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specialists, is adapted to the requirements of second upon attention for any one of a number of reasons. ary education, and all attempts to adapt them to such It will have been touched upon in an elementary way requirements have been obstructed by tradition, as in in community civics, and doubtless will have come up the case of history.

in a variety of ways in connection with history; but Is it not time, in this field as in history, to take it may now be considered more comprehensively, more up the whole problem afresh, freed . . . from the intensively, and more exhaustively. One of the chief impressions of” the traditional social sciences ? aims should now be to organize knowledge with refer2. Relation to preceding courses.—The suggestion

ence to the economic, sociological, and political printhat follows with reference to the last-year course of ciples involved. social study must be considered in the light of the

Economic relations of immigration: recommendations for the preceding years.



Labor supply and other industrial problems (on the side courses in community civics and in history, if de of "production”). veloped along the lines suggested in this report, are Standards of living, not only of the immigrants, but also rich in their economic, sociological, and political con of native Americans as atiected by immigration (on the side

of notations. Even if no provision be made in the last

consumption"). year for the further development of the special social

Relation to the problem of land tenure in the United

States. sciences, the committee believes that its recommendations for the preceding years still provide as never Sociological relations of immigration: before for the education of the pupil regarding the Movements and distribution of population; congestion in economic and social relations of his life.

cities; etc. 3. Concrete problems in varied aspects.—The only

Assimilation of immigrant population; admixture of feasible way the committee can see by which to satisfy in reasonable measure the demands of the several

Vital statistics, health problems, etc.

Educational and religious problems involved. social sciences, while maintaining due regard for the

Social contributions of immigrants; art, science, ethics. requirements of secondary education, is to organize instruction, not on the basis of the formal social Political and governmental relations of immigrasciences, but on the basis of concrete problems of vital

tion: importance to society and of immediate interest to Political contributions of immigrants; art, science, ethics. the pupil.

herited political conceptions with those of the country of

their adoption. In other words, the suggestion is not to discard one social science in favor of another, nor attempt

Naturalization; its methods, abuses, etc.

The courts in the light of the processes of naturalization. to crowd the several social sciences into this year in

Administration of immigration laws. abridged forms; but to study actual problems, or is Defects and inconsistencies in the methods of our Governsues, or conditions, as they occur in life, and in their

ment as shown in legislation regarding immigrants and in several aspects, political, economic, and sociological. , the administration of the laws. These problems or issues will naturally vary from Problems of municipal government arising from or comyear to year, and from class to class, but they should plicated by immigration. be selected on the ground (1) of their immediate in

A study or series of studies of the type here sugterest to the class and (2) of their vital importance gested, developing from concrete issues, would afford to society. The principle suggested here is the same

opportunity to go as far as occasion demands and time as that applied to the organization of civics and his allows into the fundamental economic and political tory.

questions of the time. In the field of political science, 4. Illustrations.--In actual life, whether as high- for example, problems can readily be formulated on school pupils or as adults, we face problems or condi the basis of particular cases involving a study of legistions and not sciences. We use sciences, however, to lative methods of Congress and of State legislatures; interpret our problems and conditions. Furthermore, the powers and limitations of Federal and State exeevery problem or condition has many sides and may cutives; judicial machinery and procedure; lack of involve the use of various sciences. To illustrate the uniformity in State legislation and its results; weakpoint we may take the cost of living, which is a vital ness of county government; comparison of adminisproblem from the standpoint of the individual and of tration of cities in Europe, South America, and the society, and may readily have been forced upon the United States, etc. interest of the pupil through changes in mode of life, There has not yet been the same insistent demand curtailment of allowance, sacrifice of customary please for sociology as a science in the high school that there ures, change in plans for education, etc. This prob- has been for economics and the science of government. lem involves, on the economic side, such fundamental But there are many questions and principles of a matters as values, prices, wages, etc.; on the sociolo more or less purely sociological character that are gical side, such matters as standards of living, birth just as important for the consideration of a highrate, etc.; on the political side, such matters as tariff school boy or girl as many others of a more or less legislation, control of trusts and the like, and the ap- purely economic or political character. A course of propriate machinery of legislation, law enforcement, the kind suggested by the committee should doubtless and judicial procedure.

afford opportunity for some consideration of such The problem of immigration might impose itself vital social institutions as the family and the church.

