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The History Teacher's Magazine

Published monthly, except July and August, at 1619-1621 Ranstead Street, Philadelphia, Pa, by

McKINLEY PUBLISHING CO.

EDITED UNDER THE SUPERVISION OF A COMMITTEE

OF THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION,

composed of: PROF. HENRY JOHNSON, Teachers' College, Columbia Uni

versity, Chairman. PROF. FRED. M. FLING, University of Nebraska. Miss ANNA B. THOMPSON, Thayer Academy, South Brain

tree, Mass.
PROF. FREDERIC DUNCALF, University of Texas.
PROF. 0. H. WILLIAMS, University of Indiana.
DR. JAMES SULLIVAN, Director of Archives and History, New

York State Department of Education.
ALBERT E. McKINLEY, Ph.D., Managing Editor

SUBSCRIPTION PRICE, two dollars a year; single copies, twenty cento

each, REDUCED RATE of one dollar a year is granted to members of the

American Historical Association, and to members of local an regional associations of history teachers. Such subscriptions must be sent direct to the publishers or through the secretaries of

associations (but not through subscription agencies). POSTAGE PREPAID in United States and Mexico; for Canada, twenty

cents additional should be added to the subscription price. and for

other foreign countries in the Postal Union, thirty cents additional. CHANGE OF ADDRESS. Both the old and the new address must be

given when a change of address is ordered. ADVERTISING RATES furnished upon application,

Medieval History. Collier, Theodore F. A syllabus of the history of medieval

Europe from the Germanic invasions to the Reformation. Providence, R. I.: Kensmore Press. 37 pp. (3 pp. bibl.), 60 cents.

Miscellaneous. Brinsmade, R. B., and Rolland, M. C. Mexican Problems.

N. Y.: Mex.-Amer. League. 31 pp. Clement, Ernest W. Constitutional imperialism in Japan.

N. Y.: Acad. of Political Science. 104 pp. $1.50. Daniels, Margaretta. Makers of South America. N. Y.:

Miss. Educ. Move. of United States and Canada. 247

pp. (4 pp. bibl.). 60 cents. Gibbons, Herbert A. The new map of Africa, 1900-1916.

N. Y.: Century Co. 503 pp. $2.00, net. Langdon, William C. The pageant of Indiana Indianapo

lis: Hollenbeck Press. 79 pp. 25 cents. Riddell, Walter A. The Rise of Ecclesiastical control in

Quebec. N. Y.: Longmans. 195 pp. (642 pp. bibl.). $1.75, net.

Biography. Porter, Adrian (Mrs.). The life and letters of Sir John

Henniker Heaton. N. Y.: John Lane. 295 pp. $3.00,

net. Hall, Clifton R. Andrew Johnson; military governor of

Tennessee. Princeton, N. J.: Princeton Univ. Press.

234 pp. $1.50, net. Howard-Smith, Logan, and others. Earl Kitchener and the

Great War. Phila.: International Press. 440 pp.

$1.50. Neilson, William A., editor. American patriots and states

men from Washington to Lincoln. 5 vols. N. Y.: P. F.

Collier and Son. Dalton, Cornelius N. The life of Thomas Pitt. N. Y.:

Putnam. 611 pp. $4.50, net. Watson, Virginia C. The Princess Pocahontas. Phila.:

Penn Pub. Co. 306 pp. $2.50, net. Trufanov, Sergiei M. The life of Rasputin. N. Y.: Metro

politan Mag. Co. 67 pp. 25 cents. Moses, Belle. Paul Revere. N. Y.: Appleton. 269 pp.

$1.35, net. Thiers, Louis Adolphe. Memoirs of M. Thier, 1870-1873.

N. Y.: Pott. 384 pp. $2.50, net. Scott, E. J., and Stowe, L. B. Booker T. Washington.

Garden City, N. Y.: Doubleday, Page. 331 pp. $2.00,

net. Rideing. Will H. George Washington. N. Y.: Macmillan.

192 pp. 50 cents, net. George Washington. N. Y.: Duifield. 273 pp. $1.25, net. Whipple, Wayne. The heart of Washington. Phila.: Jacobs. 172 pp. 50 cents, net.

Government and Politics. Baker, Fred. A. The fundamental of American Constitu

tion. 3 vols. Wash., D. C.: J. Byrne & Co. (bibls.).

