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on them, the evils of warfare, to suppress its useless hardships and improve the fate of wounded soldiers on the field of battle, have resolved to conclude a convention to that effect, and have named for their plenipotentiaries, viz:

The Swiss Confederation:

Guillaume Henri Dufour, Grand Officer of the Imperial Order of the Legion of Honor, General in Chief of the federal army, Member of the Council of the State;

Gustave Moynier, President of the International Relief Committee for wounded soldiers and of the Geneva Society of Public Utility; and

Samuel Lehmann, federal Colonel, Doctor in Chief of the federal army, Member of the National Council;

His Royal Highness the Grand Duke of Baden:

Robert Volz, Knight of the Order of the Lion of Zähringen, M.D., Medical Councillor at the Direction of Medical Affairs; and

Adolphe Steiner, Knight of the Order of the Lion of Zæhringen, Chief Staff Physician;

His Majesty the King of the Belgians:

Auguste Visschers, Officer of the Order of Leopold, Councillor at the Council of Mines;

His Majesty the King of Denmark:

Charles Emile Fenger, Commander of the Order of Danebrog, decorated with the silver cross of the same Order; Grand Cross of the Order of Leopold of Belgium, &c., &c., His Councillor of State;

Her Majesty the Queen of Spain:

Don José Heriberto García de Quevedo, Gentleman of her Chamber on active service, Knight of the Grand Cross of Isabella-the-Catholie, Numerary Commander of the Order of Charles III, Knight of the first class of the Royal and Military Order of St. Ferdinand, Officer of the Legion of Honor of France, Her Minister-Resident to the Swiss Confederation;

His Majesty the Emperor of the French: Georges Charles Jagerschmidt, Officer of the Imperial Order of the Legion of Honor, Officer of the Order of Leopold of Belgium, Knight of the Order of the Red Eagle of Prussia of the third class, &c., &c., Sub-Director at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs;

Henri Eugène Séguineau de Préval, Knight of the Imperial Order of the Legion of Honor, decorated with the Imperial Order of the Medjidié of fourth class, Knight of the Order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus of Italy, &c., &c., military Sub-Commissioner of first class, ani

Martin François Boudier, Officer of the Imperial Order of the Legion of Honor, decorated with the Imperial Order of the Medjidié of the fourth class, decorated with the Medal of Military Valor of Italy, &c., &c., doctor in chief of second class;

His Royal Highness the Grand-Duke of Hesse:

Charles Auguste Brodrück, Knight of the Order of Philip the Mag; nanimous, of the Order of St. Michael of Bavaria, Officer of the Royal Order of the Holy Savior, &c., &c., Chief of Battalion, Staff Officer;

His Majesty the King of Italy:

Jean Capello, Knight of the Order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus, his Consul-General to Switzerland, and

Felix Baroffio, Knight of the Order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus, Doctor in Chief of medical division;

His Majesty the King of the Netherlands:

Bernard Ortuinus Theodore llenri Westenberg, Officer of His Order of the Crown of Oak, Knight of the Orders of Charles III of Spain, of the Crown of Prussia, of Adolphe of Nassau, L. D., His Secretary of Legation at Frankfort;

Mis Majesty the King of Portugal and of the Algarves:

José Antonio Marques, Knight of the Order of Christ, of Our Lady of the Conception of Villa Viciosa, of Saint Benedict of Aviz, of Leopold of Belgium, etc., M. D. Surgeon of Brigade, Sub-Chief to the Department of Health at the Ministry of War;

His Majesty the King of Prussia:

Charles Albert de Kamptz, Knight of the Order of the Red Eagle of second class, &c., &c., &c., His Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary to the Swiss Confederation, Private Councillor of Legation;

Godefroi Frederic François Loeffler, Knight of the Order of the Red Eagle of third class, etc., etc., M. D. Physician in Chief of the fourth Army Corps;

Georges Hermann Jules Ritter, Knight of the Order of the Crown of third class, etc., etc., Private Councillor at the Ministry of War;

His Majesty the King of Würtemberg:

Christophe Ulric Hahn, Knight of the Order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus, etc., Doctor of Philosophy and Theology, Member of the Central Royal Direction for Charitable Institutions,

Who, after having exchanged their powers, and found them in good and due form, agree to the following articles:

ARTICLE I. Ambulances and Military hospitals shall be acknowledged to be neuter, and, as such, shall be protected and respected by belligerents so long as any sick or wounded may be therein.

Such neutrality shall cease if the ambulances or hospitals should be held by a military force.

ART. II. Persons employed in hospitals and ambulances, comprising the staff for superintendence, medical service, administration, transport of wounded, as well as chaplains, shall participate in the benefit of neutrality, whilst so employed, and so long as there remain any wounded to bring in or to succor.