These institutions will, it is hoped, have been studied only on the basis of dispassionate consideration of all in some of their aspects and relations in connection the facts available. This, the committee believes, can with history courses and in community civics, but they best be accomplished by dealing with actual situamay now be considered from different angles, the tions as they occur and by drafting into service the point of departure being some particular problem in materials of all the social sciences as occasion dethe foreground of current attention, such as, for mands for a thorough understanding of the situations example, the strength and weakness of the church as in question. a socializing factor in rural life, etc.

(3) The principles upon which such a course is Again, there are certain facts relating to the based are the same as those which have been success“social mind” for which the high-school boy and girl fully applied in community civics and, to some extent are quite ready, provided the study has a sufficiently in isolated cases, to the teaching of economics, concrete foundation and a sufficiently direct applica- sociology, and even history. tion. Any daily paper, indeed the life of any large

6. Experiment urged.--The committee believes, school, will afford numerous incidents upon which to

however, that it should at this time go no further than base a serious consideration, for example, of the im

to define principles, with such meager illustration as pulsive action of “crowds” in contrast with the de

it has available, and to urge experiment. It would liberative action of individuals and of the conse

especially urge that the methods and results of exquences of such action in social conduct. The power

periment, either along the lines suggested in this reand effects of tradition are another phenomenon of

port or in other directions, be recorded by those who social psychology fully as worthy of study in the high

make them and reported for the benefit of all who school as many of the other social facts and laws that

are interested. seem indispensable; it is not necessary to go farther than the curriculum which the pupil is following and the methods by which he is instructed to find a start A pageant of Missouri was given by students of the ing point for a discussion of this question and

Kirksville State Normal School on May 20, 1916. The book abundant material for its exemplification.

of the pageant was prepared during the fall term by a class These two particular illustrations of expressions

in history under the direction of Professor Violette, which of the social mind” are taken from a description

gathered historical material for the book, and another class of the social studies in the curriculum of Hampton

in English under Professor Wise, which composed the variInstitute. It may be said in passing that this committee has found no better illustration of the organiza

ous episodes, preludes, interludes, postludes, upon the tion of economic and sociological knowledge on a prob

basis of the historical material furnished by the history lem basis, and of the selection of problems for study

class. The drilling of the cast, the rendering of the with direct reference to the pupils' immediate interests music, and the orchestration of the music were all done unand needs than that offered in the work of this in der the direction of members of the faculty of the Normal stitution.

School. 5. Summary of reasons for the proposed course.In making its suggestion for this study of concrete

The New York State Historical Association met at problems of democracy in the last year of the high Cooperstown, October 3 and 4. Dr. Sherman Williams, the school the committee has been particularly influenced president of the association, delivered a very interesting by the following considerations :

address upon “The Present Position and Importance of (1) It is impracticable to include in the high the Teaching of State History.” He pointed out that in school program a comprehensive course in each of the the Regents' examinations in American history fewer quessocial sciences. And yet it is unjust to the pupil that

tions were asked about the history of New York than were his knowledge of social facts and laws should be

asked upon the history of Ireland in the English history limited to the field of any one of them, however im

examinations. He said that pupils learn more of the hisportant that one may be.

tory of Massachusetts, of Pennsylvania and of Virginia (2) The purposes of secondary education and not the intrinsic value of any particular body of knowl

than they do of the history of New York. He urged the edge should be the determining consideration. From preparation of a syllabus of state history outlining the histhe standpoint of the purposes of secondary educa tory and provisions for examinations in the subject. He tion, it is far less important that the adolescent youth would have a list of books for reading prepared. In closing, should acquire a comprehensive knowledge of any or Doctor Williams said, “We want our boys and girls so all of the social sciences than it is that he should be trained from the time they enter school to the day of their given experience and practice in the observation of

graduation, that they may think and act intelligently in social phenomena as he encounters them; that he

regard to matters connected with our history. We should should be brought to understand that every social

neglect no opportunity to see that the pupils in our schools problem is many-sided and complex; and that he

are always taught our history thoroughly, beginning with should acquire the habit of forming social judgments

the history of the locality in which they live, and from 4 Jones, Thomas Jesse. “ Social Studies in the Hampton

such small beginnings may grow ever-widening and deepCurriculum." Hampton Institute Press, 1908.

ening interest in the world's history.”

