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“Outlines of European History," Vol. II, J. H. Robinson

and Charles A. Beard. “ Development of Modern Europe," Vol. I, J. H. Robinson

and Charles A. Beard.
G. The Napoleonic Tradition.
" Ah, what a dawn of splendour, when her sowers
Went forth and bent the necks of populations
And of their terrors and humiliations
Wove her the starry wreath that earthward lowers
Now in the figure of a burning yoke," etc.

Text-book study of career of Napoleon.
Rapid review of period of reconstruction and experi.

ment.
France under the third Napoleon.

Character of Napoleon.

Evils of the Napoleonic ideal.
H. The lesson of 1870 by which France is profiting to-day.
“Lo, strength is of the plain root-Virtues born:
Strength shall ye gain by service, prove in scorn,
Train by endurance, by devotion shape,
Strength is not won by miracle or rape,
It is the offspring of the modest years;
The gift of sire to son, thro' those firm laws
Which we name God's, which are the righteous cause,
The cause of man and manhood's ministers.”
Frugality and economy as French characteristics.
Prompt payment of the German indemnity.
French devotion to work as a fine art.

Reference: “ French Perspectives," Vol. VII, Eliza-
beth Shepley Sergeant.
Thoroughness of the French educational system.
References: "The French of To-day," Barrett Wen-

dell.
“France Under the Republic," J. C. Bracq.

“France and the French," Charles Dawbarn. I. The French Government of To-day.

Circumstances under which it was formed.
Peculiar characteristics.
Comparison with government of the United States.
References:

“Europe Since 1815," Charles Downer Hazen.

“ The Governments of Europe,” F. A. Ogg.
* Medieval and Modern Times," J. H. Robinson.
“Development of Modern Europe," Vol. II, Robinson

and Beard.
“Statesman's Year Book.”
Special Topics:

Raymond Poincare, Aristide Briand.

“Makers of Modern France,” Charles Dawbarn. J. Colonies and Dependencies of France. References:

“The Children of the Nations," Poultney Bigelow.
“ The New Map of Africa,” Herbert Adams Gibbons.
“ Europe Since 1815," Charles Downer Hazen.
" Peoples and Politics of the Far East," Henry Norman.
“Development of Modern Europe,” Vol. II, J. H. Robin-

son and C. A. Beard.
" History of Contemporary Civilization," Charles Seig-

nobos.
K. Relations between Church and State in France.

The Edict of Nantes.
Revocation of the Edict of Nantes.
Civil constitution of the clergy.
Concordat of 1801.
Separation of Church and State in 1905.
Recent developments of the religious question.

References:
“ Development of Modern Europe," Vol. II, Robinson

and Beard.
“Medieval and Modern Times," J. H. Robinson.
"France and the French," Charles Dawbarn.

“France Under the Republic," J. C. Bracq.
L. Economic and Social Experiments in France.
Reference:

"France Under the Republic,” J. C. Bracq.
M. France and the Great War.
References:

“Medieval and Modern Times," J. H. Robinson.
“Outlines of European History," Vol. II, Robinson and

Beard.
“ History of England,” Supplement, Edward Potts
Cheyney.

THE STUDY OF NATIONS.

ENGLAND. Keynote: Shakespeare: “Richard II.” “ This royal throne of kings," etc.

Helen Gray Cone: “The Chant of Love for England,” sec-
ond stanza.
A. English liberties the great gift of England to the world.
I. What are the fundamental English liberties ?

Liberty of person.
Free control of property.
Equal justice before the law.
A share in the government by the people.

Reference: Magna Charta.
II. What have English liberties cost?
(a) Great landmarks in the struggle.

Magna Charta, 1215.
Confirmation of the Charter.
Petition of Right, 1628.
Puritan Revolution, 1640.

Bill of Rights, 1689.
(b). Outline of the struggle for liberty of person.
1. Magna Charta.

Its basis : Charter of Henry I.
Leader of Struggle: Stephen Langton.
Provisions.
“No man shall be seized or imprisoned or dis-

possessed or outlawed save by legal judg

ment of his peers or by the law of the land." 2. Petition of Right, 1628.

Arbitrary imprisonment and martial law forbidden. 3. Civil war caused partly by the attempted arrest

of the five members. 4. Habeas Corpus Act.

Provision against delay of justice. (c) Outline of struggle for free control of property. 1. Provisions of Magna Charta.

None but the customary feudal aids to be demanded by the King without the consent of

the Great Council of the Baronage.

Means of livelihood to be left even to the poorest. 2. Confirmation of the Charter by Edward I.

