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haps, there are not 15 guns in Mexico and on this side. Our .advance is in the castle of Perote; thence to the capital hardly a show of resistance is to be expected. Yet, we cannot, at once, advance in force. We are obliged to look to the rear. The yellow fever at Vera Cruz, and on the road, fifty miles this way, may soon cut us off from our depot. Deep sand, disease, and bands of exasperated rancheros, constitute difficulties. With an inadequate train we are endeavoring to get here, essentials, before heat and disease. cut us off from Vera Cruz. Our cavalry is already meagre, and from escorting, becoming daily more so. Worth, however, will march from Perote upon Puebla in a day or two, to be replaced by Patterson or Twiggs; we shall follow, and be with the advance, as soon as the essentials are secured. Ammunition, medicines, clothing (all behind,) salt, &c., &c. A small seige train and half ammunition, are up. We must subsist on the country, paying for what is brought in, &c. I am much embarrassed with the old volunteers, in reference to their return through the yellow fever, if late in May, or June; and I am wholly ignorant of the approach of the new regiments lately authorized. The discharge of the former, depends on the approach of the latter, and the movements of each may be arrested by the vomito. Yet depots, along a line of 275 miles, will be needed, and a competent fighting force at the head of operations. When I may advance beyond Puebla, is, therefore, yet doubtful. I shall feel my way according to information. The resources of the country are not abundant, or not near the road, except to a limited extent. If I were sure that you were at San Luis de Potosi, and in a condition to advance, I should see my way rather better. I do not mean in respect to fighting dangers; for I doubt whether we (or either of us,) will have another seige or battle; but in respect to overtures for a peace, or an armistice. As yet, no such overture has been heard of. An armistice, if strictly observed by the enemy, would give security to our lines of communication with main depots, but still liable to be cut off from the principal and nearer one (Vera Cruz,) by yellow fever there, and for fifty miles this side. Within that distance, I doubt whether I can hazard a depot or garrison. I suppose that your occupation of San Luis de Potosi, and advance upon the capital, might increase the chances of a peace or an armistice; but many intelligent persons believe that to occupy the capital and fifty other important points would not end the war, and that the enemy, without an army, would still hold out and operate against our trains, small parties and stragglers, with rancheros on the guerrilla plan. Let me hear from you by the return of the bearer, and by others, as you may. I am only allowed this small piece of paper, to be concealed.
Most truly yours,
To Major General TAYLOR.
HEAD-QUARTERS OF THE ARMY,
SIR: I have the instructions of the general-in-chief to say, that you will please embark such detachments of the new regiments as may have been ordered by the War Department to Point Isabel, as rapidly as they arrive, with instructions for them to proceed to Vera Cruz, and thence join the general head-quarters of the army in Mexico, where they are much needed.
It is important, to prevent delay, to forward from the Brassos all available means of land transportation for the march from Vera Cruz; and you will please make a call on the quartermaster at the Brassos accordingly.
This order for the troops you will consider conditional on the safety of the line of the Rio Grande, concerning which little doubt is entertained by the general-in-chief since the victory of Buena Vista. He relies, however, upon your own sound judgment to determine, on the spot, whether that line would be too much exposed by the withdrawal of the troops in question. You will please therefore consider yourself authorized to order the whole or such part as may appear to you most suitable.
If those troops be divided, you will command the larger body, whether it should come to Vera Cruz or remain upon the line of the Rio Grande.
Whatever may be your determination in respect to other troops, you will please at once order Ruff's company of the mounted rifles, with horses, to join its regiment via Vera Cruz.
Should the line of the Rio Grande appear entirely secure, you will please stop any further landing of troops at the Brassos, or, if possible, anticipate their sailing thither from New Orleans, to direct them as they successively arrive, at either place, to proceed to Vera Cruz, and thence join the head-quarters of the army.
No doubt is entertained that the health of such troops may be preserved by the troops being kept on ship-board, in the harbor of Vera Cruz, until the requisite means of transportation are in readiness for them to commence their march towards Jalapa and beyond.
We have information here, which is credited, that Major General Taylor has taken possession of San Luis Potosi without opposition.
We have also Mexican papers of the 21st instant, from the capital, which breathe any thing but peace, while they deplore the total defeat, capture, and rout of the Mexican army, under Santa Anna, at Cerro Gordo, on the 18th instant.
Santa Anna, after the battle, fled to Orizaba, and is now engaged in organizing guerilla parties, which policy the Mexicans have determined in future to adopt. The government, in anticipation of our advance upon the capital, is already concerting measures for making the government moveable; and, with additional troops to re lieve the old volunteers whose term of service is about to expire, we cannot fail to afford the Mexican people such convincing proofs
of the imbecility of their government, that every thinking man must become satisfied that peace must be had. I have the honor to be, &c.
Brigadier General CADWALADER,
U. S. Army, Brassos Santiago.
H. L. SCOTT,
Extracts from El Monitor, published in the city of Mexico:
A. A. A. G.
The citizen Mariana Salas, general of brigade and colonel of the regiment Hidalgo, to my fellow citizens:
My friends: The present moment is the most proper to excite the public spirit and form a nation of men truly free. When an enemy triumphs by his union to rob us of our dearest interests, there is nothing more sure and more certain than to vanquish him by valor and constancy.
