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Seventh-grade geography.The geography of the In the work of this grade make the children feel that the first half of the seventh grade is a study of “Some
history of our country is a part of the history of the world prominent nations of the world,” including, for ex
and that it had its beginnings many centuries before its
discovery. ... ample, Holland, France, Italy, Austria, Hungary, Switzerland, China, Japan, Argentina, Brazil. In the
Accordingly, the elements of European history, second half of the year, “The world in general,"
The world in general,” which are studied throughout this grade, are organized “ The conditions of commerce,” and “Four great na
under the general title, “European beginnings in tions of the world—British Empire, German Empire, American history,” and are treated as such. Russian Empire, the United States ”—are the sub Eighth-grade history.—Geography has no place in jects of study. A general geography and a com this grade as a separate subject, though it is always mercial geography are used as texts to supply the
an important factor in the study of history. The hismaterial for study. The method of study is the same tory of this year is American history, taken up as in the sixth year. Some typical problems are:
systematically in connection with a text. A somewhat In spite of its size, Holland is one of the great mercantile
full suggestive outline is given in the course of study, nations of the world. Show why the Dutch were compelled but need not be repeated here. The spirit controlling to seek their fortunes in trade and why they were so suc the history instruction in this grade is the same as cessful.
that which controls in the preceding grade. The Argentine Republic has a better opportunity for The characteristic feature of this year is the infuture development than any other country of South Amer
troduction of community civics
as a separate subica. Why?
ject throughout the year, and its close co-ordination The study of “ The world in general” is organized with the history. This means primarily that the hisaround such topics as
tory of the Nation is treated as the story of the The sea, the great commercial highway.
growth of a national “community," involving all the Causes that give rise to commerce.
elements of welfare ” with which the pupils are Natural conditions that affect commerce.
made familiar in their civics work, the same developHuman control of commerce. Means of transportation.
ment of means of co-operation, especially through
government, and so on. More particularly, it means The study of the British Empire is organized that special aspects of civic life and organization are around the following main topics:
emphasized in connection with those periods of Size and population.
American history in which they are most significant. Wide distribution of territory.
The pupils find, for example, that the motives that Principal parts of the Empire.
led to exploration and colonization (whether on the How the parts are helpful to one another. Means of knitting the parts together.
Atlantic coast or in the far West) were the same as Relation of the Empire to the rest of the world, especially those which have led to the development of their own to the United States.
local community and State, and that the process of Among the central topics for the study of the development is the same in the one case as in the United States are:
other. Advantage is taken of the period of developWhat has caused it to become almost self-sustaining ?
ment of transportation and communication to emWhat has caused it to become one of the great commer
phasize the importance of these factors from the point cial powers of the world?
of view of the study of the same topics in civics. Its present commercial status.
Before leaving the subject of geography and hisConservation the great problem of the future if the pres tory in the seventh and eighth years, attention should ent position at home and abroad is to be maintained. be called to the emphasis that is given in the Indiana
Seventh-grade history.—Again the strong historical polis course of study to economic facts and relations, element in the geography of this year is to be noted.
not only in the subjects of geography and history, History, however, is also given a separate place but also in civics. This has an important relation throughout the year. In the history study geography
to the development of the same field of social study in becomes an essential factor.
the later cycle of the years X-XII (see pp. 16, 23). Owing to the use of different texts no attempt is made to outline the work in history of the 7B grade in detail. The
(C) CIVICS FOR YEARS VII-IX. point of view used in teaching this work should, however, be the same throughout.
