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(“Daring in War”) must be ascribed the credit of wrecking the grandiose schemes of Dupleix. Follow Clive's exploits on the map; his bold seizure and gallant defense of Arcot (1751), which established British prestige in the Carnatic; his recapture of Calcutta (1757); his conquest of Chandernagore (1757); his amazing victory at Plassey (1757), which enabled him to set up a British protégé as nawab of Bengal. Follow also the subsequent British victories at Masulipatam (1758), Wandewash (1760), and Pondicherry (1761). Although by the treaty of Paris (1763), France retained five unfortified posts in India as relics to remind her of Dupleix's dream of empire, the political power of France in India was destroyed; Dupleix had returned home disconsolate in 1754; and the French East India Company was shortly afterwards dissolved (1769). The British, however, still had the native princes to deal with. Shade by oblique lines the territories directly under British control at the close of Clive's administration (Shepherd, 137). One of Clive's last acts was to acquire from the Mogul the right to collect the revenues and maintain the armies of Bengal, Behar, Orissa, and the Northern Circars; hence, these provinces should be outlined as belonging to the British sphere of influence.


Text: Hayes I, 366-388; Rambaud, The Expansion of Russia. Atlas: Shepherd, 2-3, 120, 124, 130, 138-139, 170-171; Muir, plates, 1, 26, 27, 59, 60, 63; Hayes I, 369 map; Hayes II, 467 map. McKinley Outline Maps Nos. 101a and 102b. The story of Russia, like that of her western neighbor, Prussia, has been one of continual expansion. There are two phases of this expansion: (A) the gradual extension of her frontiers eastward over the great plains of Northern Asia, much such a movement as the westward expansion in our own country; and (B) the pushing of her boundaries south and west at the expense of civilized states, each of which, during some period of our study, played a considerable role in the history of Europe. A. Eastward Expansion. First notice briefly the acquisition of northern Asia. Glance again at a physical map (Shepherd, 2-3, 170-171; Muir, plates 1, 59, 60) and observe how lack of natural barriers would invite expansion eastward. Read Hayes I, 367, and, referring to your atlas (Shepherd, 170-171; Muir, plate 63; Hayes II, 467), follow the line of eastward expansion, locating (on McKinley Map No. 102b) with dates of foundation the cities mentioned in the text. Draw as accurately as you can the boundaries of Russia in Asia as they were in the year 1795 and color lightly the lands east of the Urals which then formed a part of the Russian Empire. This will serve to show that Russia is naturally as much an Asiatic as a European power. B. European Expansion. In the west, Russia had to settle with Sweden the question of the control of the Eastern Baltic; with the Turks, the question of the control of the Black Sea; and with Poland, the question of the hegemony of Slavic Europe. We have already seen these three states in clash with Austria and Prussia (Map Studies Ten and Eleven); their most implacable foe was, however, this great Oriental Slavic Empire, founded by the prince of Moscow and forced into the councils of Western Europe by Peter the Great. (If you study the two maps in Muir, plate 26, reading also the explanation of those maps on pp. 30-32 of Muir, the above statement will appear more striking.) Read now your text (Hayes I, 368-369) and then indicate on your map (No. 101a) the successive acquisitions made by Russia in Europe from the time of Ivan III to the ac

cession of Peter the Great. (From Map Study Number One you can get the extent of Russian territory at the death of Ivan III.) Most important acquisitions were made by Ivan IV in the valleys of the Volga and the Don, and by Alexis against the Poles on the Dnieper. Consult for this purpose Shepherd, 138-139; Muir, plate 27. The former is difficult to read; the latter has but little detail. Rambaud's . Expansion of Russia, pp. 16-18, may help to explain these maps for the interested student.

It remained for Peter the Great (1689-1725) to push purposefully the expansion of Russia to the West and South. Outline the boundaries between Russia and the possessions of her neighbors—Sweden, Poland, and the Ottoman Empire —at the accession of Peter the Great. (Shepherd 120, 124, 130, 138-139; Muir, plate 26a; Hayes I, 369 map.) Then after reading Hayes I, 369-379, show the territorial acquisitions made by Peter. Consult Shepherd and Muir as above, and also map in Hayes I, 369. State clearly in your key from whom and by what treaty each acquisition was made. Locate Poltava.

The work of Peter the Great was carried on by his successors. Trace the gains made during the eighteenth century, noting especially those of Catherine the Great, at the expense of the Turks and the Poles. Read Hayes I, 379388. Consult atlases as above. In tracing the partitions of Poland, note, but do not indicate, the acquisitions of Prussia and Austria.