ART. III. The persons designated in the preceding article may, even after occupation by the enemy, continue to fulfill their duties in the hospital or ambulance which they serve, or may withdraw in order to rejoin the corps to which they belong.

Under such circumstances, when these persons shall cease from their functions, they shall be delivered by the occupying army to the outposts of the enemy.

ART. IV. As the equipment of military hospitals remains subject to the laws of war, persons attached to such hospitals cannot, in withdrawing, carry away any articles but such as are their private property.

Under the same circumstances an ambulance shall, on the contrary, retain its equipment

ART. V. Inhabitants of the country who may bring help to the wounded shall be respected, and shall remain free. The generals of the belligerent Powers shall make it their care to inform the inhabitants of the appeal addressed to their humanity, and of the neutrality which will be the consequence of it.

Any wounded man entertained and taken care of in a house shall be considered as a protection thereto. Any inhabitant who shall have entertained wounded men in his house shall be exempted from the quartering of troops, as well as from a part of the contributions of war which may be imposed.

S. Doc. 318, 58-2-452

ART. VI. Wounded or sick soldiers shall be entertained and taken care of, to whatever nation they may belong.

Commanders-in-chief shall have the power to deliver immediately to the outposts of the enemy soldiers who have been wounded in an engagement when circumstances permit this to be done, and with the consent of both parties.

Those who are recognized, after their wounds are healed, as incapable of serving, shall be sent back to their country.

The others may also be sent back, on condition of not again bearing arms during the continuance of the war.

Evacuations, together with the persons under whose directions they take place, shall be protected by an absolute neutrality.

ART. VII. A distinctive and uniform flag shall be adopted for hospitals, ambulances and evacuations. It must, on every occasion, be accompanied by the national flag. An arm-badge (brassard) shall also be allowed for individuals neutralized, but the delivery thereof shall be left to military authority.

The flag and the arm-badge shall bear a red cross on a white ground.

ART. VIII. The details of execution of the present convention shall be regulated by the commanders-in-chief of belligerent armies, according to the instructions of their respective governments, and in conformity with the general principles laid down in this convention.

ART. IX. The high contracting Powers have agreed to communicate the present convention to those Governments which have not found it convenient to send plenipotentiaries to the International Conference at Geneva, with an invitation to accede thereto; the protocol is for that purpose left open.

ART. X. The present convention shall be ratified, and the ratifications shall be exchanged at Berne in four months, or sooner, if possible.

In faith whereof the respective Plenipotentiaries have signed it and have affixed their seals thereto.

Done at Geneva, the twenty-second day of the month of August of the year one thousand eight hundred and sixty-four. (L. s.) G'l G. H. DUFOUR. S. G’l

[L. S. BOUDIER. L. S. G. MOYNIER.

L. S. BRODRÜCK.
L. S.
Dr. LEHMANN.

L. S. CAPELLO.
L. S. Dr. ROBERT VOLZ.

L. S. F. BAROFFIO.
L. S.
STEINER.

L. S. WESTENBERG.
L. S. VISSCHERS.

L. S. JOSÉ ANTONIO MARQUES. L. S. FENGER.

L. S. DE KAMPTZ.
Y. HERIBERTO GARCÍA DE L. S. LEFFLER.
[L. S.
QUEVEDO.

L. S. RITTER.
L. S. CH. JAGERSCHMIDT. (L. S. Dr. HAHN
L. S. S. DE PRÉVAL.

1868.

(In the proclamation of the foregoing convention concluded October 20, 1868, the President inserted the following additional articles, the ratification of which had not been exchanged by the signatory parties. Although not in force as a treaty, they are here printed, as the Senate advised and consented to their ratification at the same time with the convention of August 22, 1864.)

The governments of North Germany, Austria, Baden, Bavaria, Belgium, Denmark, France, Great Britain, Italy, the Netherlands, Sweden and Norway, Switzerland, Turkey, and Würtemberg, desiring to extend to armies on the sea the advantages of the Convention concluded at Geneva the 224 of August, 1864, for the amelioration of the condition of wounded soldiers in armies in the field, and to further particularize some of the stipulations of the said Convention, have named for their commissioners:

1. North Germany: Henri de Ræder, Lieutenant-General, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary of His Majesty the King of Prussia and of the North Germanic Confederation to the Swiss Confederation, Knight of the Red Eagle, second class, etc., etc.

Frédéric Leffler, Physician in Chief of the Army, Professor of Military Medicine, Knight of the Order of the Crown, second class, with crossed swords, etc., etc.

and Henry Köhler, Naval Captain, Chief of Division at the Ministry of the Navy, Knight of the Order of the Crown, third class, etc., etc.

