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Under loss from storm, flood, frost, etc.:

ceded by a course in civics of the type described Is it possible to get insurance against loss from such above. Children live in the present and not in the causes? Do any of your parents have insurance of this past. The past becomes educational to them only as kind? What relation do the weather reports issued by the it is related to the present. Hero stories and pioneer National Government have to the protection of property? stories from history are of use in the early grades Does your father receive weather reports by mail ? If not,

because children react naturally to them. Individuals where may you find these reports? Investigate and report on the work of the Weather Bureau. (Information may be

are interested in the history of government, of educaobtained directly from the Weather Bureau, Department of

tion, of commerce, of industry, or of democracy, in Agriculture, Washington.)

proportion as they have a present interest in these Urban conditions should not be entirely neglected

things. Community civics endeavors to establish a

consciousness of present community relations before even in rural schools, because rural life and urban life are closely dependent upon each other. The ma

discussing the more remote development of these rela

tions. terial selected for study, however, should be related

On the other hand, the history of a thing may add to the child's experience as far as possible. For example, in rural schools in the neighborhood of Wil

to its present interest. Railroads assume mington, Del., the following statement from the re

significance when compared with the means of trans

portation in colonial times, or with the road system port of the Wilmington Board of Health was made a

of the Roman Empire. Community civics affords opbasis for discussion: During the year 1914 there were 142 cases of typhoid portunity for the actual use of much historical mat

ter, for the development of the “historical sense,” fever, with 122 deaths. Our report for this year shows an

and for the creation of a desire to know more history. increase of 76 cases over the previous year. This increase was due to the prevalence of typhoid in New Castle County,

The best time to introduce history in the education and we feel that Wilmington was particularly fortunate in

of the child is when it is of immediate use. The not having an epidemic, as practically all milk and vegeta traditional history course has given to the child a ble products supplied to Wilmington come from this agri mass of facts, chronologically arranged, because, in cultural district.

the judgment of the adult, these facts may some time Again, from the report of the Wilmington City be useful, or for the purposes of that vague thing, Board of Health was taken the classification of “general culture.” Community civics affords oppormunicipal waste into garbage, ashes, rubbish, and tunity to use history to illuminate topics of immediate trade waste, with the requirement that these be kept interest. separate:

Local history finds its best opportunity in connecCompare these provisions for the city of Wilmington with tion with community civics. There is hardly a topic the needs and conditions of a small community like your in community civics that may not be made clearer own. Refer to what is said about other cities and compare by looking back to the simpler stages of its developwith conditions and arrangements in your own town. How

ment. For developing an appreciation of what hisis the garbage from your home disposed of? Is it done by

tory means and for giving historical perspective to public provision or left to the individual householder ? Whether it is done publicly or privately, note the necessity

the present, local history is as useful as any other for co-operation on the part of the people. Is the garbage

history. The most effective courses in community removed in a way to protect health and to avoid annoyance

civics make large use of local history. In 1910 the to your own families and neighbors ? Is it important that work of keeping Philadelphia clean wasgarbage and other kinds of waste be kept separate in a largely in the hands of a bureau of surveys, which has consmall community ? Are there laws or ordinances in your structed over 1,200 miles of sewers at a cost of nearly town to regulate the matter of garbage? What means can $35,000,000, and of a bureau of highways and street cleanyou think of to improve your own home methods of caring ing, which, in 1909, employed a contractor to clean the for garbage ?

streets of the city and to remove all ashes for $1,199,000; 4. Relation of civics to history.The co-ordination

and to remove all garbage for $488,988. of geography, history, and civics instruction in the

Nothing could make so clear the statement that this years VII-IX and earlier has been referred to in pre- complex and costly machinery of government is ceding pages (pp. 6-8). The application to in- merely a means of citizen co-operation as the incistruction in history of the principles which have al dent given in the autobiography of Benjamin Frankready vitalized instruction in civics is discussed in de- lin, early citizen of Philadelphia: tail in later pages (pp. 16, 17). The principles there

