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by all.

terial for almost all subjects in the curriculum, from to show how the present situation came into being. formal morals, on one hand, to arithmetic on the To accomplish this we are told there must be freother.

quent comparisons between the past and the present; With enthusiasm he says teachers and scholars all the happenings of the past must be used to make enter into the class in morals. There is no longer plain the present. The trench warfare of Cæsar against need of books, the material of the subject lies all Vercingetorix at Alesia is compared with modern about them; it is in the trenches at the front; it is trench warfare; the barbarian invasions of the fifth found in these Breton villages in the departing regi- century with that of 1914; the campaign of Attila and ments, in the armies where they are equipped, in the the German campaign of 1914; the feudalism of old vacant fireplaces, in the works of charity performed France with the modern feudalism of Germany; Eng

A letter comes from a teacher in the army; lish enmity toward France in the Hundred Years' it is read, and forms a lesson in morals. A young War with the present Entente; early artillery with Belgian girl joins the class, the little martyr must tell that of the present; and so on. One principal writes her story of suffering. A scholar's uncle has been that the history of France shows that she has always named for a military decoration; again material for been menaced by foreign invasion, yet has always a lesson. A soldier's funeral takes place in the vil found her Du Guesclins, her Joan of Arcs, her Balage; the school children attend and sing patriotic yards-brave Frenchmen and brave Frenchwomen to songs. A wounded soldier comes to the school on save the country from danger.

“This idea," says an errand while the pupils are at recess.

At a sig

our inspector, “is excellent. It ought to be carried nal from the teacher they form in double line at the out as a crusade." entrance, salute the soldier, who seriously returns it. In his latest instructions to his subordinates the Then he gives an account of his campaign, taking the inspector urges also the study of the history of children to Belgium, retreating with the French army, France's allies and of her enemies that the students and suddenly exclaims “We have come near to Paris,

may realize how England, the former enemy has bemy children, and one great morning we said to the come a friend; and how Prussia has always been anGermans, 'Halt! You shall not advance farther!'

tagonistic. Finally for the history teacher comes the This is the glorious battle of the Marne where the

advice to encourage students to keep notebooks upon French soldiers condacted themselves as heroes. In

the war, containing on the left hand pages extracts that battle I was wounded.” He raises his cloak,

from letters, general accounts, and contemporary opens his clothing and shows the wound in his chest.

poetry, while on the right hand pages a connected “ That is why I walk as an old man, carrying a cane, narrative of the war would be constructed. Such and salute with my left hand.” No wonder that the

scrap books and notebooks would be read, reread, and next morning's lesson in morals was spirited, that all consulted not only by pupils but by all the members wished to take part in it, and that the teacher scarcely of their family. recognized his class. Formal arrangements of les In geography classes the war areas are studied in sons based on such material have been presented to

detail, particularly those within the French boundathe teachers, who have responded enthusiastically.

ries. Maps and pictures are used extensively and In visiting one school, the inspector found apples, also multigraphed maps and other material. pears, nuts, and tidbits in a corner of the hall. The pupils had saved their daily lunches, and on Sunday and composition that the instructions of the super

It is, however, in classes in the French language the teacher and a delegation of pupils visited the hos

visors respecting the teaching of the war, have been pitals and distributed to the soldiers these dainties of

carried out by the teachers most faithfully. Here, in which they had deprived themselves.

dictation and composition, current events are used Similar means have been taken to rejuvenate the

most successfully; and students are taught to recite study of civics, although this inspector cannot report the best and most stirring examples of current literaas yet satisfactory results in all cases.

ture on the war. Among the topics so treated are: In the work in history there have been two new How the Prussian Guard Was Decimated; An Heroic movements, both of which have been encouraged by Peasant; The Life of Our Soldiers in the Trenches; official action. The first of these is the formal study To the Soldiers of France; A Convoy of German of the war itself. This has been carried on in many Prisoners in Britanny; The Two Pat:iotisms; Appeal ways and with varying success according to the abil to the Children of France; A Letter to One Who Has ity of the teacher and equipment of the school. Daily Not Received It. There has been, too, a revival of newspapers and illustrated weeklies as well as official

interest in older patriotic writings, such as: The documents are used to familiarize the pupils with French Soldier (by Voltaire); The Death of Tuthe progress of events. Outline maps and charts fur

renne (by Serigne); Yes, My Colonel (by Chevert a nish a background for marking each change of battle Prague); France in Danger (by E. About); The scene. M. Duval has worked out plans for the con

Cavalry Charge at Waterloo (by V. Hugo); Patriotsecutive study of the war from its opening causes ism and Humanity” (by Bersot). Pupils are encourdown to the most recent events.

