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There shall be a perpetual and constant peace between the United States of America and the Magnificent Pacha, Bey of Tunis; and also a permanent friendship, which shall more and more increase.


If a vessel of war of the two nations shall make prize of an enemy's vessel, in which may be found effects, property, and subjects of the two contracting parties, the whole shall be restored: the Bey shall restore the property and subjects of the United States, and the latter shall make a reciprocal restoration, it being understood on both sides that the just right to what is claimed shall be proved.


Merchandise belonging to any nation which may be at war with one of the contracting parties, and loaded on board of the vessels of the other, shall pass without molestation, and without any attempt being made to capture or detain it.


On both sides sufficient passports shall be given to vessels, that they may be known and treated as friendly; and, considering the distance between the two countries, a term of eighteen months is given, within which term respect shall be paid to the said passports, without requiring the congé or document, (which, at Tunis, is called testa,) but after the said term the congé shall be presented.


If the corsairs of Tunis shall meet at sea with ships of war of the United States, having under their escort merchant-vessels of their nation, they shall not be searched or molested; and in such case the commanders shall be believed upon their word, to exempt their ships from being visited, and to avoid quarantine. The American ships of war shall act in like manner towards merchant-vessels escorted by the corsairs of Tunis.


[Superseded by the Convention of 1824, p. 648.]


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An American citizen having purchased a prize vessel from our Odgiak, may sail with our passport, which we will deliver for the term of one year, by force of which our corsairs which may meet with her shall respect her; the Consul, on his part, shall furnish, her with a bill of sale, and, considering the distance of the two countries, this term shall suffice to obtain a passport in form. But, after the expiration of this term, if our corsairs shall meet with her without the passport of the United States, she shall be stopped and declared good prize, as well the vessel as the cargo and crew.


If a vessel of one of the contracting parties shall be obliged to enter into a port of the other, and may have need of provisions and other articles, they shall be granted to her without any difficulty, at the price current at the place; and if such a vessel shall have suffered at sea, and shall have need of repairs, she shall be at liberty to unload and reload her cargo, without being obliged to pay any duty; and the

; captain shall only be obliged to pay the wages of those whom he shall have employed in loading and unloading the merchandise.


If, by accident and by the permission of God, a vessel of one of the contracting parties shall be cast by tempest upon the coasts of the other, and shall be wrecked or otherwise damaged, the commandant of the place shall render all possible assistance for its preservation, without allowing any person to make any opposition; and the proprietor of the effects shall pay the costs of salvage to those who may have been employed.


In case a vessel of one of the contracting parties shall be attacked by an enemy under the cannon of the forts of the other party', she shall be defended and protected as much as possible; and when she shall set sail, no enemy shall be permitted to pursue her from the same port, or any other neighboring port, for forty-eight hours after her departure.

ARTICLE XI. [Superseded by the Convention of 1824, p. 649.]


[Superseded by the Convention of 1824, p. 649.]


If among the crews of merchant-vessels of the United States there shall be found subjects of our enemies, they shall not be made slaves, on condition that they do not exceed a third of the crew; and when they do exceed a third, they shall be made slaves: The present article only concerns the sailors, and not the passengers, who shall not be in any manner molested.


[Superseded by Convention of 1824, p. 650.]


It shall be free for the citizens of the United States to carry on what commerce they please in the Kingdom of Tunis, without any opposition, and they shall be treated like the merchants of other nations; but they shall not carry on commerce in wine, nor in prohibited articles; and if any one shall be detected in a contraband trade, he shall

be punished according to the laws of the country. The commandants of ports and castles shall take care, that the captains and sailors shall not load prohibited articles; but if this should happen, those who shall not have contributed to the smuggling shall not be molested nor searched, no more than shall the vessel and cargo; but only the offender, who shall be demanded to be punished. No captain shall be obliged to receive merchandise on board his vessel, nor to unlade the same against his will, until the freight shall be paid.


The merchant-vessels of the United States which shall cast anchor in the road of the Gouletta, or any other port of the Kingdom of Tunis, shall be obliged to pay the same anchorage for entry and departure which French vessels pay, to wit: Seventeen piasters and a half, money of Tunis, for entry, if they import merchandise; and the same for departure, if they take away a cargo; but they shall not be obliged to pay anchorage if they arrive in ballast, and depart in the

same manner.


Each of the contracting parties shall be at liberty to establisha Consul in the dependencies of the other; and if such Consul does not act in conformity with the usages of the country, like others, the Government of the place shall inform his Government of it, to the end that he may be changed and replaced; but he shall enjoy, as well for himself as his family and suite, the protection of the Governinent; and he may import for his own use all his provisions and furniture without paying any duty; and if he shall import merchandise, (which it shall be lawful for him to do,) he shall pay duty for it.


If the subjects or citizens of either of the contracting parties, being within the possessions of the other, contract debts, or enter into obligations, neither the Consul nor the nation, nor any subjects or citizens thereof shall be in any manner responsible, except they or the Consul shall have previously become bound in writing; and without this obligation in writing, they cannot be called upon for indemnity or satisfaction.


