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W.& A.K. Johnston are bringing out an entirely new
series of European History Maps, a series that will be fully
up to the high standard of all W. & A. K. Johnston school

There will be twenty-four maps in the series, of a
large size, 40 x 30 inches. They are being engraved on stone
and lithographed by W. & A.K. Johnston in their establish-
ment in Edinburgh, thus insuring a character of map work,
superior to that produced in this country.
The list of maps comprising this series was pre-
pared by a committee of AMERICAN teachers of Euro-
pean History. To this list W. & A. K. Johnston added
several maps which, from their wide experience as
map publishers and their European surroundings,
seemed necessary to make the series complete.

With these additions our American editors A. J.

are in full accord. Nystrom

& Co. Gentlemen :

Kindly put my

name on the list to receive further information, as soon as it is ready, regarding the new series of W. & A. K. Johnston's Mediaeval & Modern European History Maps.

Send a selection of the new Johnston's

Mediaevel and Modern European History Maps, when ready, for examination.

Thus is produced a combination, salient and effective: Maps edited expressly for teaching European History in AMERICAN Schools, with the added advantage of being made by expert map publishers amidst the EURO. PEAN environment. What the Sanford American History Maps are in the field of United States History, these Johnston Euro

ean History Maps will be in the field of Mediaeval and Modern History. In justice to yourself, you must surely see this new series beforel you buy European History Maps. Return the coupon so that we may shortly send you more detailed information, for better still, instruct us to send you a selection of the maps for examination.


Sole U. S. Agents for

W. and A. K. JOHNSTON 623 South Wabash Avenue


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Many history teachers throughout the country have been thinking how they could best serve the nation in the present crisis. Of course, as good citizens, they will do what is expected of all citizens. They will aid in military service when able; they will help in hospital and Red Cross work when possible; they will join in campaigns for conserving the nation's resources and increasing the food supply; they may undertake administrative work at times; and they will subscribe to the national loans.

But as history teachers, distinct from the body of citizens, there is much for each to do.

You can inform your community through newspapers and other publications of the reasons for the present war.

You can explain to your neighborhood the principles of the American government, the grounds of democracy, the duties of true citizenship, and the pressing need of united and vigorous action.

You can give talks to public meetings, to schools, to women's clubs and other organizations upon the vital questions of the day.

You can see that commencement addresses, either by pupils or by public speakers, bear upon our present situation.

You can aid in securing interesting and valuable addresses from the historical faculty of your neighboring college or university, or from the many other public spirited men and women who are willing to help in this way.

You can co-operate with your local historical society or library in the collection and preservation of local material bearing upon the war, giving especial attention to such fugitive material as posters, propaganda, pictures, circulars, etc.

You can encourage your local school or public librarian in obtaining good books on the war.

You can be of aid to the historian of the future by keeping a scrap-book of such materials as seem to have especial significance or which will serve to illustrate local events, by carefully preserving personal letters that throw light upon the state of mind of the people in various parts of the country, and by keeping a journal of your observations upon public opinion and local events.

You can obtain aid and advice in this work by writing to: The National Board for Historical Service, 1133 Woodward Building, Washington, D. C. United States Bureau of Education, Division of Civic Education, Washington, D. C. Committee on Public Information, Division of Educational Cooperation, 10 Jackson Place, Washington, D. C. The Committee on Patriotism through Education of the National Security League, 31 Pine Street, New York City. Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 2 Jackson Place, Washington, D. C. National Committee of Patriotic and Defense Societies, Southern Building, Washington, D. C. The World Peace Foundation, 40 Mt. Vernon Street, Boston, Mass. American Association for International Conciliation, 407 W. 117th Street, New York City. The American Society for Judicial Settlement of International Disputes, Baltimore, Md. The Editor, THE HISTORY TEACHER'S MAGAZINE, Philadelphia.



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Associate Professor of History, Western Reserve University

With the editorial assistance of
Professor J. T. SHOTWELL, Columbia University

Embodies results of recent scholarship.

Special emphasis on economic and social conditions.

Pictures concretely the daily life of the people of the middle ages.

Portrays the interesting story of the building of the modern European nations.

Study suggestions at the close of each chapter. Unusually full equipment of colored, and black and white maps.

ANY ONE interested in the study of History and Civics will be welcomed as a member.