Historical Geography in College Classes

The importance of appreciating the relation of

MAP STUDY NUMBER FIVE.1 history to geography is recognized by all instructors

THE ECCLESIASTICAL, SITUATION IN EUROPE, 1500-1648. of history. In colleges, however, when the instructor discovers how lamentably ignorant his students are Text: Hayes I, 112-169, ch. iv.; Hulme, Renaissance, upon this aspect of history, he generally uses strong

Protestant Revolution, and Catholic Reformation. language against the high school teachers of history, Atlas: Shepherd, 116, 118; Muir, p. 10; Hayes I, 165 and then proceeds to teach historical geography in

map; Hulme, 260 map. McKinley Outline Map No. 101a. the way

he thinks it should have been taught in the The present study is designed to show (A) the essential high school. A far more rational way of approach is religious unity of western Europe in the year 1500; YB) to ignore what has gone before, and handle historical the rending of that unity by the religious upheaval of the

sixteenth century, and the deep inroads made by Protestantgeography in a manner adapted to the intellectual

ism during the first half of the century; and finally (C) maturity of the college student.

the regaining of large sections of territory by a revitalized This is now being done successfully in the course Catholicism. It must be continually borne in mind that in Introductory European History in Columbia the limits of religious faiths, unlike political boundaries, University. This course has passed through many tend to shade into one another. They are intangible and changes since it was described in The History ever shifting, but a study such as the present, even though TEACHER'S MAGAZINE six years ago (Vol. I, p. 220).

necessarily only partial and inaccurate, should help the The ancient and medieval portions have been omitted

student to visualize clearly the essential facts in the

ecclesiastical situation of the sixteenth century. For it is und it now begins with a survey of European society quite as important that one have these religious boundaries at the opening of the sixteenth century. The emphasis well in mind, as that one know the political divisions of upon historical geography mentioned by Prof. J. T. Europe. Shotwell in his description in 1910, has, however,

A. Divesting yourself in so far as possible of present-day been greatly strengthened.

preconceptions, read carefully Hayes I, 112-113, 122-123, Prof. C. J. H. Hayes and Messrs. P. T. Moon and and then draw lines showing the approximate boundaries A. P. Evans have expressed their views on the place in Europe of Roman Catholicism, Greek Catholicism (Orthoof map work in their “Syllabus of Modern History

doxy), and Mohammedanism in the year 1500. (Hayes I, with Map Studies ” (3rd edition, N. Y., 1916).

165 map, or Shepherd, 116.) Were there any appreciable “ These studies should, therefore, aid the student in

bodies of heretics to be found in Europe at this time? If

so, indicate by light cross-hatching in brown. fixing in his mind a picture of the homes of the people

It must be remembered that large territories in Europe with whom he expects to become familiar; from them

were controlled directly by the Church and administered by he should come to recognize river and lake, mountain

the clergy. This fact gave the clergy great political as well and valley, as well as political boundaries of states,

as religious importance, and led during and after the the growth of nations, and their inter-relations. It is Protestant Revolt to serious complications. Such lands only when he has such a picture clearly fixed in his were the Papal States in Italy and the lands in the Empire mind that the story of the people of these lands can controlled by the great prince-bishops. Refer now to Map be intelligently followed.

Study Number One, and also to Hulme, 260 map, and see “Frequently the student looks upon the map study

that you remember the Church lands there mentioned. as sheer drudgery, wasting time which might be better

Compare these maps with Shepherd, 116, and note in your

key which of these lands were swept over into Protestantemployed. And if the map study is to degenerate,

ism. It should be remembered that these were not the only as it too frequently does, into the mere mechanical

lands lost by the Church, but that countless smaller exercise of copying meaningless lines and colors from holdings were confiscated, not only in the states which outan atlas, such a viewpoint is in large measure justified. right became Protestant, but even in some of the countries But that lies with the student himself. The attempt which remained Catholic (Hayes I, 126). has here been made so to co-ordinate the map work B. The Protestant Revolt split Europe into two camps, with the assigned reading that its value may readily between which the dividing line tended ever to become more become apparent if the studies are done in connection sharply defined. In general, what parts of Europe broke with the reading, and are followed chronologically and

away from the headship of the Pope? Draw a line showing understandingly. The student should see countries or

the approximate extent of the Revolt in the year 1550. movements grow. Any tendency merely to copy a map

(Shepherd, 116.) On your key-sheet name the states and

the more important divisions of the Empire that had befrom an atlas is to be avoided. Every student will be come Protestant by this time, indicating whether Lutheran, held responsible for a thorough knowledge of the im Anglican, Calvinistic, or Zwinglian. These countries should portant facts and ideas of all map studies assigned and on final examination may be required to reproduce 1 The text used is C. J. H. Hayes' "A Political and Social any map in its larger features” (p. 49).