1. Special report on community civics.—A special. In his “ Moral principles in education,” Dewey says: “His
committee of the Committee on Social Studies has pretory is vital or dead to the child according as it is, or is
pared a detailed report on the aims, methods, and not, presented from the sociological standpoint. When content of community civics adapted particularly to treated simply as a record of what has passed and gone, it the eighth and ninth grades. This special report has must be mechanical, because the past, as past, is remote. been approved by the Committee on Social Studies, Simply as the past there is no motive for attending to it. The ethical value of history teaching will be measured by 1 This committee consisted of J. Lynn Barnard, School the extent to which past events are made the means of of Pedagogy, Philadelphia; F. W. Carrier, Somerville understanding the present." No history, therefore, should (Mass.) High School; Arthur W. Dunn, specialist in civic be treated as though it had meaning or value in itself, but education, United States Bureau of Education; and Clarence should constantly be made to show its relation or contribu D. Kingsley, high-school inspector, Massachusetts Board of tion to the present. ...
adopted as a part of its present general report, and In addition, the course may well include the following issued as a manual on “ The Teaching of Community topics dealing with the mechanism of community agencies: Civics ” in Bulletin, 1915, No. 23, United States
(12) How governmental agencies are conducted; (13) How Bureau of Education. Its availability in that bulletin
governmental agencies are financed; (14) How voluntary
agencies are conducted and financed. makes unnecessary, in the present report, a detailed description of the course and its methods. Some of (d) Methods of community civics.—I. Social facts the essential features, however, are here summarized.
upon which the method should be based : (a) Significance of the term " community.”_Com
(1) The pupil is a young citizen with real present intermunity civics lays emphasis upon the local community
ests at stake. ... It is the first task of the teacher, there
fore, not to create an interest for future use, but to demonbecause (1) it is the community with which every
strate existing interests and present citizenship. citizen, especially the child, comes into most intimate
(2) The pupil as a young citizen is a real factor in comrelations, and which is always in the foreground of
munity affairs. . . . Therefore it is a task of the teacher experience; (2) it is easier for the child, as for any to cultivate in the pupil a sense of his responsibility, prescitizen, to realize his membership in the local com ent as well as future. munity, to feel a sense of personal responsibility for
(3) If a citizen has an interest in civic matters and a it, and to enter into actual co-operation with it, than sense of his personal responsibility, he will want to act. is the case with the national community.
Therefore the teacher must help the pupil to express his But our Nation and our State are communities, as
conviction in word and deed. He must be given an opporwell as our city or village, and a child is a citizen of tunity ... to live his civics, both in the school and in the the larger as of the smaller community. The signi
community outside. ficance of the term “community civics ” does not lie
(4) Right action depends not only upon information, inin its geographical implications, but in its implica
terest, and will, but also upon good judgment. Hence the
young citizen must be trained to weigh facts and to judge tion of community relations, of a community of inter
relative values, both in regard to what constitute the essenests. . . . It is a question of point of view, and com
tial elements in a situation and in regard to the best means munity civics applies this point of view to the study
of meeting it. of the national community as well as to the study of
(5) Every citizen possesses a large amount of unorganthe local community.
ized information regarding community affairs. . . . It is, (6) Aims of community civics. The aim of com therefore, important to teach the pupils how to test and munity civics is to help the child to know his com organize their knowledge. munity--not merely a lot of facts about it, but the (6) People are ... most ready to act upon those conmeaning of his community life, what it does for him, victions that they have helped to form by their own menand how it does it, what the community has a right tal processes and that are based upon their own experience to expect from him, and how he may fulfill his obliga
and observation. Hence the teacher should ... lead the tion, meanwhile cultivating in him the essential quali
class: (1) To contribute facts from their own experience; ties and habits of good citizenship.
(2) To contribute other facts gathered by themselves; (3)
To use their own reasoning powers in forming conclusions; More specifically this aim is analyzed as follows:
and (4) To submit these conclusions to criticism. To accomplish its part in training for citizenship, com
(7) The class has the essential characteristics of a community civics should aim primarily to lead the pupil (1) to
munity. Therefore the method by which the class exercises see the importance and significance of the elements of com
are conducted is of the utmost importance in the cultivation munity welfare in their relations to himself and to the
of civic qualities and habits. ... communities of which he is a member; (2) to know the social agencies, governmental and voluntary, that exist to secure these elements of community welfare; (3) to recog
II. Three steps in teaching an element of welfare: nize his civic obligations, present and future, and to re (1) Appoach to the topic.-In beginning the study of an spond to them by appropriate action.