$3.75. Hague, Permanent Court of Arbitration. The Hague Court

Reports. N. Y.: Oxford Univ. 111 + 664 pp. $3.00,

net. Holdich, Thomas H. Political frontiers and boundary mak

ing. N. Y.: Macmillan. 307 pp. $3.25, net. Institute of International Law. Resolutions of the Insti

tute dealing with the law of nations. N. Y.: Oxford

Univ. 265 pp. $1.00, net. Reed, Thomas H. Form and functions of American Goy

ernment. Yonkers, N. Y.: World Bk. Co. 549 pp.

$1.35. Root, Elihu. Addresses on government and citizenship.

Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard Univ. 552 pp. $2.00, net. Second Pan-American scientific congress. Recommendations

on international law. N. Y.: Oxford Univ. 53 pp.

50 cents, net. Steiner, Edward A. Nationalizing America. N. Y. and

Chicago: Revell. 240 pp. $1.00, net. Tucker, Henry St. G. Woman's suffrage by constitutional

amendment. New Haven: Yale Univ. 204 pp. $1.35, net.

BACK NUMBERS

The History Teacher's

Magazine

can be furnished as follows: Bound Copies of volumes 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7 at $3.00 per volume; Unbound Numbers at 20 cents per copy as follows: Volume 1 (5 numbers); Volume 2 (9 numbers); Volume 3 (9 numbers ); Volume 4 (9 numbers); Volume 5 (7 numbers); Volume 6 (7 numbers); and Volume 7 (10 numbers).

McKinley Publishing Company

PHILADELPHIA

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Magazine

EDITED UNDER THE SUPERVISION OF A COMMITTEE OF THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION.

ne VIII. ver 2.

PHILADELPHIA, FEBRUARY, 1917.

$2.00 a year. 20 cents a copy.

CONTENTS

War and Peace in the Light of History, by Prof. C. C. Eckhardt

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Some Aspects of Supervised Study in History, by Robert D. Armstrong
Construction for History in the Grades, by Mary A. Whitney

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Published monthly, except July and August, by McKinley Publishing Co., Philadelphia, Pa. Copyright, 1917, McKinley Publishing Co. Entered as second-class matter, Oct. 26, 1909, at Post-office at Phila., Pa., under Act of March 3, 1879

“You may delay, but time will not.”- Poor Richard's Almanack.

Germany Since 1740

By GEORGE MADISON PRIEST
Princeton University

$1.25 For the student of current German history “Germany Since 1740” offers a background of singular fitness in explaining existing conditions. It describes political and social conditions in Germany early in the eighteenth century, the reigns of Maria Theresa and Frederick the Great and chronologically the disintegration of Germany as a federation of states, the uprising of the German people, the downfall of Napoleon at Leipsic and Waterloo, and succeeding events to the outbreak of the war in August, 1914.

The book is well provided with maps, a chronological table and suggestions for further reading in German history.

In Its Power

To Re-Create the Past
To Portray the Progress of

Human Life
To Give the Pupil an Accurate

Historical Perspective
Morey's Ancient Peoples

Has No Equal It is scholarly, yet vital; simple in its style, yet accurate in its statements; interesting in its dramatic descriptions, yet not exaggerated. For High Schools. 634 Pages, Profusely Illustrated.

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Leavitt and Brown

Elementary Social Science A text for immature students which in very direct style discusses such social, economic, and civic problems as citizens of the next generation will need to solve.

Herrick History of Commerce and Industry A world history in which the influence of commercial enterprise is given especial prominence.

Ely and Wicker
Elementary Principles of Economics
A revision of this popular text which introduces recent
developments in the field of economics and social legislation.

Towne
Social Problems

Now Published A vigorous presentation of many modern problems written for high school pupils in a sane and constructive fashion.

Ashley

New Civics A textbook in citizenship whose point of view is social, and whose problems are those of the home, the neighborhood, and the nation.

EDITED UNDER THE SUPERVISION OF A COMMITTEE

OF THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION,

composed of: PROF. HENRY JOHNSON, Teachers' College, Columbia Uni

versity, Chairman. PROF. FRED. M. FLING, University of Nebraska. MISS ANNA B. THOMPSON, Thayer Academy, South Brain

tree, Mass.
PROF. FREDERIC DUNCALF, University of Texas.
Prof. O. H. WILLIAMS, University of Indiana.
DR. JAMES SULLIVAN, Director of Archives and History, New

York State Department of Education.
ALBERT E. McKINLEY, Ph.D., Managing Editor

THE MACMILLAN COMPANY

64-66 Fifth Avenue, New York Boston San Francisco

Seattle Chicago Dallas

Atlanta

SUBSCRIPTION PRICE, two dollars a year; single copies, twenty cents

each. REDUCED RATE of one dollar 1 year is granted to members of the

American Historical Association, and to members of local and regional associations of history teachers. Such subscriptions must be sent direct to the publishers or through the secretaries of

associations (but not through subscription agencies). POSTAGE PREPAID in United States and Mexico; for Canada, twenty

cents additional should be added to the subscription price, and for

other foreign countries in the Postal Union, thirty cents additional. CHANGE OF ADDRESS. Both the old and the new address must be

given when a change of address is ordered. ADVERTISING RATES furnished upon application,

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The History Teacher's Magazine

Volume VIII. Number 2.