History of Modern Europe; ” the atlases are W. R. ShepWith the permission of the authors of this syllabus


Historical Atlas," R. Muir, “ Hammond's New Hisseveral of their map studies are printed below.

torical Atlas for Students” (second edition), and C. G.

Robertson and J. G. Bartholomew, "An Historical Atlas of EDITOR. Modern Europe from 1789 to 1914."

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now be colored, using pink for Lutheran, red for Anglican,

MAP STUDY NUMBER SIX. yellow for Calvinistic (and Zwinglian). If traces of Catholicism remain, indicate the fact by oblique lines in

THE THIRTY YEARS' WAR AND THE PEACE OF WESTPHALIA. blue. In the Germanies, where much of the land was still

Text: Hayes I, 218-232; Wakeman, European History, debatable, indicate by solid color (pink) those lands which

1598-1715. had gone over to Protestantism and outline in pink those

Atlas: Shepherd, 114-115, 118-119, 121-123; Muir, pp. lands, such as Bavaria and Austria, in which the new move

11-12 and plate 9; Hayes 1, 229 map; Map for Map Study ment had won a considerable popular following. Would

Number Five. you say that at this time the Germanies gave indication of going over entirely to Lutheranism? (Read Hulme, 264 McKinley Outline Map No. 125a. 265.)

A study of the territorial changes which took place at In France, Protestantism never won any solid districts.

the close of the Thirty Years' War is illuminating from In the south and west, however, Calvinism gained numer several points of view. It makes evident one at least of ous adherents. Indicate these by oblique lines in yellow

the leading motives for the intervention of neighboring (Shepherd, 116). The three most important towns which powers in German affairs; it marks the beginning of aggreswere confirmed to the Protestants (Huguenots) by the

sions on the part of two of these powers, France and Edict of Nantes (1598) were La Rochelle, Nimes, and Sweden, at the expense of German states; it points also to Montauban. Locate these towns.

the rise of the House of Hohenzollern to a position of power

in the Germanies, and protrays most impressively the hopeWe should now be in a position to recognize the rapidity

less confusion, weakness, and disunion of the numberless of the spread of the Protestant movement. Within a gen

states, small and large, comprising the Holy Roman Emeration nearly the whole of northern Europe had broken

pire. (See Muir, pp. 11-12.) with the Roman Catholic Church, and Protestantism had made serious inroads upon central and southern Europe. A. After reading Hayes I, 219-229, draw a line on the Can you give any reason for the fact that the new faith ecclesiastical map you prepared for Map Study Number gained its staunchest adherents in the north? Consider this Five, separating those countries of Europe and divisions of question, but do not attempt to answer it in your key. the Empire which adhered to the Catholic and Imperial C. That the Revolt spread no further was due in large party from those which fought for the “Protestant” cause.

Name on your key-sheet and indicate (on McKinley Outline part to the Catholic Reformation which is the central fact

Map No. 125a) by bi-colored cross-hatching at least one of in the religious life of Europe during the latter half of the

the states within the Empire which pursued a double polsixteenth and the early part of the seventeenth century. It must be remembered that this was not merely a defensive

icy, aiding first one side and then the other. (Consult

Shepherd, 118-119, 122-123; Muir, plate 9; Hayes I, 229.) movement, but an aggressive attempt to win back the lands which had been lost to the Catholic Church. The short

Comparing the line of the Thirty Years' War with the line

of ecclesiastical division (Map Study Number Five), would lived restoration of Roman Catholicism in England during

you infer that religious conviction formed the only or even the reign of Mary Tudor illustrates the aggressive charac

necessarily the chief motive in this war? Does the political ter of the movement. Unsuccessful in England, the

condition of the Germanies invite foreign intervention ? Catholic Church was none the less victorious in lands of Outline the IIoly Roman Empire before the war (Shepherd, central and southern Europe. Recall the terms of the Re