One day I found a poor industrious man, who was willdiscussed, the committee believes, are equally pertinenting to undertake keeping the pavement clean, by sweeping to history instruction in both junior and senior cycles. it twice a week, carrying off the dirt from before all the The purpose of the present section is to emphasize the neighbors' doors, for the sum of sixpence per month, to be peculiar value of the civics proposed for the junior paid by each house. I then wrote and printed a paper setcycle from the standpoint of historical study.

ting forth the advantages to the neighborhood that might History as it is usually taught in the first year of

be obtained by this small expense; ... I sent one of these the high school is no better adapted to the educa

papers to each house, and in a day or two went around to

see who would subscribe an agreement to pay these sixtional requirements of that age than the old-time civil

pences; it was unanimously signed, and for a time well exgovernment. The committee further maintains that,

ecuted. This raised a general desire to have all the streets even from the standpoint of the subsequent high- paved, and made the people more willing to submit to a tax school in history, the latter should be pre

for that purpose.


General history also finds its use. The topics set PART III.-SOCIAL STUDIES FOR YEARS X-XII. forth below are given as a mere suggestion.


1. General outline.—The committee recommends as Conceptions of disease as found among uncivilized peo

appropriate to the last three years of the secondary ples, the ancients, and in mediæval times.

Alchemy and the development of a knowledge of medi- school the following courses: cine.

1. European history to upproximately the end of the sevenDevelopment of sanitation; sanitary conditions in medi teenth century-1 year. This would include ancient and æval cities.

oriental civilization, English history to the end of the Greek ideal of physical development, gymnasiums and period mentioned, and the period of American exploration. other means of perfecting the body.

II. European history (including English history) since Important discoveries: Circulation of the blood, surgery approximately the end of the seventeenth century-1 (or 1/2) and anæsthetics, bacteria and germs, disinfectants.


III. American history since the seventeenth century-1 (or Under the topic Education:

12) year. Of what the education of the youth consisted among sav IV. Problems of American democracy-1 (or 12) year. age, barbarous, and ancient peoples.

Among such peoples, were all the youth educated or only These courses clearly repeat the cycle of social certain classes ?

study provided for in years VII-IX. The principle Show how, among the savage Australians, the barbarous of organization suggested in the pages following for American Indians, the ancient Spartans, education was all of these courses makes them extremely flexible adapted to existing needs of life.

and easily adaptable to the special needs of different What kinds of schools existed among such peoples, and

groups of pupils, or of different high-school curricuwho were the teachers ?

lums (commercial, scientific, technical, agricultural, The part taken by the church in education in the Middle

etc.) Ages.

Founding of the great universities in Europe and Amer 2. Time allotment and minimum essentials.-The ica.

course of social studies here outlined would constitute, Growth of public education in Europe and the United if all were taken, from 212 to 4 units, dependent upon States.

whether one or one-half year is allotted to each of How the decay of the apprentice system has led to a need the last three courses. The committee believes that for industrial education in the public schools.

there should be a social study in each year of the Under the topic Recreation:

pupil's course. It is, however, conscious of the difPrimitive customs dancing and music.

ficulty presented by the present requirements of the Public games in Greece and Rome.

high-school program. The question then arises as to Drama and the theater among the ancients.

what would constitute a minimum course of social Means of amusement in the Middle Ages.

study under these existing conditions. To this quesBards and troubadours.

tion the committee would reply: Attitude of the Puritans toward recreation. Comparison of forms of recreation in different countries.