element of welfare the teacher should lead the pupils to A unique feature of the method of community civics
realize its importance to themselves, to their neighborhood,
and to the community, and to see the dependence of the described in this report lies in the fact that there is
individual upon social agencies. Much depends upon the the closest relation between these three essential aims
method of approach. The planning of an approach approand the three steps by means of which each of the priate to a given topic and applicable to a given class calls main topics is to be taught (see d, below).
for ingenuity and resourcefulness. In this bulletin ap(c) Content of community civics.-A characteristic proaches to various topics are suggested by way of illusfeature of community civics is that it focusses atten
tration, but the teacher should try to find another aption upon the “elements of community welfare'
proach whenever he thinks the one suggested is not the best
one for the class. rather than upon the machinery of government. The latter is discussed only in the light of a prior study
(2) Investigation of agencies.-The knowledge of the
class should now be extended by a concrete and more or of the “elements of welfare,” and in relation to them.
less detailed investigation of agencies such as those sugThe “elements of welfare” afford the organizing gested in the bulletin. These investigations should conprinciple for this new type of civics.
sist largely of first-hand observation and study of local conIt is suggested that the following elements of welfare be ditions. The agencies suggested under each topic are so studies as topics: (1) Health; (2) Protection of life and many that no attempt should be made to have the class as property; (3) Recreation; (4) Education; (5) Civic a whole study them all intensively. Such an attempt would beauty; (6) Wealth; (7) Communication; (8) Transporta- result in superficiality, kill interest, and defeat the purpose tion; (9) Migration; (10) Charities; (11) Correction. of the course.
(3) Recognition of responsibility.-A lesson in community of conflicting group interests and for cultivating the civics is not complete unless it leaves with the pupil a sense
will to subordinate the latter to the former. of his personal responsibility and results in right action.
On the other hand, there is another tendency which, To attain these ends is perhaps the most difficult and delicate task of the teacher. It is discussed here as the third
though good in itself, sometimes has a tendency to step in teaching an element of welfare; in practice, how
undermine our sense of the importance of national ever, it is a process coincident with the first two steps and solidarity. This is the conception of "internationalresulting from them. If the work suggested in the fore ism," of " humanity as greater than its divisions," of going paragraphs on * Approach” and “ Investigation of “world community." This conception indeed needs agencies” has been well done, the pupil's sense of respon cultivation, as suggested in the following section; but sibility, his desire to act, and his knowledge of how to act
it is necessary to keep our minds upon the elemental will thereby have been developed. Indeed, the extent to
fact that before there can be effective “internationalwhich they have been developed is in a measure a test of
ism there must be efficient and self-respecting nathe effectiveness of the approach and the study of agencies.
tionalism; that the first step toward the realization 2. Ninth-year civics.—When provision is made for of a “world community ” must be the cultivation of community civics in the eighth year the way is pre sound ideals, and of efficiency in attaining these ideals, pared for work in the ninth year that would not on the part of the several nations which must conotherwise be possible. The work of the ninth year stitute the
“ world community.” should build upon, or grow out of, the eighth-year The word "patriotism ” has been much abused; course; but it should have a broader horizon, develop but it is a good word. Instead of avoiding it because new points of view and new relations, and emphasize of its abuse, and instead of consciously or aspects of social and civic life that were only lightly consciously giving young citizens the impression that touched upon or wholly omitted in the earlier course. the thing for which the word stands has somehow Incidentally, also, this ninth-year course should lay lost its significance, every effort should be made to substantial foundations for the social studies of suc imbue it with real meaning and to make it a potent ceeding years.