2. Austria:

Dr. Jaromir, Baron Mundy, Staff Physician of first-class, Commander of the Order of His Majesty Emperor Francis Joseph of Austria, King of Hungary.

3. Baden:

Adolphe Steiner, Chief Staff Physician, Knight of the first class of the order of the Lion of Zæhringen, with oak-leaf.

4. Bavaria:

Theodore Dompierre, Chief Physician of first class, Knight of the order of St. Michael.

5. Belgium:

Auguste Visschers, Councillor of the Council of Mines of Belgium, () fficer of the Order of Leopold.

6. Denmark:

John Barthélemy Gaïfre Galiffe, L. D., Consul of His Majesty the King of Denmark to the Swiss Confederation, Knight of the Order of Danebrog and of the Order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus.

7. France:

Auguste Coupvent des Bois, Rear-Admiral, Commander of the imperial order of the Legion of Honor, etc., etc.

and Henri Eugène Séguineau de Préval, military subcommissioner of first class, officer of the imperial order of the Legion of Honor, etc., etc.

8. Great Britain:

John Saville Lumley, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary of Her Britannic Majesty to the Swiss Confederation.

Hastings Reginald Yelverton, Rear-Admiral in the service of Her Britannic Majesty, Companion of the Order of the Bath.

9. Italy:

Felix Baroffio, Physician in Chief, Knight of the Order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus, of the Order of the Crown of Italy.

Paul Cottrau, Captain of frigate, Knight of the Order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus, decorated with the silver medal of military Valor.

10. The Netherlands:

Jonkheer Hermann Adrien van Karnebeck, Vice-Admiral, Aide-decamp extraordinary to His Majesty the King of the Netherlands, decorated with the civil and military orders and the crosses and medals of 1815, of 1830 of the Netherlands, and of the campaigns of Yava, Grand Cross of the military orders of Christ and of Tunis, grand officer of the order of Charles the Third of Spain, Commander of the orders of St. Anne of Russia, in diamonds, of Leopold of Belgium and of the Falcon of Saxe-Weimar, Knight of the Legion of Honor, decorated with the medal of St. Helena.

Bernard Ortuinus Theodore Henri Westenberg, L. D. Councillor of Legation of His M. jesty the King of the Netherlands, Commander of the Oaken Crown, Grand Commander of the Order of St. Michael of Bavaria, Knight of the orders of Charles III of Spain, of the Crown of Prussia, of Danebrog, of Denmark, and of Adolphe of Nassau.

11. Sueden and Norway:

Ferdinand Nathaniel Staaf, Lieutenant Colonel, military attaché of the Legation of Sweden and Norway in Paris, Knight of the Royal Orders of the Sword of Sweden and of Saint Olaf of Norway, officer of the imperial order of the Legion of Honor, as well of Public Instruction in France, Knight of the imperial order of the Iron Crown of Austria, etc., etc.

12. Switzerland:

Guillaume Henri Dufour, ex-general in chief of the federal army, Grand Cross of the Legion of Honor.

Gustave Moynier, President of the International Committee for the relief of the wounded, officer of the order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus, Knight of first class of the Order of the Lion of Zæhringen, Knight of the Orders of the Polar Star and of Our Lady of the Conception of Villa-Viscosa, etc., etc.

Samuel Lehmann, Federal Colonel, physician in chief of the federal army, member of the National Council.

13. Turkey:

Husny Effendi, Major, military attaché of Turkey to Paris, decorated with the imperial order of Medjidié of the fifth class.

14. Würtemberg:

Christophe Hahn, Doctor of philosophy and theology, member of the central direction for charitable institutions, President of the committee from Würtemberg for the wounded, Knight of the Order of Frédéric and of Saints Maurice and Lazarus; Edouard Fichte, M. D. physician in chief of the army of Würtemberg and the Order of the Crown of Prussia, of third class;

Who, having been duly authorized to that effect, agreed, under reserve of approbation from their governments, to the following dispositions:

ARTICLE I. The persons designated in Article II of the Convention shall, after the occupation by the enemy, continue to fulfill their duties, according to their wants, to the sick and wounded in the ambulance or the hospital which they serve. When they request to withdraw, the commander of the occupying troops shall fix the time of departure, which he shall only be allowed to delay for a short time in case of military necessity.

ART. II. Arrangements will have to be made by the belligerent powers to ensure to the neutralized person, fallen into the hands of the army of the enemy, the entire enjoyment of his salary.

ART. III. Under the conditions provided for in Articles I and IV of the Convention, the name “ambulance” applies to field hospitals and other temporary establishments, which follow the troops on the field of battle to receive the sick and wounded.

ART. IV. In conformity with the spirit of Article V of the Convention, and to the reservations contained in the protocol of 1864, it is explained that for the appointment of the charges relative to the quartering of troops, and of the contributions of war, account only

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