No taxation without the consent of the Council. 3. Power of the Good Parliament.

Control of taxation. 4. Interruption of development under the Tudor

sovereign. 5. Parliamentary protest against benevolences under

James I. 6. Petition of Right. Forced loans and benevolences forbidden by act of

Parliament.

7. Matters in dispute put to the test of civil war.
8. Parliamentary control of taxation secured by Bill

of Rights.
(d) Outline for struggle for a share in the government.

England, “ Mother of Parliaments.” 1. Period of struggle for a voice in the government

by representation of the people (1215 to 1640). (a) Provision in the Great Charter for a Great

Council of the Baronage. (b) Parliament of Simon de Montfort (1265). (c) Model Parliament of Edward I (1295). Called by the King. Two representatives from every shire and two

burgesses from every borough. (d) Powers exercised by the Good Parliament. Control of taxation, control of legislation, con

trol of the King's ministers. (e) Position of Parliament under the Tudor sove.

reigns, Parliament subservient to the sovereign, but each

sovereign somewhat influenced by public

opinion. (f) Under James I royal proclamations declared

by Parliament not to have the force of law. 2. Period of struggle to establish the principle of

parliamentary control of the government (1620
to 1683).
(a) Under the Stuart sovereigns.

Position of King.
Claim to rule by divine right.
Position of Parliamentarians.
The right to rule a prerogative of the representa-

tives of the people.
Chief weapon of Parliament.

The power of the purse.
Important points in the struggle.
Fight for freedom of speech in Parliament.

Case of Sir John Eliot.

Attempted arrest of the five members.
. Fight for control of taxation.

Petition of Right.
Fight for control of the King's ministers.

Attempted impeachment of Buckingham.

Trial and execution of Strafford. Hampden and the ship money contest. (b) Culmination of the struggle.

Civil war and execution of the king. (c) Commonwealth, protectorate and reign of

Charles I successive experiments in reorganiza

tion. (d) Final victory of Parliament in the Revolution

of 1688. References:

“ History of England," Charles M. Andrews.

“Student's History of England,” Samuel Rawson Gardiner.

“Elements of English Constitutional History,” F. C. Montague. “ Selected Readings in English History," Tuell and Hatch. 3. Struggle to establish popular control of Parlia

ment.
(a) Liberty of the Press.

Expiration of the Licensing Act, 1693.
(b) Extension of the Franchise.
Great Reform Bill of 1832.
Reform Bill of 1867.
Reform Bill of 1884.
Recent struggle for Woman Suffrage.

(c) Establishment of popular control of the King's

ministers.
Development of the Cabinet.
The Cabinet of To-day.

Its members
Its relation to the King.

Its relation to the House of Commons.
(d) The Revolution of 1911. Establishment of

popular control of the House of Lords.

Abolition of veto power of the House of Lords. References:

“History of England,” Charles M. Andrews.

“Short History of England with Supplement,” Edward P. Cheyney.

"Readings in English History,” Edward P. Cheyney. "Modern European History," Charles D. Hazen. “ Constitutional History of England,” Vol. III, T. E. May.

“Elements of English Constitutional History," F. C. Montague.

“ The Theory and Practice of the English Government,” T. F. Moran.

“ The Governments of Europe," Frederick A. Ogg. “Medieval and Modern Times," James Harvey Robinson. “ Development of Modern Europe," Robinson and Beard.

“ Outlines of European History," Vol. II, Robinson and Beard.

“Selected Readings in English History,” Tuell and Hatch. “ The Modern World,” Willis M. West. B. England the Mother of Colonies.

Map study of the present dominions of Great Britain.
Comparison of the spirit of Shakespeare's England "A

jewel set in a silver sea," with Miss Cone's " Glory

of ships that sought far goals." 1. England's part in the explorations of the fifteenth cen

tury. Work of John Cabot and the basis of England's claim

to North America. 2. The Merchant Adventurers. 3. English mariners of the Elizabethan Age. Drake, Frobisher, Hawkins, Sir Humphrey Gilbert

and Sir Walter Raleigh.

The spirit and motive of their explorations. 4. Great trading companies of the sixteenth and seven

teenth centuries—Muscovy Company, Levant Com-
pany, Guinea Company, East India Company, London

Company, and Plymouth Company.
Extent of English commercial influence.
Part played by the government in the work of the com-

panies. The American colonies as business enterprises. 5. The eighteenth century a hundred years of struggle for

colonial supremacy. Underlying doctrine: The mercantilist theory in eco

nomics.