For this end I have obtained permission to raise a guerilla corps, with which to attack and destroy the invaders, in every manner imaginable. The conduct of the enemy, contrary both to humanity and natural rights, authorizes us to pursue him without pity, (misericordia.) War without pity, unto death! will be the motto of the guerilla warfare of vengeance. Therefore I invite all my fellow citizens, especially my brave subordinates, to unite at general head-quarters to enrol themselves, from nine until three in the afternoon, so that it may be organized in the present week.
JOSE MARIANA SALAS.
MEXICO, April 21, 1847.
Congress and Government..
MEXICO, April 21, 1847.
Yesterday, at a public session, the ministry gave an account of the unfortunate events at Cerro Gordo; it showed that the government, not losing courage at the reverse, were already taking the most efficacious measures to oppose new forces to the invaders; it protested that his excellency the president was determined to die. sooner than treat with the infamous government of the United States, and, in order to act with the energy which circumstances. required, it hoped that extraordinary powers would be granted to it, demanding to be restricted in such manner as to prevent it from making peace. Congress, at 10 in the evening, approved the following law.
"The sovereign constitutional Congress of Mexico, in use of the
full powers with which it has been invested by the people of the republic for the sacred object of preserving its nationality, and faithful interpreters of the firm determination of their constituents to carry on the war which the government of the United States is waging against the nation, without losing courage at any kind of reverses; and considering that, in these circumstances, the first public necessity is to preserve a centre of union, to direct the national defence, with all the energy which the state of things demand, and to avoid even the danger of a revolutionary power arising to dissolve the national union and destroy its institutions, or to consent to dismember its territory, has decreed the following:
Article 1. The supreme government of the union has power to take the necessary measures to carry on the war, defend the nationality of the republic, and to save the republican form of government, popular and federal, under which the nation is constituted.
2. The foregoing article does not authorize the executive to make a peace with the United States, conclude negotiations with foreign powers, nor alienate the whole or a part of the territory of the republic.
3. Neither does it give the executive powers to ratify treaties of colonization, impose punishments, nor confer other civil or military offices than those whose appointment is expressly allowed by the constitution.
4. Will be null and illegal, all treaties or arrangements that may be entered into between the United States and any authority who, subverting the actual order of things, should substitute itself for the supreme powers of the union legally established.
5. Every individual is declared a traitor, who, either as a private individual, or as a public officer, either privately, or invested with any incompetent authority, or of revolutionary origin, shall treat with the government of the United States.
6. In case the present Congress should find it impossible to continue its sessions, a permanent commission will immediately be appointed, composed of the oldest individual of each deputation that may be present.
7. This commission, for want of the Congress, will perform the duties of the council of government; will name, in case of vacancy, the person to perform the duties, for the time being, of the executive power of the republic; will take an account of the votes in the coming election for president; place the person named in power, and convene the national representation.
8. The powers which it confers upon the government, in the present decree, will cease as soon as the war comes to an end.”
In honor of this legislative body, it must be said that eighty members were present, and that no sentiments were heard except those of patriotism. May thus the common danger unite all Mexicans, and even the name of our fatal divisions disappear.
WAR DEPARTMENT, May 20, 1847.
SIR: I have received your communication of the 28th ultimo, in relation to troops having been sent to the Brassos instead of your column.
It is proper that I should refer to the state of things as they were here understood to exist in that quarter when General Cadwalader received orders to repair to the Rio Grande, and the troops, then about to depart to the seat of war, were directed to that point. It was then known here that Santa Anna had moved, with his large army, to attack General Taylor. Indeed, rumors prevailed here that a battle had been fought at or near Saltillo, of a much less decisive character than subsequent authentic accounts showed it to have been. There was reason to fear that General Taylor had retreated to Monterey. It was known that his communication with the Rio Grande was interrupted, and the whole line on that river threatened. The security of General Taylor's army was deemed to depend upon maintaining the base of the Rio Grande, supposed to be seriously threatened, and upon opening the communication between it and our army at Saltillo or Monterey. In this state of things, the new levies, &c., were urged forward to the Brassos to meet a critical emergency, not unlikely to happen, which would require them in that quarter. The Brassos continued to be the destination of most of the troops sent to the seat of war, until it was here astertained that General Taylor had achieved a glorious victory at Buena Vista, and driven back General Santa Anna and his large army, and that the Rio Grande was secure, and the communication to the army under General Taylor was firmly re-established.
This information reached here about the time of that which apprised us of your successful debarkation and the investment of the city of Vera Cruz. Thereupon, orders were issued from the department in April for the troops at the Brassos, and those en route destined for your column, forthwith to join you, and I trust that, by this time, a considerable body of them have reached your column. A confident expectation is here entertained that the troops which will join you, before the term of those engaged for twelve months shall have expired, will be quite equal to the number of volunteers entitled to a discharge, and that, by the end of June, your column will be nearly twenty thousand men.
My communication of the 30th ultimo, and others of that date from this department, will give you full information on this subject.
I am, with great respect, your obedient servant,
Major General WINFIELD SCOTT,
W. L. MARCY,
Secretary of War.
Commanding United States Army, Mexico.