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members of the University Department of Education. luncheon was the best attended in the history of the assoNumber 1 in the series is “ The Correlation of Abilities of ciation. Seventy-six persons were present. High School Pupils,” by Dr. D. E. Weglein.

The association adopted resolutions upon the death of The History Teachers' Association of the Middle States Miss Blanche Leavitt, for many years a member of the and Maryland will hold a session at Vassar College, Pough

Council. The following officers were elected: keepsie, N. Y., at 10 a. m., on Saturday, December 1st, in

President, Harry M. Varrell, Simmons College; viceconjunction with the meetings of the Association of Col. president, George M. Dutcher, Wesleyan University; secreleges and Preparatory Schools of the same region. The tary-treasurer, Horace Kidger, Newton Technical High

School. general topic for the history session will be What Can

Council-Sybil B. Aldrich, Girls' Latin School, the Teacher of History Do Now?" Among those who will

Boston; Orrin C. Hornell, Bowdoin College; Harriet E. take part in the discussion are President John H. Finley, of

Tuell, Somerville High School; Alan R. Wheeler, St.
the University of the State of New York; Prof. Henry George's School, Newport, R. I.
Johnson, Teachers' College, Columbia University; Prof.
Charles D. Hazen, of Columbia University, a member of the

IOWA ASSOCIATION.
National Board for Historical Service; Prof. William D.
Guthrie, of the College of the City of New York; Dr.

The annual session of the Iowa Society of Social Science

Teachers was held in connection with the State Teachers' Daniel C. Knowlton, of the Central High School, Newark, N. J.; and Mr. Horace W. Hoagland, of the West Philadel

Association at Des Moines, November 1 and 2.

Dr. William Harrison Mace gave an address on “The phia High School for Boys. Prof. Lucy M. Saimon, of Vas

High School and the War." sar College, is chairman of the local committee.

Prof. Ernest Horn, of Iowa University, presented the Teachers, who are interested in prohibition literature,

“ Problem of Relative Values in Making the Course of will find much of value in the publications of the Board of

Study in History.” The material for this paper was obTemperance, Prohibition and Public Morals of the Method

tained by a series of tests made by graduate students of ist Episcopal Church. The office of the Board is 204 Penn

Iowa University to discover whether the present course of sylvania Avenue, S. E., Washington, D. C.

study is properly arranged if the “chief purpose of teachThe Civic Historical Session of the Colorado Educational

ing history is to make pupils more intelligent with respect Association, Eastern Division, met at Denver on Thursday

to the crucial activities, conditions and problems of and Friday, November 1 and 2. The following program present-day life.” The investigation seemed to show that, was presented: " The Problem Method in Teaching His if we accept the above theory, our text-books must be retory," by Martha N. Kimball, Denver; “ Practical Econom written. ics in the High School,” by Ira F. Nestor, Denver; “ The

The business session of the society was called at the Teaching of Citizenship,” by Edwin B. Smith, State Teach conclusion of the annual six o'clock dinner, one of the very ers' College; “The Stereopticon in History Work,” by pleasant features of the organization. Here the president, W. P. Rhodes, Denver; “What the History Teacher Can Do Prof. Gilbert G. Benjamin, of the University of Iowa, read Now," by C. W. Bigelow, Denver; “The Bases for Per his formal address, taking as his topic, Some Convenmanent Peace,” by C. C. Eckhardt, University of Colorado; tionalities in the Teaching of History." The officers for and “Basis for the Present War,” by Dr. Bemis, Colorado 1917-1918 were elected as follows: College. The officers of the association are: President, President, Dr. Charles M. Meyerholz, Teachers' College, Archibald Taylor, Longmont; and secretary, Olin P. Lee, Cedar Falls; vice-president, Prof. Earle D. Ross, Simpson Longmont.

