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EDITED BY PROFESSOR WAYLAND J. CHASE, UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN.
GRIFFIS, WILLIAM ELLIOTT. The Mikado: Institution and
Person. A Study of the Internal Forces of Japan.
Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1915. Pp. viii,
Those who have read “The Religions of Japan " and “The Mikado's Empire,” by the same author, will have a fairly good idea of the general character of this book. Dr. Griffis has been a student of Japanese history for over forty-five years, and was long engaged in Japan in educational work. In this connection he made many acquaintances among the more thoughtful Japanese, and was fortunate in enjoying numerous audiences with the great Mikado Mutsuhito who died in 1912. It is especially the career of this personage that he discusses, but much is said of the earlier conditions which this Mikado had to overcome before he acquired the power to which he eventually arrived. The peculiar influences of Chinese culture, the qualities of Shintoism—so strange to the Western mind— and the dual government of Mikado and Shogun are in turn discussed. Apart from these chapters which present such a foreign atmosphere to Occidentals, are some concluding chapters which have an immediate bearing upon the Great War. According to Dr. Griffis, the rise of Japan, leading to the defeat of Russia, sounded the signal for the Teutonic attack. “In a large sense of the word, Mikadoism was the force that disturbed ‘the balance of power' in Europe, tumbled the edifices of British and Russian, German and French statecraft into ruin, and compelled world views.” The disclosure of Russia's weakness, the sudden increase in the armies of Germany and France, and then the Great War, all followed as a matter of course. HENRY L. CANNON.
KNOWLTON, DANIEL C., AND Howe, SAMUEL B. Essentials in Modern European History. New York: Longmans, Greene & Co., 1917. Pp. 437. $1.50. This is a companion volume to Howe's “Essentials in Early European History '' (same publishers, 1912). I he present volume follows the excellent outlines by Knowlton and Wolfson, which were published a few years ago in THE HISTORY TEACHER's MAGAZINE. It has often been said by teachers that one reason for unsatisfactory text-books was that they were usually written by college or university men who had never had high school teaching experience, and were therefore not familiar with the problems of the teachers in the secondary schools. This objection cannot be raised against this book, as both of the authors are high school teachers. The book begins with a survey of conditions in Europe in the eighteenth century. One chapter is given to each of the following subjects: (1) “Social and Political Conditions; ” (2) “Industrial and Commercial Conditions; ” (3) “Rival Colonial and Commercial Powers and the Commercial Wars of the Eighteenth Century.” Then follows the “French Revolution " and the “Napoleonic Periods,” and an excellent chapter on the “Industrial Revolution.” Some 218 pages are given to the period before 1815, including the “Industrial Revolution,” and only some 187 pages to the period since 1815. This division hardly bears out the statement in the preface: “The march of events, however, has been so rapid that correspondingly more space has been devoted to contemporary history than to the earlier epochs.” Although the book has just been published, the story really
stops with 1914. There is no attempt to explain adequately the causes of the Great War or to narrate the events of the last three years, although incidental reference is made at times to the probable effects of the war of 1914.
The narrative is interesting and usually clear. One sentence at least may be mentioned as an exception to this rule. Speaking of the change in the British colonial policy after the Seven Years' War (p. 76), the authors say: “When the great struggle was over the situation seemed to demand that the American colonies should not only repay a part of the expenditure of the millions of pounds sterling which had been spent in establishing a British dominion in America, but that they should help bear the burden of the new plans of defense which experience had shown to be so necessary.” The reviewer questions the accuracy of the first part of the statement so far as any intention on the part of Great Britain was concerned, and believes that the student would gain an erroneous impres. sion from the sentence as to what Great Britain proposed to do with the money raised from the colonies.
There are some forty-two maps and plans, some fifteen of which are colored. The illustrations are good. The teaching helps are excellent. The references at the close of each chapter are to a few good books which should be in every high school library, and are grouped under topics for collateral reading. Source studies and suggestions for map work accompany the several chapters.
WILSON. P. SHORTRIDGE.
University of Minnesota.