Outline of the struggle with France.
(a) In North America.
Landmarks: Treaty of Utrecht, 1713

Peace of Paris, 1763.

Treaty of Versailles, 1783.
(b) In India.
Work of Clive.
Work of Hastings.

Reorganization of the government of India.
(c) Struggle for self-defence against Napoleon.
Nelson and Wellington.
Special topic: Study of English poetry as an in-

dex to the national feeling of the period.

References:

“ History of England,” Charles M. Andrews.

“European Background of American History," Edward P. Cheyney.

“History of England in the Age of Elizabeth,” Vol. I, Edward P. Cheyney.

“Supplement to Short History of England,” Edward P. Cheyney.

“Outlines of English Industrial History," Cunningham and McArthur.

“ History of Commerce," Clive Day.
“History of Commerce in Europe," H. de B. Gibbins.
“ Development of Modern Europe," Robinson and Beard.
“England Overseas," Vols. II and III, I. W. Tilby.
“ Expansion of the British Empire,” W. H. Woodward.
6. Expansion of the British Empire in the Nineteenth

Century.
(a) In India.
Struggle with the Mahratta Confederacy.
Extension of territory to the border of China.
Annexation in Burma.
Conquest of the Cindh and Punjab regions.
The Indian Mutiny.

Causes and results.

Condition in 1914.
(b) The Dominion of Canada.

The Canadian Rebellion; its causes and results.
Condition in 1914.
(c) The Australasian Colonies.
Early explorations.

Condition in 1914.
(d) In Africa.
(1) South Africa.

Cape Colony (work of Livingstone and Stanley).

First and Second Boer Wars.
(2) British Central African possessions.
(3) The English in Egypt.

Reasons for interference.
Campaign in the Soudan.

Present situation.
(4) England in the islands, East and West.

(5) England in the Far East. References: “ History of Commerce," Clive Day. “History of Commerce in Europe,” H. de B. Gibbins. “ The New Map of Africa,” Herbert Adam Gibbons. “ The Obvious Orient,” Albert Bushnell Hart. “ Modern European History,” Charles D. Hazen. “Medieval and Modern Times," James Harvey Robinson. “ Development of Modern Europe,” Robinson and Beard.

“ Outlines of European History," Vol. II, Robinson and Beard.

“England Overseas,” A. W. Tilby.

“The Expansion of the British Empire,” W. H. Woodward.

“ The Modern World,” Willis M. West. C. Internal Changes in England affecting her commercial

development.
I. The Fight for Free Trade.

The Corn Laws and their repeal.

Adoption of Free Trade as a general policy.
II. The Industrial Revolution.

Change from the domestic to the factory system.
Results of the factory system, industrial, economic and

social. keferences:

“Introduction to the Social and Industrial History of England,” Edward P. Cheyney.

“ Outlines of English Industrial History,” Cunningham and McArthur.

“ English Industrial History," H. de B. Gibbins. “History of Industry in England,” H. de B. Gibbins. “History of Commerce in Europe,” H. de B. Gibbins. “ Industrial History of Modern England,” G. H. Perris. “Development of Modern Europe,” Vol. II, Robinson and Beard.

“ Selected Readings in English History," Tuell and
Hatch.
D. Burning Questions at the Outbreak of the Great War.
I. Home Rule for Ireland.
Historical Survey.
1. The Period of Misrule.
Ireland under Henry II.
Ireland under the Tudors.

Poyning's Law.
Ireland under the Stuarts.

Wentworth in Ireland.
Cromwell's policy for Ireland.
National Uprising for the Stuarts.

Battle of the Boyne and the Treaty of Limerick.
Religious and economic oppression of Ireland in

the eighteenth century.
2. Act of Union.
3. Nineteenth century attempts to redress Ireland's

wrongs.
Catholic Emancipation Bill.
Land reforms.

Charles Stewart Parnell.

Disestablishment of the Irish Church. References:

“History of England,” Charles M. Andrews, Index Under Ireland.

* Short History of England,” Supplement, Edward P. Cheyney.

“ Ireland's Story," Johnston and Spencer. “ England in the Nineteenth Century," Justin McCarthy. “ England in Our Own Times,” Justin McCarthy. “ Ireland,” O'Connor Morris. “Outlines of European History," Vol. II, Robinson and Beard.

" Ireland's Cause in England's Parliament," Goldwin Smith.

“ Selected Readings in English History," Tuell and Hatch.

4. The Twentieth Century in Ireland.

Renewal of the Home Rule Struggle.
Difficulty with Ulster.