College, Indianola; secretary-treasurer, Miss Martha HutchThe John C. Winston Company, of Philadelphia, have an inson, West High School, Des Moines. Executive Commitnounced that they are about to enter the text-book publish tee-Mr. Clarence E. Nickle, East High School, Des Moines; ing field. The editorial work of the new department will Miss Bessie L. Pierce, University High School, Iowa City; be under the direction of Dr. William D. Lewis, Principal of Prof. S. G. Pattison, Coe College, Cedar Rapids. the William Penn High School, Philadelphia. Books in On Friday afternoon the program took the form of a process of publication include a series of young American round-table, each paper being followed by general discusreaders, a series in community civics, works on civics for sion. The question, “Is there a special type of American urban communities, text-book on civics for rural communi history and civics for the rural schools ? " was opened by ties, and a series of histories for the grades.

Prof. Macy Campbell, of Iowa Teachers' College, who was

followed by two county superintendents of schools, Miss NEW ENGLAND HISTORY TEACHERS' ASSOCIATION.

Jenette Lewis and Mr. Fred D. Cram. The chief points

made were that: The New England History Teachers' Association held its 1. Books giving due emphasis to rural governmental and annual fall meeting Saturday, November 3, 1917, at Sim social questions should be available for the over-worked mons College, Boston.

rural teachers. The program consisted of a discussion of “Modern Rus 2. More attention should be given to local history, and to sian History and Conditions,” though the list of speakers history of the Mississippi Valley than is ordinarily given was somewhat different from that originally announced and to it. published in the last issue of THE HISTORY TEACHER'S 3. The history of the last fifty years should be adeMAGAZINE,

quately presented. Prof. Robert H. Lord, of Harvard University, spoke on In the absence of those assigned to the subject, Mr. Hugh Some Impressions of the Recent Russian Revolution.” A. Bone, principal of Sioux City High School, gave a most Mr. Maurice Hindus, a Russian, spoke from the point of interesting talk on “The European Background Required view of a native of that country. He expressed the convic by a Course in American History.” tion that Kerensky would remain in power, and that, if he A paper which aroused much comment was read by Miss remained at the helm, Russia would not make a separate Bessie L. Pierce, of the University High School. This peace. Dr. Earl B. Downer was the guest at luncheon. He

paper outlined a plan of “self-instruction in history' gave an illustrated talk on his experiences in Russia. The which throws the recitation into a general exercise where

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every pupil is either reciting all of the time during the period or listening to one of his mates reciting, while the teacher becomes a referee to settle disputes arising between the various pairs of pupils as they carry on this self-instruction process.

A few of those who followed Miss Pierce condemned the plan unreservedly, but the opinion seemed to prevail among the members of the round-table that while this might be a very admirable method with a small group of pupils in the hands of an expert teacher, it would not be feasible in the average school.

KANSAS ASSOCIATION. The Kansas History Teachers' Association held a meeting on November 8 in connection with the Kansas State Teachers' Association. Prof. Davis Snedden, of Teachers' College, Columbia University, spoke upon “Needed Readjustments in History Teaching,” urging a radical reorganization of the history course. Mr. Raymond A. Kent spoke upon “ The Teaching of History in the Elementary Schools,” and discussion was had upon the topic, “What History and How Much Shall be Given and How Much Shall be Required in the High School?” The general opinion seemed to be that a year of American history should be required, and at least one year of European history should precede the American history. A paper was read by Miss Sadie Van Aken, pointing out what readjustments of history teaching were made necessary by the world war. Reports were received from committees upon the teaching of history in the Kansas elementary schools and on reference books for high school libraries. Both of these committees were continued for another year. The officers chosen were as follows: President, Miss Mary Alice Whitney, State Normal School, Emporia; vice-president, Mr. W. S. Robb, principal of the Dickinson County High School, Chapman; and secretarytreasurer, Miss Marcia Brown, of Lawrence.

TUFTS COLLEGE HISTORY CONFERENCE. The conference held on October 27, 1917, was opened by Mr. Clarence D. Kingsley.

Mr. Kingsley explained the suggested change that may be made in the high school history departments. Leading up to this he outlined a combination of geography, history and civics (economic aspect). In the high school the following plan would be carried out:

Freshman year, general history to 1700, 1 unit.

Sophomore year, European history since 1700, 1 or 1/2 unit.

Junior year, American history and government, 1 or 1/2 unit.

