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Citizens of the United States in Tonga, and Tongans in the United States, may visit sojourn and trade in any part of the respective jurisdictions, and rent, occupy and improve lands and erect dwellings, offices and ware-houses thereon, subject to the laws and regulations of the country; which shall however in no case, except in respect of employment as laborers, be more restrictive than those imposed upon the citizens or subjects of the respective country, or upon the citizens or subject of the most-favored nation.


There shall be reciprocalliberty of commerce and navigation between the United States and the Tonga Islands, and no duty of customs or other impost shall be charged upon any goods being the produce or manufacture of one country, when imported therefrom into the other country, other or higher than is charged upon the same, the produce or manufacture of or imported from any other country.


No other or higher duties or charges on account of harbor dues, pilotage, quarantine, salvage in case of damage or ship-wreck or other shipping charges shall be imposed in the dominions of the King of Tonga on vessels of the United States, or in the United States on Tongan vessels, than are imposed on vessels belonging to the mostfavored nation.


The ships-of-war of either of the High Contracting Parties may enter all ports, places and waters within the jurisdiction of the other, to anchor and remain, take in stores, refit and repair, subject to the laws and regulations of the country. To enable this privilege to be carried out in his dominions, the King of Tonga agrees to secure to the government of the United States by lease at nominal rent, with covenants of renewal, all rights of free use of necessary ground in any harbor of the Tonga Islands which shall be mutually agreed upon, for the purpose of establishing a permanent coaling and repair-station, the rights of Tongan sovereignty therein being fully reserved and admitted; and in selecting a station for this purpose, due regard shall be had for any similar concession which the King of Tonga has or may have granted by treaty to any other government.


All steam vessels which may be employed by the Government of the United States in the carrying of their mails in and across the Pacific Ocean shall have free access to all ports of the Tonga Islands, and shall be there subject only to one-third of the usual harbor and pilotage dues, provided that no vessel shall be entitled to such exemption except upon condition of carrying free of charge the Tongan mails to ports of destination and call of such vessel.


The whaling or fishing vessels of the Uhited States shall have free access to the ports and harbors of Tonga, and in the ports of entry thereof shall be permitted to ')+ er or trade their supplies or goods for provisions for the use of! 'r own vessels and crews, without being subject to the law relative to trading licenses, and shall be subject to no port-, or harbor-dues or pilotage whatever; but this privilege of barter and trade shall not include the supplying of spirituous liquors, or arms or ammunition to the Tongans. And such whaling or fishing vessels shall, after having entered any port of entry in the Tonga Islands, be at liberty to anchor off any island or reef thereof, for the purpose of whaling or boiling down; provided, such vessel does not anchor within the distance of three nautical miles from any inhabited town,-but nothing in this clause shall be so construed as to permit infringement of the quarantine laws of the dominions of the King of Tonga.


All citizens of the United States residing in the Tonga Islands, and Tongan subjects residing in the United States, shall be exempted from all compulsory military service whether by sea or land, and from all forced loans, military requisitions and quartering of troops. They shall, moreover, not be compelled to pay any other or higher taxes or license fees, or personal dues of any kind, than are or may be paid by the citizens or subjects of the High Contracting Party levying the same.


Should any member of the ship's company desert from a vessel-ofwar or inerchant vessel of either of the High Contracting Parties, while such vessel is within the territorial jurisdiction of the other, the local authorities shall render all lawful assistance for the apprehension of such deserter, on application to that effect made by the Consul of the High Contracting Party concerned, or if there be no Consul, then by the master of the vessel.


Each of the High Contracting Parties may appoint Consuls, ViceConsuls, Commercial Agents and Vice-Commercial Agents, for the protection of trade, to reside in the territory of the other High Contracting Party; but before any Consular officer so appointed shall act as such, he shall in the usual form be approved of and admitted by the Government of the country to which he is sent; and all such Consular officers shall enjoy the same privileges and powers with those of the most favored nation.


Consuls and Consular representatives of the United States in Tonga shall have all jurisdictional rights over civil and criminal matters concerning their own citizens and vessels, in conformity with the statutes of the United States and the law of nations; and they may

call upon the authorities of Tonga for aid in making arrests or enforcing judgments: And, Citizens of the United States charged with committing offenses against Tongans shall be amenable only to the Consular jurisdiction and shall be punished according to the law of the United States: and Tongans charged with committing offenses against citizens of the United States shall be tried by Tongan courts and punished according to Tongan law.

Claims of a civil nature against citizens of the United States shall be cognizable only in the Consular jurisdiction, and Tongan Courts shall be open to citizens of the United States to prosecute such claims against Tongans, according to law: Provided that citizens of the United States charged with violations of laws and regulations of Tonga relating to customs, taxation, public health and local police not cognizable as such under the laws of the United States, shall be amenable to the jurisdiction of the Tongan Courts upon notice to the nearest U. S. Consul or Commercial Agent, if there be one resident in Tonga, who shall have the right to be present at the trial and to direct or provide for the defense of the accused; the proceedings at all such trials shall be public and accessible.


