persons and the preservation of wrecked property. The local authorities shall not otherwise interfere than for the maintenance of order, the protection of the interests of the salvors if these do not belong to the crews that have been wrecked, and to carry into effect the arrangements made for the entry and exportation of the merchandize saved.
It is understood that such merchandize is not to be subjected to any custom-house charges, unless it be intended for consumption in the country where the wreck may have taken place.
The intervention of the local authorities in these different cases shall occasion no expense of any kind, except such as may be caused by the operations of salvage and the preservation of the goods saved, together with such as would be incurred under similar circumstances by vessels of the nation.
ARTICLE XV. In case of the death of any citizen of the United States in Roumania, or of any Roumanian in the United States, without having any known heirs or testamentary executor by him appointed, the competent local authorities shall give information of the circumstance to the consuls or consular agents of the nation to which the deceased belongs, in order that the necessary information may be immediately forwarded to parties interested.
Consuls-general, consuls, vice-consuls, and consular agents shall have the right to appear, personally or by delegate, in all proceedings on behalf of the absent or minor heirs, or creditors, until thy are duly represented.
ARTICLE XVI. The present convention shall remain in force for the space of ten years, counting from the day of the exchange of the ratifications, which shall be made in conformity with the respective constitutions of the two countries and exchanged at Bucarest as soon as possible.
In case neither party gives notice, twelve months before the expiration of the said period of ten years, of its intention not to renew this con vention, it shall remain in force one year longer, and so on from year to year, until the expiration of a year from the day on which one of the parties shall have given such notice.
In faith whereof the respective plenipotentiaries have signed this convention in duplicate, and have hereunto affixed their seals.
Done at Bucarest the 5/17 day of June in the year one thousand eight hundred and eighty one
EUGENE SCHUYLER SEAL.
1824. CONVENTION AS TO THE PACIFIC OCEAN AND NORTHWEST COAST OF
Concluded April 17, 1824; ratification advised by the Senate January
5, 1825; ratified by the President January 7, 1825; ratifications exchanged January 11, 1825; proclaimed January 12, 1825. (Treaties and Conventions, 1889, p. 931.)
(Translation from the original, which is in the French language.)
I. Navigation, fishing, and trading. V. Sale of liquors and firearms proII. Illicit trade.
hibited. III. Mutual limit of occupation of VI. Ratification.
northwest coast. IV. Temporary fishing and trading
agreement. In the Name of the Most Holy and Indivisible Trinity.
The President of the United States of America and His Majesty the Emperor of all the Russias, wishing to cement the bonds of amity which unite them and to secure between them the invariable maintenance of a perfect concord, by means of the present Convention, have named as their Plenipotentiaries to this effect, to wit: The President of the United States of America, Henry Middleton a Citizen of said States, and their Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary near His Imperial Majesty: and His Majesty the Emperor of all the Russias, his beloved and faithful Charles Robert Count of Nesselrode, actual Privy Counsellor, Member of the Council of State, Secretary of State directing the administration of foreign Affairs, actual Chamberlain, Knight of the order of St. Alexander Nevsky, Grand Cross of the order of St. Wladimir of the first Class, Knight of that of the white Eagle of Poland, Grand Cross of the order of St. Stephen of Hungary, Knight of the orders of the Holy Ghost and of St. Michael, and Grand Cross of the Legion of Honour of France, Knight Grand Cross of the orders of the Black and of the Red Eagle of Prussia, of the Annunciation of Sardinia, of Charles III of Spain, of St. Ferdinand and of Merit of Naples, of the Elephant of Denmark, of the Polar Star of Sweden, of the Crown of Wirtemberg, of the Guelphs of Hanover, of the Belgic Lion, of Fidelity of Baden, and of St. Constantine of Parma, and Pierre de Poletica, actual Counsellor of State, Knight of the order of St. Anne of the first Class, and Grand Cross of the order of St. Wladimir of the second; who, after having exchanged their full powers, found in good and due form, have agreed upon and signed the following stipulations. S. Doc. 318, 58-2 42