Senior year, problems of democracy, 1 or 1/2 unit.

This plan would differ materially from the present schedule of:

Freshman year, ancient history.
Sophomore year, medieval and modern history.
Junior year, English history.
Senior year, American history.

Reasons that Mr. Kingsley advanced for the proposed change were as follows:

1. Few take all four courses. A selection should be made, so why not make the selection or elimination be in taking the course rather than in leaving out the en unit?

2. The new schedule represents a better distribution of time.

3. It is possible to arrange the history to 1700 to have more profitable than to have the entire year devoted to ancient history.

4. English history need not stand out as an individual unit, for it is a part of Europe.

Mr. Farnsworth spoke on the effect of the present war on the teaching of ancient history. He said, in general, that ancient history has been in danger of being sidetracked by new courses along with English history. The tendency has been to either drive it out altogether, or, at best, to allow it only one-half the year. The war will tend to restore the balance and re-emphasize it, for without a knowledge of the past of man one cannot understand the present.

Mr. Hatch recommended a use of the practical knowledge that the events and incidents connected with the war will afford for the teaching of American history. For instance, he suggested the use of what he termed tangent topics” to drive home points in present history as well as past. Tariff conditions and regulations could well be taught in connection with the present sugar shortage, and elections should be taught when the November elections are taking place, rather than in the order in which the subject is listed in the course of study.

The feeling of internationalism, and a wider sympathy for other nations will be fostered by the experiences and knowledge of the present war.

Mr. Hatch suggested, too, that together with a judicial use of the current happenings as material for history teaching, the New England Association report of the Committee of Seven was still as good as it was in 1903.

The effect of the war on the teaching of economic history was discussed by Mr. Tirrell.

He defined economic history as it is usually thought of, as being commercial and industrial history, though it really is much broader, he stated. The question was then raised if the war would not serve to broaden the usual interpretation of the term, for is the commercial and is the industrial phase of life the most important? The thing that ought to stand out, that getting a living is not the greatest mo

OHIO HISTORY TEACHERS. The fourth session of the Ohio History Teacher's Association was held on Friday and Saturday, November 2 and 3, at the Ohio Archæological and Historical Society Building, Columbus. The Friday afternoon session was devoted to a discussion of Ohio history. Papers were read upon “What Can Be Done to Promote the Collection and Publication of Materials and Monographs Relating to the History of Ohio and the Old Northwest;” and “Ohio Historiography Since the Civil War." Prof. H. C. Hockett reported from the committee upon a source book of Ohio history. On Friday evening the following papers were presented: “The Teaching of Medieval History," by Prof. L. Thorndike; “ History With Pick and Spade,” by Prof. S. C. Derby. A report from the committee on the teaching of history in high schools was presented by Prof. T. G. Hoover. Saturday morning session included a very comprehensive program, as follows: · The Ethical Value in History," by Miss Grace H. Stivers and Mr. R. W. Wells; “ The Events to be Emphasized as Causes of the Present War," by E. M. Benedict; “ Scholarships and Fellowships in Ohio Colleges,” by Mr. V. Martz; “Improvements in Our Recent Text-books on Ancient History," by Miss M. Aborn; "Improvements in Our Recent Text-books on Medieval and Modern History," by Mr. G. Detrick; “Improvements in Our Recent Text-books in American History," by Mr. H. Gallen and Mr. D. M. Hickson. At the business meeting which followed, officers for the ensuing year were elected: President, Mr. C. C. Barnes, of Marion, O.; secretarytreasurer, Mr. Carl Wittke, Ohio State University, Columbus, O.

Periodical Literature

tive in life, but something deeper, has been shown by the war. Before this, people had thought that a war could not possibly last more than six months, but this has shown

EDITED BY GERTRUDE BRAMLETTE RICHARDS, PH.D. what people can accomplish when they really want to and have to. History is the life of the world, and includes all

“ The Real Problem of Alsace and Lorraine,” according to things. The thing to be decided in the future is whether Sydney Brooks (“North American” for November), lies in such a union as has been proposed by the Allies at different

the material resources of those lands, including particularly times, one which will exclude the Central Powers, can be the mines, which have been developed as a result of German carried out. This lies distinctly in the realm of economic occupation. The loss of these means an irreparable blow to history.