In case of a citizen or subject of either of the contracting parties dying within the possessions of the other, the Consul or the Vekil shall take possession of his effects, (if he does not leave a will,) of which he shall make an inventory; and the Government of the place shall have nothing to do therewith. And if there shall be no Consul, the effects shall be deposited in the hands of a confidential person of the place, taking an inventory of the whole, that they may eventually be delivered to those to whom they of right belong.


The Consul shall be the judge in all disputes between his fellowcitizens or subjects, as also between all other persons who may be immediately under his protection; and in all cases wherein he shall require the assistance of the Government where he resides to sanction his decisions, it shall be granted to him.


If a citizen or subject of one of the parties shall kill, wound, or strike a citizen subject of the other, justice shall be done according to the laws of the country where the offence shall be committed: The Consul shall be present at the trial; but if any offender shall escape, the Consul shall be in no manner responsible for it.


If a dispute or law-suit on commercial or other civil matters shall happen, the trial shall be had in the presence of the Consal, or of a confidential person of his choice, who shall represent him, and endeavor to accommodate the difference which may have happened between the citizens or subjects of the two nations.


If any difference or dispute shall take place concerning the infraction of any article of the present treaty on either side, peace and good harmony shall not be interrupted, until a friendly application shall have been made for satisfaction; and resort shall not be had to arms therefor, except where such application shall have been rejected; and if war be then declared, the term of one year shall be allowed to the citizens or subjects of the contracting parties to arrange their affairs, and to withdraw themselves with their property.

The agreements and terms above concluded by the two contracting parties shall be punctually observed with the will of the Most High. And for the maintenance and exact observance of the said agreements, we have caused their contents to be here transcribed, in the present month of Rebia Elul, of the Hegira one thousand two hundred and twelve, corresponding with the month of August of the Christian year one thousand seven hundred and ninety-seven. The Aga IBRAHIM DEY'S

The Bey's

Signature and




Whereas the President of the United States of America, by his let

ters patent, under his signature and the seal of state, dated [SEAL.] the eighteenth day of December, one thousand seven hundred

and ninety-eight, vested Richard O'Brien, William Eaton, and James Leander Cathcart, or any two of them in the absence of the third, with full powers to confer, negotiate, and conclude with the Bey and Regency of Tunis, on certain alterations in the treaty between the United States and the Government of Tunis, concluded by the intervention of Joseph Etienne Famin, on behalf of the United States, in the month of August, one thousand seven hundred and ninety-seven, we, the underwritten William Eaton and James Leander Cathcart, (Richard O'Brien being absent,) have concluded on and entered, in the foregoing treaty, certain alterations in the eleventh, twelfth, and fourteenth articles, and do agree to said treaty with said alterations,

reserving the same nevertheless for the final ratification of the President of the United States, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate.

In testimony whereof we annex our names and the consular seal of the United States. Done in Tunis, the twenty-sixth day of March, in the year of the Christian era one thousand seven hundred and ninetynine, and of American Independence the twenty-third.



CONVENTION AMENDING TREATY OF AUGUST, 1797. Concluded February 24, 1824; ratification advised by the Senate Jan

uary 13, 1825; ratified by the President January 21, 1825; proclaimed January 21, 1825. (Treaties and Conventions, 1889, p. 1096.) [This is reprinted from the proclamation of President Monroe]


VI. Search of ships; freedom of slaves. XIV. Most favored nation commercial XI. Salutes to naval vessels.

privileges. XII. Trading rights and privileges.

Whereas sundry Articles of the Treaty of peace and friendship concluded between the United States of America and Hamuda Bashow of happy memory in the month of Rebia Elul in the year of the llegira 1212, corresponding with the month of August of the Christian year 1797; have by experience been found to require alteration and amendment: In order therefore that the United States should be placed on the same footing with the most favoured Nations having Treaties with Tunis, as well as to manifest a respect for the American Government and a desire to continue unimpaired the friendly relations which have always existed between the two Nations, it is hereby agreed and concluded between His Highness Sidi Mahmoud Bashaw Bey of Tunis, and S. D. Heap, Esq' Chargé d'Affaires of the United States of America, that alterations be made in the sixth, eleventh, twelfth and fourteenth Articles of said Treaty; and that the said Articles shall be altered and amended in the Treaty to read as follows:

ARTICLE the Sixth, as it now is.

ARTICLE 6th as it was.a

If a Tunisian Corsair shall meet If a Tunisian Corsair shall meet with an American vessel and shall with an American merchant vesvisit it with her boat, two men only sel, and shall visit it with her boat, shall be allowed to go on board she shall not exact anything, unpeaceably to satisfy themselves of der pain of being severely punits being American, who, as well ished. And, in like manner, if a as any passengers of other Nations vessel of war of the United-States they may have on board, shall go shall meet with a Tunisian merfree, both them and their goods; chant vessel, she shall observe the and the said two men shall not same rule. In case a slave shall exact anything, on pain of being take refuge on board of an Ameriseverely punished. In case a slave can vessel of war, the Consul shall

a This treaty was superseded by treaty between United States and France (for Bey of Tunis), proclaimed May 9, 1904. (See Appendix, page 949.)

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