PHILADELPHIA, FEBRUARY, 1917.

$2.00 a year. 20 cents a copy.

War and Peace in the Light Off History

BY CARL conRAD ECKHARDT, PH.D., ASSISTANT PROFESSOR OF HISTORY, UNIVERSITY OF COLORAD0.

When I was requested to bring a message that history teachers need just at this time, I did not take a long time to choose; I selected “War and Peace in the Light of History.” What I shall say to you I have been saying to myself many a time in the last two years, when it seemed that the main interest in present-day history is centered in war and wholesale destruction by the most advanced nations of the Occident and Orient. So it seemed fitting to consider what part war and peace have played in history, what the attitude of mankind has been toward both, and what the efforts are that have been made to eliminate war and to establish permanent peace.

History is the account of man's progress in society. It deals with man's efforts to develop his material, social, intellectual and spiritual well-being. While making these efforts he has had great obstacles to overcome, the forces of nature and himself; and man has been far more successful in overcoming the physical and biological forces of nature than in conquering human nature. By mechanical and electrical inventions, man has made steam and electricity do most of his work; he has annihilated distance; he has learned to fly in the air, to make submarines, to send messages by wireless. The desert has been made to bloom; the waterfall has been made to supply power to the wheels of industry; the mines of the earth have been forced to yield up their treasures; the phonograph records for all time the tones of our greatest singers and musicians.

Through man's understanding of biology and biological laws he has learned to create new varieties of

vegetation, better breeds of animals. He has enabled

the toothless man to chew, the armless,man to do many mechanical acts by means of artificial arms; the deaf are provided with a hearing apparatus. Through surgical operations man has learned to give life to the dying child, by transmitting the blood from the veins of a well person. Through vaccination and other preventive measures man has been made immune to typhoid, smallpox, diphtheria, colds, malaria, yellow fever, cholera, the black plague. Man has conquered nature and is conquering disease, but he cannot conquer himself. Man is his own worst enemy. He is working on many social problems, and with marked success. He is trying to become master of himself in his social relations, but his success here is not as striking as in his conquest of nature. Man has as yet been unable to wrestle successfully with the problem of eliminating war, the most costly and destructive enemy of social progress that he has yet encountered.

In all recorded history we find that there have been

intermittent wars, and that the years when there has

been peace are far outnumbered by the years during which there was war. According to the great publicist Bloch, who wrote on the “Future of War,” during the 3,857 years from 1496 B. C. to 1861 A. D., there have been 3,130 years of war and 227 years of peace; 13 years of war to one of peace. This means that somewhere in the world there was war during these three and a third thousand years of history. It does not mean that every country on the average has had thirteen years of war to one year of peace. In the 140 years of our own history we have had seventeen years of war and one hundred and twenty-three years of peace, the ratio being seven years of peace to one of war. But, in the history of all nations some time or other, sooner or later, war has disrupted human society. War has been an inevitable thing; war was bound to come. It is natural for human beings to have differences of opinion, it is natural for nations to compete and have grievances. It is natural for nations to attempt conquests at the expense of weaker neighbors; it is natural for nations to wish to dominate a certain continent; indeed, the whole world. So long as that condition exists there will inevitably be war. Thinkers of the past have not merely regarded war as inevitable, but have gone farther and have regarded it as a beneficial institution. It has been pointed out that many wars have been of enormous benefit to humanity. The successful Greek wars of the fifth century B. C. made it possible for the superior civilization of the Greeks to continue its development, and for its fruits to refresh mankind for all time. Rome's wars of conquest made it possible for her superior political and legal institutions to be introduced into the life of the Mediterranean peoples, and the political unity thus established made it possible for Christianity to be spread over the whole civilized world. The interstate and civil wars of Italy in Renaissance times developed a superior intellectual attitude designated by the term individualism. The French wars from 1792 to 1795 developed the French national spirit and national consciousness, which have yielded rich fruits in the national life of the French. These are merely typical statements of sober historians and other students of society. They are found in our text-books and treatises, and we are emphasizing them in connection with our work as history teachers. War has also been lauded for its moral and other values. It is pointed out that war develops such

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