Now glance again at the map in Muir, plate 26. Russia has secured her “windows.” The middle kingdoms have been greatly weakened; one has disappeared entirely. But Russia has still to secure a satisfactory outlet to the south, nor is her westward expansion stopped. (Compare Map Study Number Seventeen.)

UNIFICATION of ITALY, 1848-1871.

Text: Hayes II, 163-175.

Atlas: Shepherd, 161; Muir, plate 18b; Robertson, plates 16-18; Hayes II, 165 map, 427 map.

McKinley Outline Map No. 132a.

Recall the reorganization of the Italian peninsula as accomplished by Napoleon (Map Study Number Sixteen), and the virtual undoing of his work by the Congress of Vienna (Map Study Number Seventeen). Observe in this connection, however, that although the house of Habsburg has tightened its grip more firmly than ever upon the peninsula, the kingdom of Sardinia has emerged with increased territory acquired at the expense of Genoa. Recall also the unsuccessful attempt of Sardinia to drive Austria from Italian soil in 1848 (Map Study Number Nineteen). A later attempt will prove more successful.

As you read your text (Hayes II, 163-175) try to make your work visual by constant reference to the atlas (Shepherd, 161; Muir, plate 18b; Hayes II, 165 map). Draw on your outline map the kingdom of Sardinia as it was in 1848. Locate Plombières and indicate the territories which Cavour promised as the price of French aid against Austria. Now trace on your map the steps in the unification of Italy, indicating in your key when and how each state was annexed to Sardinia (1859-60). Then show what the newly constituted kingdom of Italy secured from her alliance with Prussia in 1866, and from the Franco-German war of 1870-71. Had Italy now reached her national boundaries? Show the lands in which the Italian population predominates, but which still remained in the possession of the Habsburgs (Hayes II, 427 map). This will help to explain Italy's entrance into the War of the Nations (1915).


A number of recent articles in the History TEACHER's MAGAZINE have emphasized the value of the historical museum as an aid in school work. Today, many universities and colleges as well as normal schools have well equipped and discriminately selected museums. Therefore, it is not necessary to discuss the general value of the history museum as a means of stimulating interest in the past and making it real to present-day students.

The great majority of high schools will never be able to emulate the colleges in developing the museum. Some of the larger secondary schools with their thousands of students may succeed in getting together a creditable collection, but the building up of a museum of any real proportions will scarcely be possible to the average, high school. But, it is not impossible to make use of the museum idea in the smallest of high schools. History teachers in these schools and in those somewhat larger may be interested in a plan that we worked out last year. Ours is a union high school serving a community of about ten or twelve thousand people—a rather typical situation.

The difficulties in arranging for a permanent museum suggested the possibility of having a temporary one. The individual who cherishes a relic of value hesitates to give it away, or even to part with it for any indefinite period. However, he usually is very glad to loan it for a day or two if good care is guaranteed. On these terms we secured many articles that we could not have obtained otherwise.

Our American history classes were in the midst of the Civil War period when Lincoln's birthday approached. This suggested to us the idea of getting together all the material of that time that we could and arranging it in a “Lincoln Day Museum.” An appeal was made not only to the history classes but to the school at large. A great deal of enthusiasm was developed as the discovery of one souvenir after another was announced. Soon the whole community was enlisted in the movement and it was gratifying the number of things of real value that were found. The fact that we are in a western state far remote from what might be called the Civil War section made these discoveries all the more remarkable. The day before the exhibit the material was brought to the high school and responsible students received and tagged the different articles. These were arranged on tables placed in one of the larger rooms. During the morning the history classes were taken to this room and a study of the various exhibits was made. In the afternoon, the school as a whole, as well as the people of the community, including the old soldiers, the Relief Corps, and the Daughters of Veterans, had an opportunity of seeing the museum. The results, we believe, were very much worth while. Perhaps not the least of these was the bringing together of the history department and the patrons of the school upon a common ground of interest.