BURGESS, John W. The Administration of President Hayes. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1916. Pp. xi, 154. $1.00. This little volume comprises the Larwill lectures, at Kenyon College, for 1915. The first lecture reviews the political, economic and social situation in the nation in 1876; the second describes the election of 1876, the disputed count and the inauguration; the third discusses the southern and the financial policies of Hayes; and the final one gives an account of “the re-establishment of the government upon its constitutional foundations,” which is to say, the contests with the Democrats over the riders upon the appropriation bills and with the Republican leaders over civil service reform. The author has presented his views with the clarity and felicity which distinguish all his writings. Nowhere, for instance, is there a clearer statement in brief compass of the Republican contention that the certificates of the Republican electors from the disputed states in 1876-1877 were the only legal certificates. At the same time the reader finds frequent illustrations of that proneness to dogmatic assertion which is also characteristic. For example, it is asserted that “the claimed legislature . . . and . . . claimed governor [the McEnery government of Louisiana] had never had any legal existence" (p. 51); “no President or Vice-President had ever had a more complete title legally to his office than did Mr. Hayes and Mr. Wheeler’” (p. 55), and that “any grounds of complaint in Florida, Louisiana, and South Carolina against the Republicans . . . were entirely over-balanced by those against the Democrats” (p. 55). While he has added nothing to what even the casual student has known of the facts of the period, Doctor Burgess has probably succeeded in his main purpose, which was to give to the world a better appreciation of the high character and the sound public services of President Hayes. But even the most sincere admirers of that president are likely to question the assertion that he was “called by more than human appointment to lead the Republican party" (p. 36), and that the panic of 1893 was caused by the failure of the public to heed the advice of Hayes in 1878 (p. 100). It seems very like an over-statement to say that Hayes's successful opposition to the Democratic efforts to place riders on the appropriation bills was, as a defense of the constitutional against the “parliamentary" system, alone enough to render his administration “immortal’’ (p. 124), or to insist that he was the finest example of American manhood that ever occupied the White House (p. 150).
It hardly seems correct, in view of the theory adopted by Congress itself and the opinion of the Supreme Court which sustained this theory, to say that Congress “created new States in the South with the boundaries of the old antebellum States " (p. 4). A minor error is the statement that there were two certificates, instead of three, before Congress from Florida in the disputed election case (p. 47). A more serious one is the bald assertion that neither Hayes nor his friends made any agreement with Southerners for the withdrawal of the Federal troops from Louisiana and South Carolina in return for support of the decisions of the electoral commission (p. 88), for it flatly ignores the evidence produced by Dr. P. L. Haworth (“The Disputed Presidential Election of 1876,” pp. 268-272), as well as the statement of a participant, Henry Watterson (“Century Magazine,” May, 1913, p. 19).
The typographical work is excellent, and there is a good index.
CHARLEs W. RAMsdell.
The University of Texas.
HAYES, CARLTON J. H. A. Political and Social History of .
Modern Europe. In two volumes. New York: The Macmillan Co., 1916. Vol. I, pp. xxvi, 597. $2.00. Vol. II, pp. ix, 767. $2.25.
These large volumes were written primarily as a textbook for college and university students. As such they have already been very favorably received. Their most distinctive feature is the very large amount of space devoted to the social and economic side of history. Intellectual development and scientific progress also receive very full treatment. Along these lines Dr. Hayes has done a real service to teachers of history by gathering together much material not easily found elsewhere. But to make room for this material he has compressed the political history into brief space, and treated the religious history of the Reformation period with very great brevity. In these respects the book leaves the student with somewhat scanty or hazy information about some very important matters. There is, however, no great lack of other books in which the political history can be found.
Dr. Hayes's books will prove very convenient for high school teachers. But it is likely that very many high school pupils would find the language too difficult and the material rather heavy. Hence the books are not suitable for general assignment to students in high schools.
Ohio State University.
MATHEws, John MABRY. Principles of American State Administration. New York: D. Appleton & Co., 1917. Pp. xiv, 533. $2.50. “The development of the State administrative organization has for a long time past been largely unconscious, and consequently haphazard. Endless incongruities and absurdities were the natural result. Where improvements in organization occurred they were usually accidental, partial and sporadic. The present organization of State administration contains little evidence of unified design or sysupon her relative importance from 1300 to 1600, as upon the exceptional development of the French Monarchy and the definite form given during that time to her political institutions.”
tematic planning. It consists of a complicated mass of separate and disjointed authorities, operating with little reference to each other or to any central control. This situation is due in part to the desire of political ‘experts’ to keep the government complicated so as to weaken popular control, and, in part, to general popular ignorance of the importance of efficient administration. There are, however, signs of an awakening from this condition of complacent inertia.”