Germany's prosperity and success, which would be partly

counteracted by using German coal to smelt French ore. It Miss Raymenton spoke of the changes both in the atti

is, however, to the interest of both to block this. If it is tude toward and the teaching of English history which have been or will be effected by the war. In summarizing, it

left open and large and profitable commercial relations are

recreated between France and Germany, there is great danwas stated :

ger that France may be again drawn into a German net. Recent developments have already affected, and ought to continue to affect, the teaching of English history as fol Among the many articles appearing on the Russian Revolows:

lution, thạt by Raymond Reconly (Captain X) on “ The 1. By awakening the pupils.

Russian Army and the Revolution” in November's “Scrib

ner's ” is certainly one of the most vivid, being the record 2. By awakening the teachers.

of an alert and trained eye-witness. 3. By effecting a change from the old “ question and answer” and “ topical” methods to the “forum " method of

Prof. Kuno Franke discusses ~ Germany in Defeat" in recitation.

the November “ Harper's," and explains certain points in 4. By changing the character of the text-books.

his former article in the September number of the maga

zine. He says: 5. By making of English history a subjective rather than

“Whatever existence fate may have in an objective study.

store for a defeated Germany-however impoverished, how

ever gagged, however mutilated—the spirit manifested by 6. By emphasizing cause and effect,” particularly the

the German people in the martyrdom of this war, gives aslatter, and thus making of even high school English his

surance that even in a complete breakdown of its intertory a science, and an aid to American citizenship.

national position, it will not deviate from adherence to its The effect of the war upon the teaching of European his

traditional ideal of the subordination of individual happitory was discussed by Miss Tuell. She said in part:

ness to common task." From being an object of suspicion history has become an object of consideration, and this is the opportunity of the

President Lyman P. Powell, of Hobart College, has an inhistory teacher. Since the war the reorganization of his teresting article entitled, “Source of Education in England tory has become the work of the history teacher. In or

and France,” in the November “Review of Reviews." der to accomplish this, the following things must be borne

The article on “ The Cost of the War" in the current in mind and emphasized :

number of “ The Unpopular Review," states that “the na1. An enlargement of our geographical vision.

tions as a whole could not and have not mortgaged their 2. Sympathy with other nations must be stressed.

future wealth so as to burden themselves very seriously; 3. Revision of our views of historic characters.

about all they could do in this way was to establish by 4. New devotion to the cause of democracy.

their war debts a different distribution of their future

wealth. While this may be a burden on the debtor nations 5. History must be made to be, as Napoleon said, “The

and may embarrass industry to some extent, it will not torch of truth, the destroyer of prejudice.”

greatly diminish the amount of wealth produced in the Following the presentation of these talks there was gen future.” eral discussion, and criticisms and suggestions were offered also by Mr. Edwin J. Cox, of Newtonville, and Miss Gladys

Louise E. Matthaei's article on “ Domestic Politics in Adams, of the Beverly High School.

Hungary” (“Contemporary Review " for October) deals with the question of Hungarian politics and the relation

this bears to Magyar caste feeling and the marvellous MagMARYLAND ASSOCIATION.

yar caste solidarity. This is an able exposition of the sit

uation in Hungary, and expresses the nation's hopes and A history conference was held in connection with the an the ability of the new king to win the confidence of this nual meeting of the Maryland State Teachers' Association group of his subjects. at Baltimore on Monday and Tuesday, November 26 and

In the November “Forum,” Hon. Champ Clark replies to 27, Dr: P. L. Kaye, of Baltimore City College, presiding.

criticisms of Congress in his article, “Democracy is Safe.” The Monday afternoon session discussed the effect of the

“Armenia and the Armenians,” by His Excellency Ismail war on the teaching of history, and papers were presented