aged to write about everything which happens in the Instruction in history has been influenced also by home, the school, and the village; it may be grandthe desire to explain to the pupils the development of mother's remarks on the newspaper, or father's letter politics and industry in the nineteenth century and from the front, or a visit to a wounded soldier, or a

letter written by the pupil to a relative or friend in told us so well, have for years consciously trained the trenches. Sometimes the subject is more imagin- their young people in the duties of citizenship. They ative, as when the pupil is asked to comment upon have taught the Hohenzollern tradition on one side of the action and reply of a soldier who gave his knap the Rhine, and the necessity for regaining Alsace and sack as a protection to his superior officer with the re Lorraine on the other side of the river. In England mark, “I do not count; but you, you are of value to the citizen has been expected unconsciously to become all the rest of us.'

a Britisher. As the “New Statesman” said recently, In a similar fashion the war has entered into the “One's country ought not to be turned into a golden instruction in other subjects. Manual instruction for calf, or any other sort of a calf. Rather it is somegirls is directed toward objects useful in the war. In thing living and real, without which we seem but the physical and natural sciences new or more precise guzzlers and beggars, without home, without lineage, information has been given to classes about antisep- without sun. It is created of the air and the earth, tics, drinking water, conductibility of heat and the and all those ideals and experiences which transfigure best forms of garments for protection from cold, the the lives of men. To love it is as natural as to be absence of epidemics in 1914, the making of explo- happy. To serve it is as natural—and as difficultsives; the manufacture of cannon, the principles of as to be honest or gentle or agreeable or virtuous. trajectories, the soldier's food, and the influence of But to schoolmaster small boys and girls into this alcoholism.

love and service is almost as superfluous as to hector Even into the arithmetic class the war has entered them into loving a perfect mother, or to lecture them in some schools. How long will it take a battleship into a taste for honey or wild strawberries.” to overtake a steamboat, if each moves at a certain This has been the past attitude of the Englishman, rate? or how long can a besieged garrison subsist if but the war has witnessed a demand from school auits rations are cut down to a certain percentage of thorities, from upper class statesmen and members of the usual ration? or how long will it take a party of the House of Lords that patriotism be taught in the engineers to dig a trench which ought to be com- elementary schools. pleted in eight days when all work sixteen hours a

The Board of Education in several circulars, the day, if, after three days of work, a certain number

London County Council Education office, various fall ill, and the remainder are able to work only twelve Teachers' Associations and the Welsh Board of Educahours a day?—these and similar problems keep alive tion have all pronounced strongly in favor of the use even in pure mathematics the “ ton du jour.”

of the schools in the teaching of the war and of paDetailed study of the war is not confined to one triotism. section of France, nor to France alone. A circular of

In addition to magazine articles many books have the French ministry of Public Instruction states the been issued to assist in the formal teaching of patriotprinciple that “the rôle of education at the moment

ism and civics. An interesting one of these is by [is] to second the French armies by informing the Stephen Paget, entitled, “Essays for Boys and Girls; boys and girls of France why their country [is] fight. A First Guide Towards the Study of the War” (Macing—for what past, for what future, for what ideas."

millan Co., London, 1915). At the outset the pupil's In England we are told by Lord Selborne that “in

interest is aroused as follows “ In all your study of some form or other the war has thoroughly permeated the war, make this your first and foremost thought, the elementary education of the country and the that the war is for you.

It is you who will enjoy the causes of the war have been most thoroughly ex new order of things when the war is done. Your plained to the children all over the land.” Specific countrymen are giving their lives for their country; it instructions for the teaching of the war in higher is your country, and in it you will pass your life. Our schools, as well as in elementary schools, have been dead have died for you. . . It is you who will find issued by the educational authorities of England, this world better than they found it. You will live in France, Prussia, Saxony, Wurtemburg, Hungary, and

peace, because they died in war: you will go safe and probably by other states of Europe.

free, because they went under discipline, and into In the second place, the war has created a demand danger, up to the moment of their death. You will for instruction in national patriotism. We have had have a good time, because they suffered. To you, who newspaper accounts of the “morning hate lessons gain by their loss, and whose life is made comfortable of the Germans, and most of us have heard the story by their lives laid down, comes the question, from of the class of German children, who, in responding to countless little wooden crosses over graves in France the query what country they hated most, replied, and Belgium and Gallipoli, and from all the unmarked America! A recent despatch through London [!! graves of the sea, Is it nothing to you? Why, the gives the text of some new German“ hate-songs.' war is your war. You will enter into all that it Such cases can not be taken as typical, but it is cer achieves, and inherit all that it earns; and the miseries tain that the war has often displaced internationalism of it will be the making of your happiness. There by a deep and intense, but very narrow nationalism. are many good reasons why a man should fight for