There was a most varied assortment of articles in the museum. Many reflected the home life of ’61 while others were of the war and the field of battle. The boys gloried in the guns, the sabers, the bayonets, the swords, pieces of shell, revolvers, and canteens; the girls found much to interest them in the soldier's housewife, the old Seth Thomas clock, a beautifully worked bed-spread, an old fashioned snuff-box, samplers and an old time scrap-book. All were eager to examine the confederate money, the shinplasters, the old stamps and the war time envelopes. A genuine copy of the “Vicksburg Citizen" printed on wall paper was presented to the school by the G. A. R. post as was also a copy of the New York Herald containing the account of the assassination of Lincoln. A number of pictures and books, several documents signed by the great President and a valuable collection of Civil War cartoons made up another section of the exhibit. Two diaries of the period were brought in by one of the students. In looking through these we came across this entry: “Nov. 8, 1864. To-day I voted for Abraham Lincoln; to-night I went to a dance and met Molly Adams.” Without doubt, our most ambitious relic was a silver water set belonging to one of our teachers whose father was one of the principals of the famous Brownlow-Pryne debate in 1859 in Philadelphia– “Ought American Slavery to be Perpetuated?” The set was presented to Mr. Pryne by the free Negroes of Philadelphia and bears this inscription:

“Presented Feb. 21, 1859 to the Rev. A. Pryne of McGrawville, New York, by his friends (proscribed Americans) of Philadelphia as a testimonial of their approbation for his able and triumphant defense of human freedom in the late debate with Parson Brownlow of Tennessee.”

This plan has several distinct merits besides making use of the museum idea where it is not possible to have a permanent museum. With the temporary or occasional museum it is much easier to emphasize the period studied than it is with a permanent one which is always accessible to the students. The occasional museum comes to them with a certain freshness and interest that does not always obtain with the permanent museum. Showing the relics of one period only serves to specialize the work in, a way that concentrates the attention of the high school boy and girl. We found that our students enthusiastically entered into the work of collecting the material of the Civil War period. This year we hope to have a Colonial Museum on Washington's birthday. Undoubtedly, one of the most commendable features of the plan is that the work was the result of the efforts of the students themselves. Modest as was our museum, there was some opportunity of teaching the students a little in the way of interpreting values so that they would not be entirely at sea in a real museum. Altogether, the occasional museum presents many opportunities to stimulate interest in historical work and to make it attractive to the secondary student, besides bringing the history department in a concrete way before the community at large.

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Reports from The Historical Field

The Texas History Teachers' Bulletin for November, 1916 (Vol. 5, No. 1), contains a brief statement of the “Problem Method of Teaching History,” by A. W. Birdwell. Superintendent J. T. Davis, of Navasota, describes “The Methods of Teaching Civics in the Schools of Navasota.” Prof. Eugene C. Barker, of the University of Texas, continues his interesting and valuable source readings in Texas history, showing in this issue the friction which developed between the Colonists and the Mexican soldiers. The source extracts are accompanied by a series of suggestive questions and problems.

The November number of “Daughters of the American Revolution Magazine’’ contains an interesting illustrated article upon the surrender of Burgoyne, giving photographs of important sites in connection with Burgoyne's campaign.

A conference upon the Education of Immigrants was held at Buffalo, N. Y., on Tuesday and Wednesday, November 28 and 29, under the chairmanship of Frederic E. Farrington, Director of Immigrant Education, United States Bureau of Education. Among the topics discussed were “The Relations of Chambers of Commerce to Immigrant Education,” “The Relation of Women's Organizations to Such Education,” “The Training of Teachers for the Instruction

of Immigrants,” “The Importance of Giving Civic Educa

tion to the Immigrant,” and “A Discussion of Domestic Immigration Program for the City, the State and the Nation.”

Arthur B. Archer, of the Holt Secondary School, Liverpool, England, has for some time been experimenting with a new course in the history of discovery. The course was given to students of the same grade as American high school students. It was spread over two years with one lesson every two weeks, and was made supplementary to the work in history and geography. As a result of this experiment, Mr. Archer has issued in book form “Stories of Exploration and Discovery " (New York, G. P. Putnam's Sons, 65 cents), in which he gives a simple narrative of the explorations from the time of the Vikings and Marco Polo to Sir John Franklin and the attainment of the North and South Poles. The work has a number of maps, illustrations, and a brief bibliography for further reading.

Prof. Milledge L. Bonham, Jr., contributes to the Bulletin of Louisiana State University (Vol. 7, No. 8, August, 1916) a paper entitled, “Recent History: To What Extent to the Exclusion of Other History?”

The United States Department of the Interior has issued a beautifully illustrated series of pamphlets entitled, “National Park Portfolio.” Magnificent photographs are shown of the Yellowstone, Yosemite, Sequoia, Mount Rainier, Crater Lake, Mesa Verde, Glacier, and Rocky Mountain National Parks.