Kemal Bey, in the “Fortnightly Review” for October, deals by Prof. J. H. Latane, of Johns Hopkins University, and Prof. C. W. Stryker, of St. John's College. The Tuesday

particularly with the attitude of the Turkish government

to the Armenians under Sultan Abdul el Hamid, who by afternoon session took up problems connected with history

his actions and methods of governing these subjects, caused in the high school. Among those who took part in the pro

so much misery and lost the confidence of the Armenians. gram were Prof. C. E. Adams, of Baltimore Polytechnic Institute; Miss Mary C. Ott, of the Boys' High School, Fred Most interesting is Rose G. Kingsley's “Order of the erick; Miss L. J. Cairner, of the Western High School, Bal. Hospital of St. John of Jerusalem" (" Edinboro Review” timore; Dr. F. R. Blake, of Baltimore City College, and Mr. for October), which traces the history of the order from G. L. Fleagle, of Smithburg, Md.

the days of Constantine to its activities in the present war.

Prof. George L. Kittredge's “A Case of Witchcraft” authoritative, by various British, French and Belgian (“American Historical Review” for October) deals mainly statesmen and scholars who present the aims of their own with Devonshire cases under Elizabeth, which cases, he nations, of Serbia and of other small States, yet there is says, include all or most of the typical features of English nothing from Italy or about Italy's aspirations, and nothwitchcraft cases.

ing at all concerning the ambitions of monarchical or of In the issue of “America” for November 10, A. Hilliard republican Russia. These omissions may partially be exAtteridge writes on The Cause of the Irish Martyrs ” who

plained at least by the obvious fact that none of the artiwere put to death for their religion in the days of the Irish

cles in the compilation were prepared in 1917, that only a persecutions in the Tudor and Stuart ages.

few belong to 1916, and that the greater number are dated 1915. Some of the material has been in print before, either

in magazines, in newspapers, in the pamphlets issued by the BOOK REVIEWS Oxford University Press, or elsewhere. Little of it is really

new or fresh, and much of it, 'such as Mr. Balfour's reEDITED BY PROFESSOR WAYLAND J. CHASE, marks about the Navy and the War and Mr. Lloyd-George's UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN.

interview in the “ Secolo” are quite “old-sounding” to us. Johnson, RoSSITER. The Fight for the Republic. New

The chapters of interest, we would say, are those written York, G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1917. Pp. viii, 404. $2.50.

by Sir Edward Grey on “Great Britain's Measures Against

German Trade," by M. Henri Hauser on “ Economic GerThe present war is causing a revival of the study of

many," by G. M. Trevelyan on the “Serbians and Ausmilitary history. Students must necessarily obtain much

tria,” and by M. Helmer, of Alsace, on “German Rule in of their detailed military information by reference work.

That Reichsland." The first of these, together wirh the arThis recent publication, a history of the greatest war waged in this hemisphere, is especially adapted for supplementary

ticles on “ Belgic Neutrality and Germans in Belgium," and reading. It is “a narrative of the more noteworthy events

the death of Edith Cavell might give some useful notes for

a student of international law. Nothing in the compilation in the War of Secession presenting the great contest in its dramatic aspects.” The book has several admirable fea

that is very definite is at all official, and nothing that is at tures. Its chapter divisions by battles and campaigns

all official is very definite. It can not then be fairly called makes it possible for the student to read understandingly

the "Allies' Statement,” though it does somewhat successthis or that chapter without digesting the entire book. The

fully bring out the significant issues of the great struggle, military information is lucidly given. Each battle or cam

thereby justifying to this extent the explanation of its purpaign is accompanied by excellent maps, showing in detail

pose given on its title page. It is a question, therefore, the positions and movements of the armies. The personal

how far a well-stocked library may need this book, espeincidents introduced here and there attract the immature

cially if the library in question has available material on student to whom bare military operations may not at first

the subjects of the stronger articles in this compilation; a appeal. The book is well-bound and printed on glossless

small library without much of a war collection might easily

find a use for it. There is no index and the only map inpaper in bold type. The great criticism of the book is that it is written en

serted is a roughly sketched one.