Historical explanation.
Policy of John Redmond.
Rebellion of 1915.

Policy of Lloyd George.
II. War on Poverty.

Workmen's Compensation Act.
Legislation in favor of Trade Unions.
Old Age Pensions.
Employment Bureaus.
Wage Boards.
National Insurance.
New Method of Taxation.

Lloyd George Budget.
References:

“Supplement," Edward P. Cheyney.
“Social Progress in Contemporary Europe," F. A. Ogg.

“Outlines of European History," Vol. II, Robinson and Beard.

“Modern World,” Willis M. West.

III. Socialism.

Its principles.
Organizations for extending Socialism.

Social Democratic Federation.

Fabian Society. References:

“Short History of England,” Supplement, Cheyney, und other text-books as above.

IV. Syndicalism. References:

“Syndicalism,” John Graham Brooks. " Supplement,” Edward P. Cheyney.

GERMANY. General References:

Statesman's Year Book. “ Germany and the Germans,” Price Collier. “German Life in Town and Country," Edgar Dawson. “ Germany of To-day," George Stuart Fullerton. “ Europe Since 1815," Charles D. Hazen. “Modern European History," Charles D. Hazen. “Socialized Germany," F. C. Howe.

“National Geographic Magazine,” May, 1914, “ The Ger. man Nation."

“ History of Western Europe," James Harvey Robinson. “Medieval and Modern Times," James Harvey Robinson. “ Development of Modern Europe,” Robinson and Beard. “Outlines of European History," Vol. II, Robinson and Beard."

“ History of Modern Europe,” Willis M. West.
The Modern World,” Willis M. West.
A. Government of the German Empire.

Relation powers of Emperor, Bundesrath and Reichstag.
Position of Chancellor.
Special Topics:
Comparison of position of the Kaiser with that of the

King of England.
Comparison of position of the Chancellor with that of

the British Premier.
Division of electoral districts compared with that in

the United States. Functions of the government in the German Empire

compared with the functions of the United States

government. Special References:

"Governments and Parties in Continental Europe,” Lowell. B. Position and Influence of Prussia in the Empire. Preponderating influence of Prussia in the German con

federation.
Characteristic policies of the Prussian monarchy.
Absolutism; extension of territory; militarism.

Examples: Frederick II and William II.
C. City Government.
Administration of German cities.

Expert training for municipal office.
Municipal socialism.
Appearance of German cities.

Method of city planning.
Provision for education and recreation.
Government care for citizens.
Special References:

“ European Cities at Work,” F. C. Howe. “ Government of European Cities,” William B. Monroe. Contemporary Civilization," Charles Seignobos. D. Historical Development of the German Empire Since

1815.
German Confederation of 1815.

Prussia's Custom Union.

The Frankfort Parliament and its Failure.
Work of Bismarck and William I (1858-1888).

Policy of Blood and Iron.
The Schleswig-Holstein War and its Results.
The Austro-Prussian War.
Formation of the North German Confederation.
The Franco-Prussian War.

Proclamation of the new German Empire at Versailles.
E. Economic Germany.
Natural Resources.
Transportation System.
Rivers and Canals, Railroads and Ports.

Practical working of State Socialism. Industries.

Organization of Industry.

Condition of the laborer in city and country.
Commerce.

Its extent.
Its methods.

Tariff policy and the free ports.
Special References:

"Outlines of Economic History," Cheesman A. Herrick.

“Socialized Germany," F. C. Howe. Special Topics:

“Socialized Germany," the Port of Hamburg, Howe. “Seen in Germany,” the Lens Works at Jena, Baker. “Seen in Germany," Shipbuilding, Baker.

“Socialized Germany,” Mines, Forests and Agricultural
Lands, Howe.
F. Education in Germany.
General Characteristics.

Thoroughness.
Adaptation of educational system to all forms of pub-

lic service.
Elementary Education.
Vocational Education.

The Gymnasia and Universities. G. Tendencies of German Literature and Thought. Emphasis on the idea of duty, especially duty to one's

· country.
Kant, Fichte, Hegel.
Glorification of the German nation in

Schiller, historic drama.
German historians.

Great impetus given to the nationalist spirit.

Recent development of the Pan-German idea.
H. German Expansion.

Colonies in Africa.
Island possessions.
Commercial interests in China, Asia Minor and Latin

America.
Special References:

“ The New Map of Europe,” Herbert Adams Gibbons. “ The New Map of Africa," Herbert Adams Gibbons.

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RUSSIA.