This book is a painstaking and systematic effort to aid in correcting these evils, and will doubtless be found more helpful to the student of State administration than any other single volume now in print. It is presented in four parts; an introduction, the organization of the administration, the functions of the administration, and some conclusions. Many will not be willing to follow the author in his two-fold classification of elementary functions of the State, but this is a matter of pure theory. Most students will follow him in all the practical reforms he proposes, such as the short ballot, the single-chambered State legislature, and the like. It is to be hoped that the appearance of such books as this will lead the writers of text-books for schools to give more and more attention to State government which has thus far been so completely neglected by them. So much so that few realize that most of our public welfare is dependent on the State government which is, in such a State as New York, still all that the author in the above paragraph has described. It is sufficient to say that it consists of some 170 but slightly related and almost irresponsible organs of government.
Hunter College of the City of New York.
PALMER, FREDERICK. My Second Year of the War. New
York: Dodd, Mead & Co., 1917. Pp. 404. $1.50.
Mr. Palmer was the only accredited American war correspondent with the British armies in France during 1916, and had the best opportunities to see the battles of the Somme. He has written an excellent account of the great offensive with all its grimness. To anyone who wishes to know the details of how these tremendous attacks are prepared for and carried out, this book will be intensely interesting. The author's style is a bit sketchy, but it is readable and interesting. Very unfortunately, there is not a single map in the whole book with which to locate the great number of places referred to in the text. This is a serious cmission. But in spite of this the book is well worthy of attention by the general reader.
Ohio State University.
Robinson, CHALFont. Continental Europe, 1270 to 1598. Revised and adapted from the French of P. Bondois and Ch. Dufayard. New York: Henry Holt & Co., 1916. Pp. xv, 489. $2.00.
This book is, as the author-translator says in the preface, “mainly a free translation of L'histore de l'Europe et en particulier de la France de 1270 à 1610, par P. Bondois, Agrégé d'histoire, Professeur au lycée Buffon, et Ch. Dufayard, Docteur ès lettres, Professeur au lycée Henry IV.” Some chapters of the original work have been omitted in the translation and some additions or expansions have been made to other chapters.
In the form as published here the book is particularly full on the history of France during the period of three centuries from the close of the thirteenth to the close of the sixteenth centuries. “The justification . . . for thus emphasizing France,” says the preface, “rests not so much
While intended for the use of college classes, the book would be valuable for reference in the high school history library. In addition to use for reference in European history classes, Chapter XVII on “Great Inventions and Discoveries” and Chapter XVIII on “The Conquest of the New World” would be valuable for classes in American colonial history. The work would not be too difficult for occasional reading by high school students.
WILSON PORTER SHORTRIDGE.
University of Minnesota.
college students do not have it. (September 8, 1917), 285-288. McIntire, Ruth E. “Oral History for the Middle Grades.” “Normal Instructor and Primary Plans,” XXVI (September, 1917), 35-36, 70. Putney, Walter K. “Ordinary Folk who Made Extraordinary History.” “Popular Educator,” XXXV (September, 1917), 7. Schlesinger, A. M. “History Teaching and Geography.” Ohio State University Bulletin, XXI (March, 1917). Ohio History Teachers’ Journal. Bulletin No. 5, 175-178. Schlesinger, A. M. “How Can Local History be Taught?” Ohio State University Bulletin, XXI (March, 1917). Ohio History Teachers’ Journal. Bulletin No. 5, 166-167. Secondary Schools Association. Annual report and conference. “Education ” (London), XXX (August 10, 1917), 50-51. Townsend, A. J. “Interscholastic Debating in Ohio and Its Relation to American History and Civics.” Ohio State University Bulletin, XXI (March, 1917). Ohio History Teacher's Journal. Bulletin No. 5, 168-174. “ United States and the Great War.” Ohio State University Bulletin, XXI (March, 1917). Ohio History Teacher's Journal. Bulletin No. 5, 181-182.
“School and Society,” VI
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