(a) The minimum essentials of the year X-XII Description and purposes of pageants.

should be determined by the needs of the particular

pupil or group of pupils in question. Under the topics Transportation and Trade:

(6) Other things being equal, it would seem deEarly methods of trading and transportation; barter, market places, caravans, sailing vessel, etc.

sirable for the pupil, whose time in the last three The period of exploration and discovery.

years is limited, to take those social studies which Early trade routes and road building.

would most directly aid him to understand the relaPeriods of canal and railroad building.

tions of his own social life. If, for example, he had Application of steam to land and water travel.

but one year out of the three for social study, and Discoveries and inventions relating to transportation and there were no special reason for deciding otherwise, communication.

it is probable that he might better take a half year of Under the topic Charities:

American history and a half year of European history Provision made for widows, orphans, and the poor among

(courses II and III); or, a half year of American histhe ancient Jews and Mohammedans.

tory and a half year of the twelfth-year study of Bread lines in Rome and their effects.

social problems (courses III and IV). The choice Treatment of beggars and diseased paupers in Eastern among these might be influenced by the trend taken countries and in mediæval Europe and England.

by his social study in the ninth year (see the alterAttitude of the church toward the poor.

native possibilities of the ninth-year work). Description of poorhouses by Dickens.

(c) If the principles advocated in the following Condition of poorhouses in America 50 years ago.

pages of this report for the organization of instruc5. Summary.-Community civics is a course of tion in the social studies be adhered to, the apparent training in citizenship, organized with reference to incompleteness of the cycle of social study, due to the the pupil's immediate needs, rich in its historical, impracticability of taking all the courses offered, will sociological, economic, and political relations, and af be in some degree obviated. Briefly stated, this means fording a logical and pedagogically sound avenue of that any course of history instruction should be so approach to the later social studies.

organized that the pupil will inevitably acquire some



familiarity with the economic, social, and civic factors (1) The adoption to the fullest extent possible of in community life, just as in the study of civics or topical” method, or a “problem” method, as opof social problems he should inevitably learn much posed to a method based on chronological sequence history by using it.


(2) The selection of topics or problems for study (B) HISTORY.

with reference to (a) the pupil's own immediate inI. GENERAL STATEMENT OF PRINCIPLES OF ORGAN

terest; (b) general social significance. IZATION.

Concrete suggestion as to what the committee means 1. Reasons for the proposed organization of history by these criteria is given in the following pages, courses.—The committee recommends the organiza- especially in the three type lessons on pages 20-22. tion of the history course in two or three units as indicated in the general outline on page 35 in view

The organization of history instruction on this

basis unquestionably requires greater skill on the part of the following considerations:

of the teacher than the traditional method, less de(1) In small high schools more than two units of

pendence upon a single textbook of the types now history are impracticable; and in large high schools, where more could be offered, few pupils would (or cyclopedic books, for reference purposes. If the se

, do) take more than two units, and these often un

lection of materials is to be determined by immediate related.

interests and current problems, it is manifestly im(2) The long historical period included in course

possible to furnish in advance a detailed and comI offers a wide range of materials from which to se

plete outline of topics for universal and invariable lect, and makes possible the development of topics To attempt to do so would be contrary to the continuously and unhampered by chronological and

very spirit of the method. Whether Miss Harris, geographical limitations.

for example, should dwell at length upon the War of (3) The assignment of an equal amount of time 1812 and the subjects of the rights of neutrals (see (or twice the time if a year is given to each of courses p. 20), could not be determined for her in advance II and III) to the period since the seventeenth cen by a committee, nor even by an international lawyer tury as to the period prior to that time, expresses the to whom the question might seem of profound imcommittee's conviction that recent history is richer in portance. The matter was determined for her by the suitable materials for secondary education than the exigencies of the hour and the interests of her pupils. more remote periods, and is worthy of more intensive So, also, was the method by which she approached study.

and unfolded the subject. (4) The history of any two years that a pupil On the other hand, there are certain topics that apmay 'elect under this plan will be related; that of proach universality and invariability in their applicacourses II and III is contemporaneous and presents tion. It is hardly conceivable, for example, that Miss many points of contact, and that of either course II

Dilks could have omitted a study of “ Athens—the or III is continuous with that of course I.