General References:

Statesman's Year Book. Text-books as above. “ The Children of the Nations,” Poultney Bigelow. “ History of Commerce," Clive Day. “ Europe Since 1815," Charles D. Hazen. “Outlines of Economic History,” Cheesman A. Herrick. “ History of Commerce in Europe," H. D. Gibbons.

“Geography in Russian History," “ Popular Science Monthly," January, 1915, Lingelbach.

“Russian Life in Town and Country," Palmer.

“Through Central Asia,” Graham Phillips. “Russia in 1916,” Graham Phillips.

“Development of Modern Europe,” Robinson and Beard.

“Nationality and the War,” A. J. Toynbee. “War and Democracy,” R. W. Seton-Watson.

A. The Land and Its Resources.
Its vast extent.
Its varied character.
Difficulties in transportation.
Paucity of seaports.
The struggle for harbors.
1. Under Peter the Great.
Capture of Azov and Riga.
Building of St. Petersburg.
2. The Siberian Railway establishing connection with
Vladivostok.
3. Present struggle for railway communication with
the ice-free port of Semionova.
B. The Russian People.
Races.
Characteristics.
Colonization within the Empire.

C. The Government of Russia.
The revolutionary government of 1917.

I. Underlying causes of the revolution. Absolutism of the Czars from Peter the Great to Nicholas II. Government policy of repression. The spy system. Exile to Siberia by judicial process and by administrative process II. Methods of Revolt 1. Peaceful propaganda. 2. Use of the strike as a means of revolution. 3. War on the government by terrorists.

III. Representative organizations in the government. The Douma. Its origin and history. The Zemstvo. D. The Russian Religion. Origin of the Greek Catholic Church. Organization of the Church. Position of the Czar. Attitude towards the Jews. Effect of the religion on foreign affairs. Russia the natural protector of Greek Catholic Christians in the Balkan States.

E. Education in Russia.
Large percentage of illiteracy.
Political tendencies of students.
Restriction on study of history and political science.
F. Russian treatment of subject peoples.
Poland.
Finland.

ITALY.

A. Present Government of Italy.

B. Steps by which Italian unity was achieved.

Italy in 1815 “a geographical expression.”
Position of Piedmont in Italy.

Work of Mazzini and Cavour.

War of 1859 and its results.
Union of the northern states under Piedmont.

Garibaldi and the addition of the two Sicilies to the

union. Acquisition of Venetia in 1868. Final union with Rome as the capital in 1870.

C. Position of the Pope in Italy.

D. Economic condition of Italy. E. Colonial ambitions.

Italian part in the Triple Alliance due to jealousy at the French annexation of Tunis.

Conquests in East Africa.

Occupation of Tripoli and Rhodes.

F. “Irridentism " as a moving force in Italian politics.

THE AUSTRO-HUNGARIAN DUAL MONARCHY.

References:

Text-books as above:
“Governments and Parties
Lowell.
“The Governments of Europe,” F. A. Ogg.
“The Balkans,” W. M. Sloane.

A. The people of Austria-Hungary.
Various races within the empire; their mutual jealousies
and nationalist ambitions.

B. The Government.
The dual monarchy.
The delegations.
The constitutions of Austria and Hungary.
Circumstances under which this government was formed
in 1867.

C. International Relations.
Close alliance between Austria and Germany.
Extension of Austrian influence in the Balkans.
Administration of Bosnia and Herzegovina by Austria
after the Congress of Berlin, 1878.
Annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina to Austria,
1908.
Formation of the state of Albania to block the growth
of Servia.
Result.

in Continental Europe,”

THE BALRAN STATES.

General References:
Text-books as above.
Statesman's Year Book.
“National Geographic Magazine,” 1915, articles on the
various Balkan States.
“Europe Since 1815,” Charles D. Hazen.
“The Old World in the New,” E. A. Ross.
“Political History of Europe Since 1814,” Charles Seig-
nobos.
“The Balkans,” W. M. Sloane.

A. Turkey in Europe.
Its origin, capture of Constantinople, 1453.
Its original territory.
Its position in the nineteenth century.
“The sick man of Europe.”
Reasons for its support by the western powers in the
Crimean War and the Russo-Turkish wars.

B. The Government.
The Sultan, religious and political head of the govern-
ment.
The Parliament.
General character of Turkish rule over subject people.
The Bulgarian atrocities.
The Armenian atrocities.

C. Independent states which have been formed from the
territory of Turkey in Europe.
1. Greece in 1829.
Its present government.
Its economic condition.
Its territorial ambitions.

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