The change in this respect is most worked in Eng- his country; but they come to this one reason, that land, where, previous to the war, there was very little he is fighting for the future of his country. You are formal instruction in patriotism. France and Ger the future. We older people so soon will be gone: many, as Mr. Jonathan French Scott has recently you will stay here, you for whom your countrymen to


day are in the toils of this war. You are the future, dren study modern languages, even English, so they we are the past. We have lived in a world which can understand the lines of “Rule Britannia,' you never saw; and you will live in a world which we

'All thine shall be the subject main, shall never see.”

And every shore it circles thine.” Upon the moral value of the war we have the fol

Another would study modern history, even that of lowing most remarkable teaching: “But, oh, ye carefully brought-up boys and girls, bless ye the Lord, England, in order to learn her means of attaining im

perialism. The movement is seen in France and praise Him, and magnify Him forever-see them now,

England, but particularly in Germany. “Verganwhat the army has done for them; how it has set them up, body and soul, brought out the best in them, genheit und Gegenwart,” the history teacher's magastamped out the bad in them. . . . That is the grace,

zine of Germany has been crowded with articles disor magic, of discipline: it is able to make out of a man,

cussing pro and con the values of recent history (see a different man, not that the navy and the army are

Vols. IV, V, VI passim). To obtain time for regular

class-work in the history of the nineteenth centurythe only kingdom of discipline. We go under discipline at school, and at home, and in the competition of

and several official instructions have enjoined such

study—other subjects must, it is said, be sacrificed. business, and in all times of illness or failure, and so forth. But in the navy and army, these three, Dis

Time should be taken from ancient history, medieval cipline, Obedience, Loyalty, are enthroned on every

history, the classical languages, and even mathemathour of the day's work, inseparable and insuperable; ics, in order to find room in the curricula for modern

. be of great in peace; greatest in war. And when we think what our sailors and soldiers are

we can believe

Prussian dynastic history, and more of German nathat where Discipline, Obedience, and Loyalty are,

tionalism, more of the history of other states, there God is. ... It is just the plain fact that the

more of international relations, more of modern imwar is making a better nation of us.

perialism, Thus in the countries at war, the struggle

has brought demands for far-reaching changes in the In the pamphlet issued by the Welsh Board of Edu

school curriculum. These demands, only in part satcation entitled “Patriotism we have the following: isfied thus far, seek a more practical education, and “The British Empire--' our country' in its widest

more instruction in science; less of classical culsense -does not consist of subjugated nations; it is the

ture and less of ancient and medieval history; in home of free peoples: therein lies its strength and the

Germany, less of dynastic reverence; and in Germany ground of our pride in it. We must see to it that we

and England, more of national patriotism; more trainkeep it free: we must strive to make it better.”

ing in industry and economics; and an appreciation “Bullying, blustering, swaggering behaviour to

of the present obtained through the study of national other nations [is] just as objectionable to them as the civics and of recent history. big bully's conduct in school is to his school com An English view is shown in the following quotapanions. The Germans' ‘Hymn of Hate' is un tion from "Science Progress," (January, 1916, worthy of any great nation.

p. 277): “A hundred years ago our fathers had to face a “ The nation is wakening to the tremendous part terrible danger—as we do now—that of seeing their that applied science is playing in the war. Does it liberties swept away by Napoleon, whose armies yet realize that in the industrial and commercial threatened Europe as Germany's do to-day. They struggle that must inevitably follow the war, science rose up and fought until they won, and, by their sac will play an equally important part? If we are aderifices, they gave their children and grandchildren quately to meet the needs of the future, we must edusafety for a hundred years. It is now our task to do cate in natural science a larger proportion of the the same—our fathers' voices are calling to us 'We youth of the nation than we have done hitherto. This did it for you—you do it for your children’; that is is essential in order to make good our deficiencies in why we are at war now. These hundred years of se the past and to replace those who fall in the war.” curity, for which our fathers paid a heavy price, have It is to be regretted that we cannot here review the given us increased wealth and comforts which we influence of the war on archaeology, on historical rehave enjoyed in the past-great books have been writ search, on historical literature and publications, and ten, schools and colleges have been founded, inven in other departments of art and culture. One more tions and discoveries have transformed our life, arts quotation will show how far even England has adhave flourished, civilization has spread, with all its vanced from pre-bellum days. Sidney Low, writing accompanying advantages. We must not, however,

We must not, however, in the "Fortnightly Review” for February, 1916, forget that honor and freedom are above all these.” says concerning the historians of the past century:

In the third place history teaching has been greatly “We have to understand, that the quiet pool into influenced by a desire to understand the causes of the which the [19th century historians] had drifted, present war. As an aid to this a greater emphasis ruffled only by the bloodless contests of the polling is demanded upon recent history, upon the study of booth and the platform was no more than a resting modern languages, and the continual use, even of an place in that epic of recurring struggles, and passioncient history and the classics, to elucidate the pres ate enmities, and clashing ambitions, which is the ent. One German writer would have German chil- story of mankind.