The “Minnesota History Bulletin " for August, 1916, contains a lively story of a trip with the Minnesota exhibition, at the Crystal Palace Exhibit in New York City, 1853. The principal part of the exhibition was a Buffalo Bull which led the Minnesota commissioners a strenuous life in the eastern city. There is a description of the Neill papers presented to the Minnesota Historical Society by the daughter of Rev. E. D. Neill, a noted historian of the colonial period.

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The annual report of the United States Secretary of the Navy for the year 1916 contains an interesting statement of the educational plan proposed for the Navy by Secretary Daniels. The educational work has been greatly expanded during the past year until at the present time the Secretary can state that “every man in the Navy is a student from the Admiral in the War College to the midshipman at the Naval Academy and the apprentice in the Training Station and afloat.” A wide variety of industrial courses is opened by the Navy to ambitious young men, training in electricity, in machine shop work, in engine construction, control in the work of shipwrights, ship fitters, blacksmiths, painters and plumbers, and also in the clerical work of expert stenographers, typewriters, bookkeepers, etc. Opportunities are given those who desire to train for hospital work, and boys with musical talent are taught in schools at Norfolk and San Francisco.

“Revolutionary Leaders of North Carolina" is the title of Number 2 of the North Carolina State Normal and Industrial College Historical Publications. The papers consist of a series of lectures delivered in the spring of 1913 by Mr. R. D. W. Connor, secretary of the North Carolina Historical Commission. The pamphlet contains, first, a general description of the revolutionary movement in North Carolina; this is followed by biographical accounts of John Harney, Cornelius Hornett, Richard Caswell and Samuel Johnston.

“History in the Grades” is the subject of Number 30 of “Teaching,” issued by the Kansas State Normal School at Emporia. The pamphlet furnishes valuable suggestions concerning the work in each of the grades. It gives references to the source of historic pictures, and there is an editorial account illustrated with many views, showing how construction work can be introduced in the history course in the grades. A bibliography of history stories for the grades accompanies the general articles.

The Metropolitan Museum of Arts published in connection with the November number of its Bulletin a four-page leaflet entitled, “Children's Bulletin,” which tells the story of Agnotos and Pyxis, and is preceded by a picture of the Judgment of Paris, a design found on a Greek Toilet Box.

The papers presented at the College Teachers' Session of the Pacific Coast Branch of the American Historical Association, held at Leland Stanford, Junior, University, November 27, 1915, have recently been printed under the title, “The Freshman Year of History in College.” The pamphlet contains three papers, as follows: “The Relation between High School History and Freshman History,” by Edith Jordan Gardner; “Freshman History at the University of California,” by Everett S. Brown, and “Present Tendencies in the Teaching of Freshman History,” by Arley Barthlow Show. The paper on “Freshman History at the University of California " was published in the History

TEACHER's MAGAZINE for October, 1916.

“The Mexican Review,” of which three numbers appeared up to December 1, is published in Washington, D. C., and is devoted to “the enlightenment of the American people in respect to, the hopes, ambitions, beneficent intentions and accomplishments of the constitutionalist government of the Republic of Mexico.”


The Pacific Coast Branch of the American Historical Association held its thirteenth annual meeting at San Diego, December 1 and 2. The program was as follows: Friday afternoon, “The United States in the Caribbean,” by Prof. Waldemar C. Westergaard, Pamona College; “What is Nationality?” by Prof. Tully C. Knoles, University of Southern California; “Town and Municipal Government in the Early Days of Utah,” by Prof. Levi E. Young, University of Utah. Friday evening, Prof. Henry Morse Stephens, presiding, informal addresses. Saturday morning, organizations' session. A. Addresses, “Thirty-three Years of Historical Activity,” by James M. Guinn, secretary of the Southern California. Historical Association; “The Work of the California. Historical Survey Commission,” by Owen C. Coy, secretary and archivist of the Commission. B. Business session. 1. Reports of committees. 2. Election of officers. 3. New business. C. Tours of exhibits. “A County Historical Collection,” by Mrs. Margaret V. Allen, curator of the San Diego Pioneer Society; “Four of the Ethnological Buildings and an Explanation of the School of American Archaeology and Its Work,” by Edgar L. Hewett, director of the School of American Archæology. Saturday afternoon, Teachers' Session. “Motivation of History in the Elementary School,” by W. L. Stephens, Superintendent of Schools, Long Beach; “The Development of Initiative in the High School Student of History,” by Sara L. Dole, Manual Arts High School, Los Angeles; discussion of papers 1 and 2; “Research Work for the Junior College Student,” by Dr. Frederic W. Sanders, Hollywood Junior College; discussion. “History Teaching in the Secondary School from the Standpoint of the College and University,” by Prof. Ephraim D. Adams, Stanford University. Discus. sion. The officers of the branch are as follows: President, Joseph Schafer, University of Oregon; vice-president, Jeanne Elizabeth Wier, University of Nevada; secretary