114-115.) Note the patch-work effect of the myriad states ligious Peace of Augsburg (1555). That princes were there shown by the map just referred to. And no map can posby given free reign in deciding the religion (Lutheranism

sibly convey an exaggerated or even an adequate idea of or Catholicism) of their subjects--a contention which the the complexity and disunion of the Holy Roman Empire. Protestant princes had long upheld—would now aid Cath

B. (1) Foreign aggrandizement. One motive which acolic princes as well. It would also tend to make the fluctu tuated the belligerents in the Thirty Years' War will be ating line of division between Catholicism and Protestant patent upon a survey of the territorial gains confirmed to ism more clear-cut. Notice the important gains made by foreign powers by the Peace of Westphalia. Indicate by Catholicism in the southern Germanies. Compare the maps oblique lines the territory which the king of Denmark hoped in Shepherd, 116 and 118. Where and against what

to gain for a younger son (Wakeman, 68; Hayes I, 223). Protestant sect did Catholicism make its most notable

Show next in solid color the territories actually secured by gains ? (See Muir, page 10.) Fill in now with solid blue

France either as new acquisitions or as confirmations of the lands, such as Italy and Spain, which had preserved Map Study Number Seven will show how these gains were

earlier conquests. (See, especially, Shepherd, 121 inset.) their allegiance to the Catholic Church, and the lands which

the fruit of a consistent policy of the French government, were won back to the Church during this period (1555

namely, to round out French territory to its “natural 1600), enumerating the latter in your key.

frontiers.” Did any Protestant sect make gains, also, during this Show by horizontal shading what territorial gains were period ? (Shepherd, 118.) Indicate such gains on your made by Sweden. Note that she was now placed in control of key-sheet and on the map where possible. his should the mouths of three of the most important German rivers make clear why the recognition of Calvinism became such the Weser, the Elbe, and the Oder. The significance of this a burning question during the later sixteenth and early becomes manifest when one recalls that railways were then seventeenth centuries.

unknown, and the rough highways were too frequently renCompare, finally, the extent of lands held by Protestant

dered either impassable by rains or unsafe by “gentlemen ism in 1550 and about the year 1600, making mental

of the road.” The rivers, therefore, served as the great

arteries of trade and communication, and the Power connote of any important changes. The line between Catholic and Protestant countries, as it appeared about the year

trolling them secured an immense advantage. The Ger

manies were now largely at the mercy of Sweden in re1600, and as it was more definitely established at the end

spect of their foreign communications and commerce. of the Thirty Years' War (1648), has to the present day Sweden, like France, was pursuing a consistent policy-the remained substantially the same.

policy of making the Baltic a Swedish lake.


B. (2) Internal changes. No less self-seeking than the foreign Powers were the several states of the Empire. Each sought its own advantage from the weakness and disruption of the central government. Indicate the gains made by Bavaria as reimbursement for service rendered by Duke Maximilian to the Emperor. At whose expense were these gains made? What did Saxony win from the war and at whose expense? (Key.) The state which gained most, however, was Brandenburg, thanks to the efforts of its able, wily, and unscrupulous ruler, Frederick William, the Great Elector. He claimed the whole of Pomerania, but received compensation for the portion taken by Sweden in the rich lands of Magdeburg, Halberstadt, and Minden. Having indicated in solid colors all lands secured by Brandenburg, Saxony, and Bavaria, outline each of these states in the same color as its new acquisitions, in order to make sure that you have clearly in mind the relative position of each ceded territory with reference to the state by which it was acquired. (Shepherd, 121 inset, shows the territorial changes most clearly; the terms of the treaty are well summarized by Wakeman, European History, 1598-1715, pp. 123-124.)

C. Significance of the treaty. More significant than the actual territorial changes was the reaction of the Peace of Westphalia upon the Empire and upon Europe as whole. It “is the beginning of a new era. It marks the formation of the modern European states system. In Germany itself, the central fact registered by the peace is the final disintegration of the Empire. The German people were governed by the German princes, who had all the rights of sovereignty ... the central authority was reduced to a minimum.” Foreign states (enumerate them in your key) now had votes in the Diet by virtue of their newly. acquired German possessions. Large territories now broke away from the Empire and were declared independent (indicate them on your map and in your key). The Emperor became less German in his policy and more Austrian. (The student would do well to read the summary in Wakeman, pp. 122-128.)


1688-1763. Text: Hayes I, 299-319.

Atlas: Hayes I, 301, 317; Shepherd, 128, 132, 133, 136137, 189-194; Muir, pp. 52-53; plates 48-50, 53-55.