influence in the development of a sound national life. (a) Amplification of national concepts.—The reac
The committee submits that this should be a definite tion against the exclusive and formal study of national
aim of secondary education, and that one of the means government and the increasing attention given to the of attaining it is by applying to the study of our nastudy of local community relations have resulted in tional interests, activities, and organization the point a noticeable tendency to minimize the study of civics
of view, the spirit, and the methods of community in a national sense. It would be inexpressibly un
civics. This may be done in some measure in the fortunate if the study of local community life and eighth year and earlier, but it may be accomplished local civic relations should supplant a study of na
more fully and more effectively in the ninth year, tional community life and national civic relations. and later, on the basis of the earlier work. The two aspects of civic life should clearly supple (b) Amplification of world interests.—As inment each other. While we are impressing the pupil dividuals within a community, or local communities with the importance of his local civic relations and within a State, or the States constituting the Nation, utilizing them as a means of cultivating fundamental are dependent upon one another and are bound civic concepts and habits, we should not allow this to together into the larger community life by their comdivert attention from the increasingly intimate rela mon interests and co-operative action, so it can easily tions between local and national interests, and the in be shown that nations are becoming more and more creasing importance of a recognition by the individual closely dependent upon each other. Common world of his responsibility for the national welfare.
interests need emphasis, world sympathies need cultiIt is extremely difficult for the average citizen in vation. Pupils will be quite prepared for instruca democracy to think in terms of national interest, tion to this end on the basis of the principles deespecially when there is any apparent conflict be- veloped in community civics. Such study should be tween it and the local or group interest. An illustra concrete and based upon current events and probtion of this is seen in the local influence brought to
lems. It offers a socially important line of developbear upon the members of the National Congress ment, and every available opportunity to this end which often prevent them from voting on public ques
should be seized upon. (See also under “ History," tions in the interest of the Nation as a whole when pp. 16, 17.) it seems to be antagonistic to the interests of the local (c) Civic relations of vocational life. Still another districts. Questions of health, of education, of in opportunity presented in the ninth year is for the dustry, can no longer be considered in their local bear stressing of the civic relations of vocational life. ings alone, but must be dealt with in the light of na There is evidence that, as a rule, ninth-year pupils tional policy and to the end of national efficiency. As have begun to think more or less earnestly about what our population grows, means of communication per- they are going to do,” even though they may not fected and the interests of the individual more closely have made any connection in their minds between their interwoven with the interests of others, the oppor future vocations and the particular studies they are tunities for friction and conflict increase. So much taking. Much of the mortality that occurs during the the greater is the necessity for training the pupil to eighth and ninth years is due to the failure of pupils recognize the common general interest in the midst and parents to see the economic value of the high
An opportunity exists to make high Community civics deals with real situations and school education seem worth while” by taking the relations in the pupil's own life. This vocational or budding vocational or economic interest as one point economic phase of the subject should be no exception. of departure.
It may well be approached through an examination It is one of the essential qualities of the good of occupations or industries in which the pupils have citizen to be self-supporting, and through the ac
some direct interest—those for which the several tivities necessary to his self-support to contribute ef
members of the class have a predilection, those in ficiently to the world's progress. Not only is it im
which their parents are engaged, or those of most portant that this fact be emphasized in the civic education of the youth, but it is also appropriate that importance in the immediate community. he be given as much enlightenment as possible to
Nowhere has a course in vocational civics been assist him in choosing his vocation wisely from the
found that seems fully to satisfy the requirements standpoint of social efficiency as well as from that of postulated. Some steps have been taken in this direcpersonal success.
tion, however, and, as an illustration of what has The question of vocational guidance is very much
actually been done, reference may be made to the in the foreground at present. While there is general work of Superintendent William A. Wheatley, of the agreement that the young need " guidance” for the Middletown (Conn.) public schools. vocational aspect of life, as for its other aspects, there “Vocational enlightenment” at Middletown, Conn. is wide divergence of opinion as to the nature of this -In the Middletown High School a half-year course guidance and the means by which it may best be has been introduced in the first year under the title given. The committee on social studies belieyes that of “ A Survey of Vocations,” or Vocational Enlighteducation as a whole should take account of vocational enment.” It consists of three parts: needs and should contribute to the preparation of the 1. Consideration of the importance of vocational informayouth for an intelligent choice of vocation and for tion from the viewpoint of the individual and society, the efficiency in it. As for the ninth-year study now un characteristics of a good vocation, and how to study voca
tions. der consideration, the committee is here interested in its vocational guidance aspect only as an incident to
2. Detailed treatment of 80 or 90 professions, trades, and the broader social and civic training of the youth. If occupations, grouped under agriculture, commerce, railroadit can be made to contribute anything to his guidance ing, civil service, manufacturing, machine trades, engineertoward a wise choice of vocation and intelligent ing, building trades, learned professions, miscellaneous and
new openings. preparation for it, it is that much gain.