THE MEMBER may attend the two meetings held each year, receives the Year Book of the Association, has the opportunity of subscribing to the HISTORY TEACHER'S MAGAZINE—the organ of the Association — at half price, and co-operates with several hundred of the most active and progressive members of the teaching profession.

TO BECOME A MEMBER, send ONE DOLLAR for the year's dues to the Treasurer,



THIS important new textbook treats the medieval period dot I from the English, or French, or German point of view, but from that of the impartial historian considering medieval Europe as a whole. It avoids excessive detail of fact and at the same time includes ample illustrative detail to make the book interesting to students, give them a clear idea of the development of the more important European states, and impress upon them the great personalities of medieval times. Ready in the Fall.


Good until July 1, 1917 Send onDOLLAR to the Treasurer for a set of the Year Books, 1907-1915. More than 600 pages, addresses and discussions.


Wolume VIII. Number 6.


$2.00 a year. 20 cents a copy.

Bobbie and The War


Bobbie is just an ordinary American boy. He is nearly fourteen and is about ready to enter high school. In scholarship he is below rather than above the average; but he is usually interested in his lessons, and his father is not worrying about his ability to make good. He enjoys sports, games and outdoor life, and like all true boys he loves to tinker with tools. He has shown an unusual affection for animals and will make a pet of anything from an antiquated hen to a tadpole.

Perhaps it was his sensitiveness to the suffering of animals which led us to avoid talking about the Great War when he was near. Perhaps it was because we felt, like most American parents, that the War was monstrous, insensate, something too horrible to bring into the consciousness of a happy whole-souled boy of fourteen. We were thankful that a regulation of the local board of education forbade the discussion of the War in school rooms. And we tried to keep away from him the more terrible of the pictures which soon filled the illustrated papers.

But in the two years of warfare he has grown to take an interest in things. At times he read the daily newspapers and looked through the illustrated weeklies. He became interested in the War in spite of us and occasionally dropped a remark which showed he was forming opinions upon it. He shared his spending money with the Belgians whenever the family took up a collection from the children's banks and the parents' bank accounts for relief work.

And then like every normal American child he asked questions about the War. At first we put him off with those general colorless and neutral answers which parents are so skilled in framing. But we found that he was getting false notions of the War from other sources. We reached the conclusion that if we did not furnish the truth he might never get it. And thus we set about answering carefully some of his questions. Six of these questions and answers are here given. They are arranged in a logical order rather than in the haphazard conversation of family life.

WHY IS THE WARP “Well, Daddy, what made this War come anyhow?”