treasurer, William A. Morris, University of California; the Council, the above officers and Prof. Richard F. Scholz, University of California; Prof. Percy A. Martin, Stanford University, and Miss Jane E. Harnett, Long Beach High School; Program Committee, Robert G. Cleland, Miss Jane Harnett, E. E. Robinson, R. H. Lutz and H. I. Priestley; Committee on Arrangements, W. F. Bliss, Allen H. Wright, Mrs. Margaret V. Allen, Miss Harriet L. Bromley, N. A. N. Cleven.


A meeting of the Northwestern Association of History, Government and Economics Teachers was held in the Lewis and Clark High School, Spokane, on the 26th and 27th of October.

The program for the session of the 26th consisted of an address by Dr. Thomas M. Marshall, of the University of Idaho, on “Western History as a Field for Study.” Dr. Marshall told of some of the more important collections of materials for the study and writing of the history of the Pacific Coast, and something of what had been done already by writers in the field. He emphasized the importance of collecting material for economic and social studies. This address was followed by a round table discussion on “Some Special Methods in History Teaching,” led by Miss Fannie Johnston, of the State Normal School, Cheney, Wash.

On the 27th, Prof. O. H. Richardson, of the University of Washington, gave a most enlightening address on “The Present Situation in the Balkans.” He traced briefly the place of the Balkan States in the precipitation of the present European crisis, and then taking up each State separately, showed its part in the conflict, how far its interests are involved, and its influence upon the ultimate outcome.

The last part of the second session was given to the consideration of a report from a committee on the formulation of the objects of history teaching appointed at the spring meeting of the association. The committee consisted of Prof. Leroy F. Jackson, State College of Washington, chairman; Prof. Edward McMahon, University of Washington; Prof. C. S. Kingston, Cheney Normal; Mr. Ransom A. Mackie, Queen Anne High School, Seattle, and Miss Margaret Boyle, of the Butte (Montana) High School. The committee, after enumerating several minor aims, stated that they considered the two essential values of history instruction to be: (1) A familiarity with social phenomena and facility in drawing conclusions from them, and (2) the development of an historical point of view. The report was adopted with a motion that it be printed and distributed to the members.


On December 1, the History Section of the Oklahoma State Teachers’ Association held its regular annual meeting. The following program was presented: Chairman, Miss Margaret Mitchell, Central State Normal School, Edmond; secretary, Miss Stella Barton, High School, Muskogee. “Use of Illustrative Material in Teaching Local History,” by Miss Lucy Jeston Hampton, Central State Normal School, Edmond; “The Relation of Folklore to History,” by Walter S. Campbell, State University, Norman; “The Study of History as a Preparation for Life,” by E. E. Holmes, Henry Kendall College, Tulsa; and “Advantages to be Derived from a Permanent History Teachers' Association,” by C. W. Turner, High School, Oklahoma City. When the program was finished the one hundred and twenty-five teachers present unanimously voted to organize an independent Oklahoma History Teachers’ Association. The new society will retain its connection with the State Teachers' Association, and have its usual sectional meeting, but will hold another annual meeting in May. Prof. R. G. Sears, of the Ada State Normal School, was elected president and Miss Jeanette Gordon, of the Oklahoma City High School, was elected secretary. An Executive Committee, consisting of Mr. C. W. Turner, head of Oklahoma City High School History Department, chairman; Dean J. S. Buchannan, head of the Oklahoma University History Department, and Miss Margaret Mitchell, of the Central State Normal School. This committee is to draft a suitable constitution and by-laws, prepare a program, and fix the time and place for the next meeting.