3. Practical discussion of choosing a life work, preparaThe chief purpose of the phase of the ninth-year
tion for that work, securing a position, and efficient service work now being emphasized should be the develop
and its reward. ment of an appreciation of the social significance of
In studying each of the vocations selected, we touch upon all work; of the social value and interdependence of its healthfulness, remuneration, value to society, and social all occupations; of the social responsibility of the standing, as well as upon the natural qualifications general worker, not only for the character of his work but education, and special preparation necessary for success. for the use of its fruits; of the opportunities and We investigate at first hand as many as possible of the vonecessity for good citizenship in vocational life; of
cations found in our city and vicinity. Each pupil is enthe duty of the community to the worker; of the neces
couraged to bring from home first-hand and, as far as pracsity for social control, governmental and otherwise, of
ticable,“ inside” facts concerning his father's occupation.
Local professional men, engineers, business men, manufacthe economic activities of the community; and of the
turers, mechanics, and agriculturists are invited to present part that government actually plays in regulating the
informally and quite personally the salient features of their economic life of the community and of the individual. various vocations. In other words, the work here proposed is an applica In the class exercise of the mechanical engineer such tion of community civics to a phase of individual and topics as these are discussed: community life that is now coming into the foreground Which of the three engineers so far studied renders soof the pupil's interest. It has for its background the ciety the greatest service? Which is most necessary to earlier work, and differs from it primarily in the
your own community? Which one's work seems most atlarger emphasis given to the economic interest and
tractive? What natural qualifications, general education, its resulting activities. The other aspects of com
and special training are necessary? What subjects should munity life dealt with in the earlier course should re
constitute a high-school course preparatory to this profes
sion? What subjects do the best technical schools demand ceive renewed attention—the family, the protection of for entrance? What advantages and disadvantages are life, health, and property, education, recreation, etc.; there in preparing for this profession in a co-operative school but even they may be approached from the point of and shop course? What kind of work during the summer view of their relations to the activities and arrange would serve best to determine aptitude for it! Difference ments involved in "getting a living."
between expert machinist and mechanical engineer? What The term vocational civics” has been suggested
is a contracting engineer? etc. for this phase of the ninth-year work. The term is Superintendent Wheatley says of this course that, hardly adequate, however, since it is as important at Besides being intrinsically interesting to the pupils, it this time to give instruction regarding the civic re gives them greater respect for all kinds of honorable work, sponsibility connected with the use of wealth as it is helps them to choose more wisely their life work, convinces regarding responsibility in its production.
them of the absolute necessity for a thorough preparation
before entering any vocation, and holds to the end of the Road building: Determine kind of road; the location; high-school course many who would otherwise drop out grades; how grades affect the haul; the drainage level and early in the race.
steep roads, side ditches; culverts, subdrainage, crown; The committee would encourage experiment along
actual construction, tools, funds, means employed.
Road maintenance: Kind of material to use; regular atthis line. It would, however, repeat its suggestion
tention necessary; the tools. that in the further development of such course par What good roads mean to a community; the economic ticular attention be given to its broader social and problem. How they enhance the value of land. Means of civic implications; that instruction in vocations from communication. Better social life. the point of view of individual success be made not The history of the development of roads, canals, and railthe end but a means to a more fundamental social ways in your State and in the Nation, in its relation to the education. The approach should be through a con growth of community spirit and co-operation, will be fruit
ful. What effect did the steam railway have upon the desideration of the services rendered by any particular
velopment of canals ? Why? Show how the Panama Canal vocation rather than from the point of view of re
I tends to unite our Nation more firmly. Study the probmuneration. It is a principle no less important that
lems of rapid transportation in cities and their relation to the vocation, if it plays its true part in the life of
various phases of city life. Also the effects of the parcel the individual, is the chief means for the develop post and of electric interurban lines on the welfare of farmof personality; consequently the pupil should be ers and city dwellers. Make a comprehensive study of the taught to seek a vocation that will call forth his best work of the Federal Government in promoting and safeefforts. There should be something of the personal guarding transportation. The ship-purchase bill and the challenge in “vocational enlightenment."