Perfect and entire freedom of conscience and worship, with right of sepulture according to their creed, shall be enjoyed by the citizens or subjects of either of the High Contracting Parties within the jurisdiction of the other.


This Treaty shall become effective upon promulgation and shall continue in force for ten years, and thereafter until one year after notice shall have been given by one of the High Contracting Parties to the other of its desire to terminate the same: save and except as to Article VI. (relative to the establishment of a coaling-station), which shall be terminable only by mutual consent.


This Treaty shall be ratified and the ratifications exchanged at Nukualofa as soon as possible.

This Treaty is executed in duplicate, one copy being in English and the other in Tongan, both versions having the same meaning and intention, but the English version shall be considered the original, and shall control in case of any variance.

In witness whereof, the respective plenipotentiaries have signed this Treaty, and thereunto affixed their respective seals.

Done in the harbor of Nukualofa, in Tongatabu, on board the United States Steamer, “Mohican”, this second day of October, in the year of our Lord, one thousand, eight hundred and eighty-six.





Concluded November 4, 1796; ratification advised by the Senate June

7, 1797; ratified by the President June 10, 1797; proclaimed June 10, 1797. (Treaties and Conventions, 1889, p. 1081.)

This treaty of twelve articles was superseded by the Treaty of 1805.



Concluded June 4, 1805; ratification advised by the Senate April 12,

1806; ratified by the President (?); ratifications exchanged (?); proclaimed (). (Treaties and Conventions, 1889, p. 1084.) ?



I. Peace, friendship, and commerce.
II. Exchange of prisoners.
III. Withdrawal of United States

IV. Neutral rights.

V. Liberation of captive citizens.
VI. Ships' passports.
VII. Purchase of prizes.
VIII. Asylum for supplies.
IX. Shipwrecks.
X. Assistance to vessels in territorial

XI. Most favored nation commercial


XII. Consular responsibility in Trip

XIII. Salutes to naval vessels.
XIV. Religious freedom, etc.

XV. Settlement of disputes.
XVI. Treatment of prisoners.
XVII. Captured vessels.
XVIII. Judicial power of consul.
XIX. Homicides, etc.
XX. Estates of deceased persons;



There shall be, from the conclusion of this Treaty a firm, inviolable and universal peace, and a sincere friendship between the President and Citizens of the United States of America, on the one part, and the Bashaw, Bey and Subjects of the Regency of Tripoli in Barbary on the other, made by the free consent of both parties, and on the terins of the most favoured Nation. And if either party shall hereafter grant to any other Nation, any particular favour or privilege in Navigation or Commerce, it shall immediately become common to the other party, freely, where it is freely granted, to such other Nation, but where the grant is conditional it shall be at the option of the contracting parties to accept, alter or reject, such conditions, in such manner as shall be most conducive to their respective Interests.


The Bashaw of Tripoli shall deliver up to the American Squadron now off Tripoli, all the Americans in his possession, and all the Subjects of the Bashaw of Tripoli now in the power of the United States of America shall be delivered up to him; and as the number of Americans in possession of the Bashaw of Tripoli amounts to Three Hundred Persons, more or less; and the number of Tripoline Subjects in the power of the Americans to about One Hundred more or less; The Bashaw of Tripoli shall receive from the United States of America, the sum of Sixty Thousand Dollars, as a payment for the difference between the Prisoners herein mentioned.


All the forces of the United States which have been, or may be in hostility against the Bashaw of Tripoli, in the Province of Derne, or elsewhere within the Dominions of the said Bashaw, shall be withdrawn therefrom, and no supplies shall be withdrawn therefrom and no supplies shall be given by or in behalf of the said United States, during the continuance of this peace, to any of the Subjects of the said Bashaw who may be in hostility against him in any part of his Dominions; and the Americans will use all means in their power to persuade the Brother of the said Bashaw, who has co-operated with them at Derne, &c, to withdraw from the Territory of the said Bashaw of Tripoli, but they will not use any force or improper means to effect that object; and in case he should withdraw himself as aforesaid, the Bashaw engages to deliver up to him his Wife and Children now in

his power.


If any goods belonging to any Nation with which either of the parties are at war, should be loaded on board Vessels belonging to the other party they shall pass free and unmolested, and no attempt shall be made to take or detain them.


If any Citizens or Subjects with their effects belonging to either party shall be found on board a Prize Vessel taken from an enemy by the other party, such Citizens or Subjects shall be liberated immediately and their effects so captured shall be restored to their lawful owners or their agents.


Proper passports shall immediately be given to the vessels of both the contracting parties, on condition that the Vessels of War belonging to the Regency of Tripoli on meeting with merchant Vessels belonging to Citizens of the United States of America shall not be permitted to visit them with more than two persons besides the rowers,

S. Doc. 318, 58–2—50

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