The History Section of the New York Teachers' Association met in the Hutchinson High School, Buffalo, N. Y., November 27 and 28, with Prof. Edgar Dawson, of Hunter College, in the chair. The general ‘subject under discussion was local civics, local history, and local archives. The subject of local civics was discussed by Dr. J. Lynn Barnard, of the School of Pedagogy, Philadelphia; the teaching of local history was treated by Albert E. McKinley, of the University of Pennsylvania, and the preservation and use of public archives and records were discussed by Dr. James Sullivan, New York State Historian. Following the presentation of these papers a round table discussion was had concerning the difficulties in the way of teaching local history and civics, and how these difficulties might be met. Among those who took part in the discussion were: Inspector Avery W. Skinner, State Department of Education; Miss Emily M. Totman, Oneida High School; Mr. Charles L. Hewitt, Syracuse East High School; Mr. Charles M. Whitney, Buffalo High School; Miss Rachel M. Jarrold, Fredonia State Normal School; Mr. Edward P. Smith, North Tonawanda High School; Principal George E. Baldwin, Salem High School; Miss Marion S. Skeels, Owego High School.


How urban universities may aid in the training for public service was discussed at the meeting of the Association of Urban Universities, November 15 to 17, 1915, held in Cincinnati. A report of the meeting has recently appeared as Bulletin No. 30, 1916, of the United States Bureau of Education. The Bulletin prints the principal papers presented at the meeting. Among the topics treated is “The Need of Co-operation between Universities and Municipal Corporations.” The paper shows that there was a demand for such service, that business methods can be applied to the conduct of municipal affairs, but that there was need of further investigation of the problems of public service. Methods of preparation for public service were discussed and illustrations given from the practice of the New York Training School for Public Service, and also from the field work carried on by many universities, particularly the Municipal University of Akron, O. Much attention was given to the results of co-operative training for public service. While at least one of the papers dealt rather with what results should be attained, most of the discussion was upon what actual values had been shown. These may be named as practical efficiency, an encouragement of unofficial activity, a more intimate association of the university scholar with his community, and the opening of university courses to persons already engaged in public service.

DEs MoINEs, Iowa, December 10, 1916.

EDITOR HISTORY TEACHER's MAGAZINE: May I be permitted to call attention to a few errors in the report of the Iowa Social Science Teachers' meeting in your December Issue. In the first place, membership in this organization is not limited to university and college professors. The constitution expressly states that all teachers of political science, sociology, or history are eligible to membership in the society, and we are most anxious to have this fact clearly understood. In the second place, some numbers were omitted from the program in your account. On Thursday afternoon two papers were read: “The Iowa Primary Law,” by Henry J. Peterson, Professor of Political Science, Iowa Teachers’ College, and “The Teaching of Iowa History in the Schools of Iowa,” by Dr. Dan E. Clark, of the State Historical Society, Iowa City, Iowa. This meeting was followed by the annual dinner and business session. In the absence of the president, Prof. Louis B. Schmidt, of the Iowa State College, the meeting was in charge of the chairman of the Executive Committee, Prof. Olynthus B. Clark, of Drake University. Officers were chosen as follows: President, Prof. Gilbert G. Benjamin, Iowa University; vice-president, Prof. Henry J. Peterson, Iowa Teachers' College; secretary, Miss Martha Hutchinson, West High School, Des Moines; chairman of Executive Committee, Mr. Thomas Teakle, North High School, Des Moines. On Friday afternoon, in a meeting technically known as the History and Civics Round Table, the opening address was given by Dr. Charles Zueblin, of Boston, on “The New Civic Spirit.” A paper written by Prof. H. G. Plum, of Iowa University, was read by Mr. Clifford G. Moore, instructor in history, Iowa University, on the subject, “The Method of Teaching Current Events.” Miss Mary M. Kaynor read a paper on “The Problem of Elementary History,” and Miss Alice E. Moss discussed “Teaching Community. Civics.” During the business session, the question of closer affiliation between the Round Table and the Society of Social Science Teachers was discussed, and in order to bring this about it was moved “that the history and civics round table become a part of the Iowa Society of Social Science Teachers; and that the chairman of the Executive Committee of the Society of Social Science Teachers, Mr. Thomas Teakle, and the secretary of the Society of Social Science Teachers, Miss Martha Huthinson, be chairman and secretary respectively of the History and Civics Round Table for

- r -> the coming year. Yours very truly,



The first seven volumes of The Journal of American History for $25, f. o. b. Denver, Colorado. E. L. BRow N, 3330 Zuni Street, Denver, Colorado.

THE COLORADO TEACHERS’ AGENCY FRED DICK, Manager 504-505 Kettredge Building, Denver, Col. Early registration brings best results. We operate in all Western States. We fill positions in all lines of teaching. Our calls are increasing yearly for supervisors and teachers of special subjects. Co-operating Agencies — Harrisburg, Pa. Atlanta, Ga.

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