Government ownership of railways and of street railway
lines afford material for discussion and debate. 3. Adaptation of community civics to rural conditions.-Community civics has been developed prin It is probable that the rural citizen comes into dicipally to meet urban needs. There is need for an
rect contact with State and National Governments adaptation of the subject to rural conditions. The with greater relative frequency than does the urban community relations of the rural youth are different citizen, whose life is largely regulated by the municifrom those of the city youth. In a sense they are
pality. Under the topic, “ Protection of property," simpler. They also seem more vague.
for example, the following discussion was introduced
in rural classes in Delaware: simplicity apparently adds to the difficulty of developing a systematic course in community civics. Further The United States Department of Agriculture, in a remore, the teachers in rural schools are often less ex
cent report, estimates that $795,100,000 worth of damage
was done by insects to the crops of this country in a sinperienced and less readily recognize the opportunities
gle year. What insects, birds, and animals are destructive and materials for civic training.
of property in your community? What plant and animal Prof. J. F. Smith, of the Berea College (Ky.)
diseases are prevalent in your locality or State? InvestiNormal School, has successfully developed a course in gate the work of your State agricultural college to prevent community civics to meet local rural conditions. One loss from these causes. (Get reports and other publicaof his lesson plans on roads is given in Bulletin, 1915, tions directly from the college. Ask the children whether No. 23, United States Bureau of Education, page 39,
their fathers receive publications.) Is there any departand is here reproduced because of its suggestiveness.
ment of your State government or any State officer whose
work contributes to the protection of property against such In this study numerous photographs were used, walks
enemies? Investigate and report on the work of the Fedwere taken over good and bad roads, and the pupils and teachers actually did a piece of road work.
eral Department of Agriculture for the protection of prop
erty against destruction by the causes named. Why should Study and report on condition of roads in the
the Federal Government interest itself in this matter in munity. Draw a map of the community, indicating roads. Which are dirt roads, rock roads, other kinds ? Which are
your community? (Reports on this subject may be obwell graded, well crowned ? Note side ditches; are they
tained directly from the department. These reports may
also be in your local library.) Protection of birds; value adequate? Note culverts and bridges. Estimate miles of
to the farmer of insect-eating birds. road in the community, public and private. Study road-making material in the community. Note
Under "Fire protection " the following topics were places where limestone is found; sandstone, slate, gravel. developed in the same classes : Are these materials accessible ?
Show how the farmer is largely dependent upon his own Find out cost of hauling in the community. Consult efforts and the friendly co-operation of neighbors ? Contrast wagoners and learn charges per 100 pounds for freight and with the elaborate arrangement in cities. Why the differfarm produce. Can farmers afford to market produce at ence? Point out the extreme importance of fire prevention present cost of cartage? Find out how much freight is in rural communities. Value of the telephone as a means hauled into the community annually and compute amount of fire protection. If you live in a village or a small town, paid for this. How long will wagon and set of harness last describe the arrangements for fire protection; method of on the roads? How long on good roads? Difference in cost alarm; water supply; bucket brigade; volunteer companies ; for 10 years. How much could people who buy supplies etc. Compare with the conditions of the farm and of large afford to spend on road upkeep each year in order to cut cities. Have the children find out whether their fathers' down freight rates ?
property is insured. In what companies ? Where are the Compare cost of hauling here with cost in European coun main offices of these companies ? (Probably in distant tries where the best roads exist. What overtax do the peo cities or States.) Discuss the methods of insurance, to ple have to pay? Note that this overtax is in the form of show the wide-spread co-operation through the payment of higher prices for household necessities and in smaller profits premiums. Is there a grange in your community? Does it for farm produce.
provide a means of insurance? If so, describe it.