ARTHUR I. ANDREWS. tirely from the Northern standpoint, in the spirit of '61; not that the military facts are distorted to please the

Northern reader, but that credit given to the Army of the The History Teacher's Magazine

Published monthly, except July and August, at 1619-1621 Ranstead Street, Philadelphia, Pa., by

MCKINLEY PUBLISHING Co.

lacking. The introduction, a summary of the political events preceding the war, presents the South entirely as the unprovoked aggressor. Little sympathy is shown for our Confederate brothers, no word of admiration is given for Lee at Appomattox, no expression of regret in the two chapters on Sherman's invasion of the South, no deprecatory statement about Sherman's “bummers except the scant recognition that “no doubt the foragers exceeded their instructions in some instances.” At times the author apparently tries to vindicate the tactics and valor of the Union forces. Of course, there is no need of this. Praise of the Confederate army and its commander would not detract from the glory of the Union arms. It seems a pity that fifty years after the close of the fratricidal war such a complete and convenient one-volume history of the war could not have been written in a more impartial and conciliatory manner. The tone is disappointing even to a student bred in Yankee New England.

WAYNE EDWARD DAVIS. The Mercersburg Academy.

EDITED UNDER THE SUPERVISION OF A COMMITTEE

OF THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION,

composed of: PROF. HENRY Johnson, Teachers' College, Columbia Uni

versity, Chairman.
PROF. FRED. M. FLING, University of Nebraska.
Miss ANNA B. THOMPSON, Thayer Academy, South Brain-

tree, Mass.
Prof. FREDERIC DUNCALF, University of Texas.
PROF. 0. H. WILLIAMS, University of Indiana.
DR. JAMES SULLIVAN, Director of Archives and History,

New York State Department of Education.

ALBERT E. McKINLEY, PH.D., Managing Editor. SUBSCRIPTION PRICE, two dollars a year; single copies, twenty cents

each, REDUCED RATE of one dollar a year is granted to members of the

American Historical Association, and to members of local and regional associations of history teachers. Such subscriptions must be sent direct to the publishers or through the secretaries of

associations (but not through subscription agencies). POSTAGE PREPAID in United States and Mexico; for Canada, twenty

cents additional should be added to the subscription price, and for

other foreign countries in the Postal Union, thirty cents additional. CHANGE OF ADDRESS. Both the old and the new address must be

given when a change of address is ordered. ADVERTISING RATES furnished upon application.

THE WAR OF DEMOCRACY: THE ALLIES' STATEMENT. Chap

ters of the Fundamental Significance of the Struggle for a New Europe. Prepared by Rt. Hon. Viscount Bryce, and others. New York, Doubleday, Page & Co.,

1917. The second part of the title is somewhat misleading, for while the book contains statements more or less official and

men of high standing in the historical profession. The book is well worth purchase by librarians, and may be used to advantage in high school classes.

CLARENCE PERKINS. Ohio State University.

THORNDIKE, LYNN. History of Medieval Europe. Boston,

Houghton Mifflin Co., 1917. Pp. xxi, 682. $2.75. Designed for the undergraduate and general reader, this book embodies the conclusions respecting emphasis and content that ten years' experience in teaching medieval history to freshmen at Western Reserve University has brought the author. The subject of medieval Europe is treated “as a whole and made to hang upon a single thread," and the military and the dynastic aspects of political history are subordinated to accounts of economic and social progress. More attention is given than in previous treatises of this sort to the states of central and eastern Europe because those regions are the ancestral homes of our many citizens of Slav and Magyar stock. A few of his chapters as that on the barbarian invasions seem to lack adequacy of organization, and mental confusion rather than order for the reader results. But in general the author's literary style is effective and attractive, for he is both lucid and interesting, introducing advantageously into his narrative both anecdotal and other human-interest elements. With various helps for the reader the book is well supplied; each chapter closes with a list of specific readings, and for more extended bibliographies the reader is given a page of references under the label, “ List of Guides in Historical Reading.” Exercises and problems are set for the guidance of the student in the use of some of this reference material, and a six-page “Chronological Table” assists him to keep his time sense correct. Of the twenty-four maps many are out of the ordinary as to subject matter and all are serviceable. The book is neither designed nor suitable for high-school use as a text, but is admirably suited for reference work for high-school pupils. For this use a superlative help is afforded by the forty-one pages of index in which the principal references are black lettered.