City Beautiful ” (see p. 20). The love for the beau(5) Under the present four-unit plan a premium tiful is universal. In varied forms it is common to is placed upon ancient and American history, all that the pupils in the class, and to all communities, nagoes between being left largely to chance. Under

Under tions, peoples and times. Athens represents a climax the plan proposed by the committee a much larger in the development of esthetics. But the feature that proportion of the pupils will secure the benefits of especially characterizes Miss Dilks's lesson is the a study of the essentials of European history. method by which she brought “Athens—the City (6) It is important to remember that the cycle of

Beautiful ” into the range of the pupil's own interest history provided for in the years X-XII will have and experience and made it a direct means for the been once traversed, on narrower lines, in the years

further cultivation of a fundamental interest in their VII-IX. Consequently, the pupils who for any lives. reason can not complete the cycle in the year

X-XII In this there is suggested a possible organizing will not be wholly deficient in the knowledge of any principle for history that is at once scientific and of its parts.

especially effective in teaching pupils who have had (7) Although many teachers are at present inade a course in community civics of the type described quately prepared to follow the method of instruction earlier in this report. This organizing principle is advocated by the committee, which requires the selec found in the “ elements of welfare or “ fundamental tion of materials on the basis of the pupils' own im

interests," which afford an effective basis for the ormediate interests and of current problems (see be- 'ganization of the latter subject. It is a subjective low), the compression of a longer historical period rather than an objective basis. In the case just cited into a briefer course will bring pressure to bear to the pupils themselves have a more or less developed induce a more careful selection of facts and events esthetic interest, which expresses itself in various for emphasis.

elemental ways and reacts to conditions in the im2. Organisation of subject matter within history mediate community. This interest is common to all

.-Within each course the committee recom mankind and finds expression in a great variety of mends

ways. It expressed itself in a remarkable manner


among the Greeks, who developed certain standards one year of the history course be supplanted by a of beauty that have profoundly influenced the world course to be known as

A Study of Nations."'3 since their time.

In suggesting such a study, Clarence D. Kingsley Already the principle of organization here sug says: gested is being adopted more or less completely in The danger to be avoided above all others is the tendency the treatment of one great phase of history—that

to claim that one nation has a sweeping superiority over which relates to the “economic interest” and is ex

others. The claim of such superiority, as among individpressed in economic or industrial history. Not all in

uals, is a sure cause of irreconcilable hatred. The cure for dustrial history has been written on this basis of or

this narrow and partisan attitude is to be found in the

broad conception that humanity is greater than any one naganization. Reference is made to the type of in

tion. The idea should be developed that every nation has, dustrial history to which Prof. Robinson evidently

or may have, something of worth to contribute to other refers in the statement quoted on page 22 of this re nations, and to humanity as a whole. This conception port and which is clearly illustrated in the lesson when thoroughly inculcated would lead to a national redescribed by Miss Hazard (p. 21). The same prin spect for other nations, and to the belief that the continued ciple is applied in the course suggested by Dr. Leavitt existence and development of all nations are essential to and Miss Brown in their chapter on history in “ Pre

the development of civilization. We can not expect that a vocational Edụcation in the Public Schools."?

principle so fundamental and comprehensive can be incul

cated in the abstract; but through a specific study of many But boys and girls, even in vocational and prevoca

nations, the achievements and possibilities of each of which tional classes, have fundamental interests other than have been studied in the concrete, this idea may become esthe economic. They are the interests or “elements tablished. of welfare " that serve as the organizing principle of This conception of the supplementary value of the discommunity civics--physical, economic, intellectual,

similarities of the different nations and peoples, together

with the ideal of human brotherhood, which is generally esthetic, religious, and social. Their relative prominence varies among nations as among individuals,

thought of in terms of essential similarity, should do much

to establish genuine internationalism, free from sentiment, partly because of temperament and partly because of