McKinley Outline Map No. 104a, No. 148a, and Map Study Number Three.

While in the European wars from 1688 to 1763, the French Bourbons were dearly purchasing a few square miles of territory to round out the frontiers and establish the military prestige of France in Europe, they underestimated the importance of sea-power, colonies, and commerce. It is the purpose of this Map Study to exhibit and explain the downfall of France as a colonial power and the triumph of Great Britain in the century-long conflict for worlddominion.

A. In order to make clear the position of the rivals on the eve of the world-conflict,” refer back to Map Study Number Three, and on that map of the colonial explorations (or in the key) show the chief colonial possessions gained or lost by England, France, Spain, Portugal, and the Netherlands between 1600 and 1688 (comparing Shepherd, 107110 and 128; see Hayes I, 58-59, 299-304). Which of these five Powers, in your estimation, controlled the greatest colonial area; the most valuable mining regions; the most important spice-producing areas ? For what products were the French and English colonies (a) on the North American continent, and (b) in the West Indies, chiefly prized ? What was to be the position of Spain (Hayes I, 307, 308, 311,

315) and of the Netherlands (Hayes I, 307-308) in the forthcoming struggle between France and England ?

B. The Colonial Wars in America. On Map No. 104a, fill in with solid color the areas effectively settled by the English and by the French before 1688 (Hayes I, 300-302 and map p. 301; Shepherd, 128, 189-193; Muir, plates, 48, 53, 54). Indicate in lighter tints of the same colors or by cross-hatching the extent of the English and French settlements about 1750. What were the geographic and economic reasons for the wide diffusion of French settlement and for the compactness of English colonization? What prevented the English from spreading westward around the southern end of the Appalachian barrier ? Outline the extreme territorial claims-regardless of effective occupation or justification--of the French and of the English about the year 1088 (Shepherd, 190-191; Hayes I, 300). Following the narrative in Hayes I, 306-312, for each of the colonial wars in America between 1689 and 1750, indicate the principal places conquered by the belligerents and the territories ceded by treaty. In preparation for the great French and Indian War, indicate the following French forts and posts, taking mental note of the date and the strategic importance of each: Louisburg, Frédéric, Oswego, Niagara, Presqu' Isle, Le Boeuf, Venango, Duquesne, Detroit, Sault Ste. Marie, New Orleans (Shepherd, 191; Hayes I, 309). Place circles around the French strongholds captured by the British, 1758-1760 (Hayes I, 314.) On your key-sheet note the territorial changes in America registered by the peace of 1763, and the American possessions retained by France (Hayes I, 317-319). Referring to Shepherd, 176, note in your key the regions of the New World where French is still the language of the people.

C. Anglo-French Rivalry in India. To gain some idea of the size of India, compare the distance between Calcutta and Bombay with that between London and Liverpool; between Paris and Vienna; between New York and San Francisco. Remembering that the densely populated empire of India was valuable not for colonization but for trade and possibly for tribute, indicate on McKinley Outline Map No. 148a the English and French trading posts established in the seventeenth century, with dates (Hayes I, 303-304; Shepherd, 128, 132, 137). Observe especially the localities where French and English ambitions might clash. In the eighteenth century, when the power of the Mogul Emperor at Delhi had fallen into decay, and his vassals and viceroys, such as the nizam of the Deccan (capital at Hyderabad) and the nawab of Bengal (capital at Murshidabad) had become virtually independent princes, the masterful French governor-general Dupleix entered into the political intrigues of the native Indian rulers, hoping thereby to increase French power and prestige. “When Dupleix was appointed governor of Pondicherry, the French were already practically masters of the south Coromandel Coast, and their influence extended far into the Carnatic. He quickly put the older settlement in order, and returned to Chandernagore, to be installed there as nawab of that place. Returning to Pondicherry, he used his new title as a means of overawing the neighboring chieftains; his magnificence dazzled them, and he was soon recognized as sovereign of the South.” (Tilby, British India, p. 51.) Puppets of Dupleix were established as nizam at Hyderabad and nawab at Arcot. In addition, the Northern Circars were brought directly under French control. Shade with oblique lines the territory held by the French, and outline the wider regions in which French influence predominated, in the time of Dupleix (Shepherd, 137). To Robert Clive, whom the natives called Sabut Jung

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