OGG, FREDERICK AUSTIN. Economic Development of Mod

ern Europe. The Macmillan Company, 1917. Pp. xvi,

657. $2.50. The progressive teacher either of modern European history or of economics will welcome this volume, and will find it supplies much of the concrete description of condi. tions with which he will like to replace the drum and trumpet history that is now passing. Had more economics and less drum and trumpet history been taught during the last quarter century in England and America, we should be far more able to meet the necessities which our war for democracy has now imposed upon us. To wage war, economic soundness is more important than Chauvinistic ambition.

The major portion of the book is devoted to the nineteenth century, the changes in economic conditions between the middle ages and modern times being presented in about one hundred pages. This transitional exposition is called Part I. Part II describes agriculture, trade, transportation, and industry; Part III, the movement and growth of population and of labor organization and legislation; Part IV of socialism and social insurance. At the end of each chapter are several pages of selected references to the literature of the subject treated in the chapter; throughout the book are helpful footnotes; and at the end are fifteen pages of index.

Such a work as this will give real aid to those who would have us discuss economic and social problems frankly and fully, but with our feet on the ground of solid information, however far into idealism our heads may reach. There is no greater danger to sound education in America than that which comes from the large number of teachers in colleges and schools who are printing a different sort of work, a statement of what they would like to see society become; a statement formulated with no reference whatever to the limitations which all the past history of man has placed on what reasonable people believe the present man and his society are capable of.

EDGAR DAWSON. Hunter College, New York City.

WOOLF, CECIL W. SIDNEY. Bartolus of Sassoferrato, His

Position in the History of Medieval Political Thought.
Cambridge University Press, 1913. Pp. xxiv, 414.

$2.50. This learned work, which contains an excellent bibliography (pp. xiii-xix), was awarded the Thirwall Prize in 1913. It is a discursive endeavor, instigated by Dr. Figgis, to extract from the legal writings of a once celebrated fourteenth-century legist the political theories implicit in his thought. The book is of real interest to students of medieval law--a subject of fascination and value, but its direct light upon medieval political theory may be surmised from the author's statement that Bartolus devoted “his political thought, in all its most valuable aspects, wholly to topics in which the spiritual power does not enter” (p. 211).

G. C. SELLERY. University of Wisconsin.

HAZEN, CHARLES DOWNER; THAYER, WILLIAM RoscoE; AND

LORD, ROBERT HOWARD. Three Peace Congresses of the

Nineteenth Century. COOLIDGE, ARCHIBALD CARY. Claimar Constantinople.

Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1917. Pp. 93.

75 cents. The essays in this little volume were read at the meeting of the American Historical Association at the close of 1916. They do not purport to be complete accounts in full detail. But the authors do present interesting and brilliantly written pictures of many important phases of the three great peace conferences. The last essay is a remarkably good summary of the immediate past and present situation with regard to Constantinople. All the essays are written by

ORTON, C. W. PREVITE. Outlines of Medieval History. New

York, G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1917. Pp. 585. $2.75. In these days when publishers label a volume of twelve hundred pages a

Short History," we doubtless should expect that “Outlines ” would mean more than a brief sketch or syllabus and be prepared to find that this book is not a compendium but a close-packed narrative of nearly six hundred pages. The author, a Fellow of St. John's College, Cambridge, whose earlier work, “The Early History of the House of Savoy,” attested his erudition, has adopted for this work the conventional limitations for the medieval period, 395 and 1492, and has followed convention, too, in his selection of material, the political phases of the subject receiving the principal emphasis. The book is scholarly rather than popular in treatment with respect to both lan. guage and ideas, and the anecdotal possibilities of historical narrative are not attempted in the least. For these reasons, though the quality of its scholarship is excellent, it is not as good as some other treatises as supplementary reading for high school pupils. More advanced students will find it a valuable aid, rendered more helpful by its twenty-five pages of index and seven double page maps.

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