founded on fact, and actually operative in the affairs of physical and social influences; but the story of the

nations. life of any nation is the story of effort to provide

This “ Study of nations," as Mr. Kingsley sees it, for them. The life history of a nation, as of any com

instead of focusing attention upon the past, would munity, consists of two great lines of endeavor which

start frankly with the present of typical modern naare, of course, closely interrelated: (1) The endeavor to establish permanent and definite relations

tions-European, South American, oriental—and

would use history in explanation of these nations and with the land, which involves the geographical factor,

of clearly defined problems of supreme social importand (2) the endeavor to establish effective means of

ance at the present time. Not only would the use of which involves the evolution of a form of government. history, organized in this way, according to Mr. Kings

ley, tend to reduce friction in international relaThe committee merely raises the question as a basis for discussion and experiment whether the principle clamor, born of a lack of understanding of foreign

tions, as such friction often results from popular of organization here suggested may not do as much

nations,” but “it would help to a truer understanding to vitalize instruction in history as it has already done

and appreciation of the foreigners who come to our to vitalize instruction in government under the name

shores,” and “it would lead us to be more helpful of community civics.

in our relations with backward peoples, because it 3. Important aims in teaching history.—(1) A pri- would help us to value them on the basis of their mary aim of instruction in American history should be

latent possibilities, rather than on the basis of their to develop a vivid conception of American nationality, present small achievements.” a strong and intelligent patriotism, and a keen sense (3) In connection with the several history courses, of the responsibility of every citizen for national ef

and especially in connection with courses II and III, ficiency. It is only on the basis of national solidarity, due attention should be given to Latin America and national efficiency (economic, social, political), and the Orient, especially Japan and China, and to great national patriotism that this or any nation can ex international problems of social, economic, and polipect to perform its proper function in the family of

tical importance to America and the world at large. nations.

(2) One of the conscious purposes of instruction II. DETAILED DISCUSSION OF PRINCIPLES UNDERin the history of nations other than our own should

LYING HISTORY INSTRUCTION. be the cultivation of a sympathetic understanding of such nations and their peoples, of an intelligent ap

1. The position of history in the curriculum.-His

tory, which has long occupied the center of the stage preciation of their contributions to civilization, and of

among the social studies of the high school, is facing a just attitude toward them. So important has this

competition not only from other branches of study, seemed that a proposal has recently been made that

2 Kingsley, Clarence D., The Study of Nations: Its Pos2 Leavitt and Brown, Prevocational Education in the Pub sibilities as a Social Study in High Schools. School and lic Schools, chap. viii. Houghton Mifflin Co.

Society, Vol. III, pp. 37-41, Jan. 8, 1916.

such as science, but also from other social studies. fellows. No one account would meet the needs of all, but The customary four units, which have been largely

all would agree that much of what now passes for the ele

ments of history meets the needs of none. No one quesfixed in character by the traditions of the historian

tions the inalienable right of the historian to interest himand the requirements of the college, are more or less

self in any phase of the past that he chooses. It is only to discredited as ill adapted to the requirements of sec

be wished that a greater number of historians had greater ondary education.

skill in hitting upon those phases of the past which serve us In a recent address Miss Jessie C. Evans, of the

best in understanding the most vital problems of the presWilliam Penn High School for Girls, Philadelphia, ent. — (Prof. James Harvey Robinson, in The New Hissaid:

tory.) There is a growing danger that the traditional history The italics in this quotation are our own. It is the course will only be permitted to the college-preparatory

chief business of the maker of the course of study, student. I visited, the other day, one of the largest high

the textbook writer, and the teacher to do what the schools in the country and found that the majority of the students took no history at all. The new definitions of

historian has failed to do, viz, to “hit upon those culture and the new demands for efficiency are causing very

phases of the past which serve us” (the high-school severe tests to be applied to any subject that would hold its pupil) “best in understanding the most vital probown in our schools.