“I have sometimes wondered whether this tranquil shipped a 'sweet reasonableness' and looked from confidence is more than a reflection of the peaceful the windows of their admirably furnished libraries, atmosphere by which so many leading writers of that upon a world which they hoped had almost finished period were surrounded. Surely there never was a with the old barbaric violences, the inconvenient crugroup of literary workers who spent their lives in dities of the past. such enviable calm. Tennyson, Browning, Grote, Mill, Buckle, Herbert Spencer, Ruskin, Froude, Free

on the whole what a stable, guarded country man, Stubbs, Matthew Arnold, Swinburne, Walter it must have seemed, especially to people with good Bagehot—what prosperous, respectable, unworldly- regular incomes. One has only to contrast it with the fortunate persons they for the most part were! These more agitated milieu in which we pass our perturbed bankers, and bishops, and country gentlemen, these days. Arnold would have found even less freedom sons of wealthy shipowners and wine-merchants, these to grow wise' if his literary labors had been liable well-placed civil servants, in their decorous middle to be interrupted by a Zeppelin bomb dropped at his class domesticity---no wonder they found it easy to front door, or his pleasant Continental holidays ditake sane and temperate views! No wonder they wor versified by internment in a German prison-camp.”

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The Minnesota History Teachers' Syllabus


At the 1914 meeting of the Minnesota Educational content of the courses or the treatment of the subject Association the history teachers of the State decided matter as the individuality of the teacher—or superto make an effort to more thoroughly standardize the intendent-might suggest. To keep these innovations history work in the high schools of the state.


within reasonable bounds in history as in all other subthis purpose a committee was appointed which was to jects, a committee of high school superintendents drew outline courses and prepare a syllabus. This com up the “Suggested Outlines for Study Courses in mittee, which was made up of Profs. A. C. Krey, A. Minnesota High Schools " which was published by B. White and W. S. Davis, of the University of Min the State Department of Education in 1913. nesota, Assistant Superintendent W. H. Schilling, of

History in the Minnesota schools has held its own Duluth, and Dr. O. M. Dickerson, of the Winona Nor- pretty well. For the twelve years from 1903 to 1915 mal School, presented its outline of courses at the 1916 we even find a slight increase in the percentage of meeting at which it was unanimously approved by the students enrolled. On an average, for the twelve teachers present. It is expected that the syllabus

years, in every one of our high schools, 24 per cent. itself will be published early in the fall. In view of of the students were taking ancient history, 11 per the agitation which is going on all over the country cent. were taking modern, 6 per cent. English history for a revision of the high school history courses, teach

and 8 per cent. United States. If to these we add the ers in general will be interested in the program of courses in civics and economics we would find that this Committee.

more than 60 per cent. of the students are taking The Minnesota schools generally have followed the work in the social sciences. Looking at it from program of the Committee of Seven. It is true that another standpoint, however, we note that the averonly the larger schools of the State have found them age pupil is taking history in the high school only selves in position to offer four years of history and about half the term. He has not for twelve years many of the smaller schools can offer modern and taken more than two years work in history. With United States history only in alternate years, but in conditions as they are it is unlikely that he will ever the main the Committee of Seven report was followed, find time to take more. not only in the arrangement of courses, but in aims and There are of course many factors which tend methods as well. It is true that the development of vo toward a change in the history curriculum. The decational courses has, in our larger high schools, caused velopment of historical knowledge in the last decade a revival of the one year course in general history as and a half, the still greater development of the methan introduction to courses in commercial and indus

ods of teaching history, the change in our opinions as trial history, but the number of schools offering to what constitutes history, all made a re-outlining of these courses and the number of students taking them the standard courses desirable. And while there have is not large enough to give their statistics a place in been these great changes in the study, we have still the State High School Inspector's report. Three years greater, and more far-reaching changes in the high of history--if we include civics under that term school itself. The increase in membership, the change ancient to 800, medieval and modern (including Eng- in organization, the changes in aims and objects of its lish), and United States history and civics has been the courses, are all changes which the history program program offered by practically all Minnesota high must take into account. schools. Modifications of this plan have been con To get some idea of the attitude of the Minnesota fined almost wholly to such slight variations in the schools on the present program, a questionnaire was


prepared and sent out to the high school superintend- list of duplicate references on economic and social hisents of the State. There has been so much criticism tory to be included. of established courses, especially from the adminis