he asked. There are two very different sets of causes of the

present War, and indeed of any great happening in

1 Copyright, 1917, Eakins, Palmer and Harrar, Philadelphia.

history. The one set of causes is like the spark that falls among gunpowder and makes a great explosion; the other set of causes explains how the gunpowder came to be where it was, and how the spark came to fall upon the gunpowder. The spark which set off the present terrible explosion in Europe was a little incident which took place in southeastern Europe. In the region between Vienna and Constantinople, which you can easily find on the map, there exist a score or more of different peoples. Each of these has its own language, its own dress, and its own habits of living. These peoples are included in a few great governments—AustroHungary, Servia, Roumania, Bulgaria and Turkey— with several smaller ones. During the year 1912 several of these countries tried to obtain the lands of the non-Christian Turks, and after they defeated the Turks, the victors started to quarrel among themselves about the division of the lands. This gave the Turks an opportunity to get back part of their territory. During this time some of the less important peoples under the rule of Austro-Hungary also conspired to obtain their independence. On June 28, 1914, an Austrian prince, the heir to the throne, was murdered in Serajevo, in a country much dissatisfied with Austrian government. An investigation by Austrians showed to their satisfaction that the murder had been planned in the neighboring country of Servia. Austria immediately made demands upon Servia which, if accepted, would have destroyed the independence of Servia and have tended to make it a province of Austria. The demands were accompanied with a threat that if not accepted in forty-eight hours, Austria would invade Servia. When this threat became known in Russia, the latter country took steps to protect Servia. Germany backed up Austria. England tried to get all parties to demobilize their armies and submit the Servian question to a council of all the great nations. This Germany and Austria refused to do and on August 1, 1914, war was declared by Germany against Russia. This at once brought France into the war as Russia's ally, and a few days later England entered on account of the German invasion of Belgium. Thus the murder of the Austrian prince was the spark which set on fire the vast European powder magazine. But you ask why was Europe so combustible that a single murder would set it all afire? Who laid the gunpowder in a place where the spark would reach it? To understand this, Bobbie, you would have to study carefully the history of Europe for the past hundred years. But there are a few things which you can understand. 1. Years ago Germany adopted a system of universal military service which created a great standing army. This made the other countries so afraid of her that for protection they were compelled to maintain similar armies. Thus all of Europe, except England, became a kind of military camp; military leaders, particularly in Germany, directed the activities of the nations, and often prevented the people from governing themselves. This system, which is called militarism, is the thing which President Wilson says must be destroyed if all nations are to be free. 2. Germany, like England and the United States, has grown enormously in wealth, manufactures and commerce in the last forty years. She secured a large part of the trade of the world, and her ships— some of the largest ever built—were found in all the great harbors of the world. But Germany was not content with this peaceful trade; she desired foreign colonies and a great navy like that of England; she longed for coaling stations in all seas. If it had not been for the United States she might have obtained the Philippines in 1898; but for the United States she, with the other European states, would have brought about the partition of China in 1901; and but for the Monroe Doctrine she would have established colonies in the West Indies and South America. As it was she secured islands in the Pacific, in the East Indies and large tracts of land in Africa. With the consent of Turkey she started to build a railroad from Constantinople to Bagdad. During this expansion if Germany did not get what she wished she would show the “mailed fist” of her great army and rattle the sword in the scabbard. She would insult others as the German Admiral insulted Dewey in Manila harbor. Europe was in a state of unrest because Germany would not consent to reduce the size of her army nor cease building up a navy. Thus England felt compelled to build more ships; France must add another year of military service to every man's life; Austria, Russia and Italy joined in the race, and tried to keep up the pace set by the leaders. 3. During this period of armed peace the six great nations of Europe fell apart into two groups of three each. Germany, Austria and Italy made what was called the “Triple Alliance”; while England, France and Russia constituted the “Triple Entente” (the word entente is a French word meaning an understanding or agreement). The two groups stood and glared at each other like two gangs of toughs, each daring the other to do its worst. Sooner or later something would be said or done which would bring on a fight between the two groups. But note that when the Great War did break out, Italy left the Triple Alliance and joined the other group, which we now call “the Allies.” 4. There were many other things which led the European nations to be jealous of one another. France wanted to get back provinces which Germany had

taken from her in 1870. Russia wanted to get Constantinople so that her wheat and oil could safely be exported. Germany wanted to control Constantinople and a railroad to Bagdad and the Persian Gulf, thus securing a share in the trade with India and China ports; Austria wished to annex some of the petty states to the southeast, and Italy hoped to annex territory near her borders inhabited by men of the Italian race. You will see, therefore, Bobbie, that it was not the murder of a prince which really caused this War. It was the existence of a class of military men who controlled the governments of some of the powers; who refused to let the people decide great questions, and who hoped to use armies and navies to obtain more lands by conquest.


“Yes, Dad, I understand now how the War happened in Europe. But why did we go into it? We studied in school that Washington, Jefferson and Monroe advised the United States to keep out of European affairs. What has made us take up arms against Germany?”

In the first place, Bobbie, you must remember that the American government is based upon the right of the people to govern themselves. Lincoln said we possessed “government of the people, for the people, and by the people.” We believe that all people of all countries ought to have this right. And we are willing to help them obtain this greatest of all rights. Some people have said the American nation pays too much attention to making money and that it worships the “almighty dollar.” But this is not true to-day and probably never has been true of our nation as a whole. Nearly a hundred years ago we sympathized with the people of Central and South America in their rebellion against Spain, and protected them by the Monroe Doctrine after they had obtained independence.

In the last twenty years particularly the American nation has played the part of a “big brother” to many other peoples. In 1895 we protected Venezuela against the aggression of England. In 1898 we fought a war for the independence of Cuba and we have since aided in supporting an orderly self-government in the island. In 1898 we secured possession of the Philippines, and we have governed them since in the interests of the inhabitants, and have instructed them in the work of government so that some day they may become an independent nation. In 1901 we helped to prevent the European nations from dividing up China. Our share of the indemnity exacted from China has been used to educate Chinese students in American universities. We have earnestly supported the new republic in that country. From 1912 to the present time we have tried to encourage the Mexicans to establish a people's government. American lives have been lost and millions of dollars' worth of American property destroyed in Mexico in this period during their civil wars. But we have not desired to con

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