lems of the present.” Further, “ the most vital probThis statement suggests certain questions:

lems of the present ” for the high-school pupil are the 2. To what extent and in what ways are college re

problems which he himself is facing now or which are

of direct value to him in his present processes of quirements and life requirements mutually exclusive? -In this connection the words of Prof. Dewey quoted


Prof. Mace has made the following statement: on page 4 are repeated with an interpolation: If we could really believe that attending to the needs of

To connect events and conditions with life as the pupil

knows it will make history more or less of a practical subpresent growth would keep the child and teacher alike busy and would also provide the best possible guarantee of

ject. The pupil will see where his knowledge turns up in the learning needed in the future [in college or elsewhere),

the affairs of everyday life. He will really discover how transformation of educational ideals might soon be accom

present-day institutions came to be what they are. Whenplished, and other desirable changes would largely take

ever or wherever he strikes a point in history, in Egypt,

Greece, Rome, England, or even America, the point must be care of themselves.

connected with modern life. Otherwise it may have only a The problem of articulation between elementary curious or perhaps an academic interest for him, or it may and secondary schools, on the one hand, and between have no interest whatever. secondary schools and colleges, on the other, would This connection may be worked out in several ways. The take care of itself if elementary school, secondary

Egyptians had certain ideas about immortality, and thereschool, and college would each give proper attention

fore certain customs of burial. The Greeks probably took to the needs of present growth.

these up and modified them. The Romans changed them

still further, especially after the coming of Christ. The 3. To what extent does an increase in the amount

Roman Catholic Church made still greater changes. The of history offered insure more universal or better

Reformation introduced new conceptions of the soul after social education?—The historical training acquired by death, and to-day the great variety of ideas on the subject the pupils is not proportional to the number of courses show the tremendous differentiations that have come since offered. Whether pupiis elect history or not depends, the days of old Egypt. Likewise, it shows how tenacious first, upon whether they want it; and, second, upon

the idea has been—its continuity. How much interest is

aroused if the student is put to working out this problem of the demands of other subjects upon their time. Those

the life development of an idea! What sort of history is who are concerned for the prestige of history in the

this? It is neither ancient, medieval, or modern, but all school program will find that their gains by adding

these in one. It is the new kind of general history--the courses are largely “on paper." In small high schools kind that socializes the student. It makes him feel that more than two or three units of history are imprac- history has some meaning when he sees ancient ideas functicable; and in large schools few pupils take more tioning in the present. than two units of the subject, these frequently dis Not every idea in history lends itself to such treatment. connected; the majority take only what is required.

Many facts have not preserved their continuity in as perTwo or three units of history are ample in these years,

fect a way, but seem to have lost it before modern life is

reached. But there is another relation--that of similarity. provided they are adapted to the needs of the pupil

The reforms of Solon in Greece and of the Gracchi in Rome, and have been preceded by the cycle which this re

the causes of Wat Tyler's rebellion, the measures of Lloyd port recommends for the years VII-IX (see p. 6). George in England to-day, and the social-justice idea of the

4. What tests" must the history course meet if Progressive platform in the Presidential campaign of 1912 it is to hold its own in our schools?_It is true bear striking resemblance to each other. While they can that “the new definitions of culture and the new de- not be connected by progressive evolution, they are richly mands for efficiency are causing very severe tests to suggestive in the lessons they teach.

Again, many events whose continuity we may not be able be applied ” to all subjects, and the traditional type

to trace have valuable lessons growing out of their dissimiof history is in danger because it fails to meet the

larity. By making note of their contrasts we may see tests.

their bearing on modern life. The terrible Thirty Years' The ideal history for each of us would be those facts of War, the Puritan Revolution, the Revolution of 1688, the past human experience to which we should have recourse American Revolution, and finally the French Revolution, oftenest in our endeavors to understand ourselves and our present such striking contrasts as to give the student some

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