5. Supplementary Reading. The supplementary trative side of the schools, so many proposals for reading references to be so arranged that they shall radical changes, that the results were rather a surprise afford not only additional information, but also systo me. They go to show, I think, that in our State

tematic training in gaining accurate information. the average superintendent is essentially a conser

This shall be done by a progressive series of probvative. He is fairly well satisfied with present con

lems. ditions and is inclined to make haste slowly with proposals for radical change. There are many things he

When the essentially conservative character of the would like to see improved, of course, but he is not a

Minnesota Superintendents is considered, and with it revolutionist.

the fact that this syllabus is to be used mainly by the To begin with, he sees no reason for offering four great mass of the schools, whose needs are essentially “blocks” of history when the average student takes

the same, it is not surprising that the committee was only two and very few take more than three years

not inclined to consider any revolutionary changes in work. Out of 91 schools replying to the question program. They felt it would be wiser to leave out asking how many courses should be offered, only 19 of consideration, on the one hand the relatively small wanted a four year course, while 58 preferred a three

number of schools that were mainly concerned with year course. When asked if there should be an in the preparation for Eastern Colleges and on the other, crease of the time allotted to civics—a very pertinent the group that desired history courses designed to fit question in view of the present day agitation for com

distinctively vocational needs. Because civics in our munity civics, etc.-only 27 replied favorably while State has come to be a distinct and separate course 53 answered in the negative. They were nearly unan

not only in aims and methods, but more especially in imous on the proposition that history should be so

its teaching personnel-civics also is to be omitted taught as to give greater 'emphasis to social and from the syllabus. On the other hand, the Commiteconomic aspects of development (78 for, 6 against), tee was willing to recognize the demand for a greater but only 12 were in favor of a separate course in eco

emphasis on social and economic phases of history. nomics as compared to 57 against.

Even on the ques-
They are preparing to outline

very great tion of extending the time allotted to modern history changes in the matter of handling supplementary there was great difference of opinion, 40 voting in reading. They are urging increased time for Amerifavor of it and 44 against. On the correlative proposi can history, which the teachers of the State demand. tion of decreasing the time allotted to ancient his The big question the Committee had to answer was tory they seemed to be almost as evenly divided, 85 the one relating to the division point-for the work being in favor of the decrease and 24 against. Finally of the first two years. Any date is of course a more they were asked to rank the various courses in the or less arbitrary one, chosen for convenience sake. order of their importance for the majority of students Many dates have been chosen at one time or another and it was found that American history was consid to mark the dividing line between ancient and modered most important, modern second, ancient third, ern history and not every history teacher is satisfied English history fourth, with commercial and indus that the choice of the Committee of Seven was a partrial history at the bottom of the list.

ticularly happy one. But while the Minnesota ComWith this situation as a basis the Committee pro

mittee were willing to emphasize modern history posed the following changes in the history courses: even at the expense of ancient, they were not pre

pared to go as far as the N. E. A. Committee which 1. Introductory Course: Ancient History to 1500

selected 1600 or 1700 as the date—not to speak of A. D. First semester: Ancient History to the time of

text book writers who want to carry the first year's Constantine. Second semester: From time of Constantine to c.1500 A. D. (Important phases of Eng

work down to 1750. They felt that this would place

too great a burden on the first year teacher. It was lish history to be included.)

bad enough to add the period from 800 to 1500 in 2. Modern History--including English-1500 to European history to her field without also insisting the present. First semester: 1500 to 1815 A. D.

on her teaching American colonial history. Second semester: 1815 to the present. (In both

The date 1500 appealed to them in many respects semesters increased attention to industrial, commercial and colonial development.)

as a desirable compromise. It would allow a greatly

increased emphasis on the modern period without such 3. American History. (A year course urged as

an enormous increase in the work of the ancient-hisnecessary.) If only one semester can be devoted to tory teacher. The date 1500 would be of advantage the subject, the course shall begin with the Revolu because it does actually mark changes which even the tion.

most immature high school student may grasp, be4. Industrial and Social Development. A. The tween ancient and modern times. The great charcontent of the whole history program to be so revised acteristics of modern civilization, freedom of thought, that there shall be throughout a proper proportion of freedom of religion, constitutional government, the deeconomic and social to political and constitutional his velopment of the new world, are just developing. tory. B. Also in the selection of reading, a specific The strong national states of the present day have

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