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moral qualities as patriotism, courage, self-sacrifice, ness to fight on for years longer if only thereby perefficiency, devotion to a lofty ideal, consideration for manent and general peace can be secured. In all neuthe welfare of others, willingness and ability to dis tral countries the press is filled with attacks on the pense with luxury.
system that has produced this great war, it is demandWar makes for physical strength, the elimination ing that something be done to prevent another world of the unfit. It prevents moral degeneracy and na calamity. Preachers, teachers, public speakers are tional dependence on other nations. So humane a all directing attention to this great problem. Never writer as Ruskin praises war as follows: “All the before has there been such a propaganda for peace pure and noble arts of peace are founded on war. and against war. ... There is no great art possible to a nation but Let us consider the main remedies that are being that which is based on battle. ... All great nations proposed to abolish war and to establish permanent learned their truth of word and strength of thought in peace.
First and foremost of the plans being advowar; they were nourished in war and wasted in peace; cated in the press and on the platforms of this nation taught by war and deceived by peace; trained by war is military preparedness. The essence of this remedy and betrayed by peace.” (“Crown of Wild Olive.") as expounded in this country is, that in order to pre
Some writers in Germany, England, the United vent being attacked by a hostile power the United States, and elsewhere have regarded war as a divine States must make its army and navy so strong that all institution. Moltke, in Germany; the Englishman, other nations will fear to attack it. If we wish to inColonel Maude; our own American admirals, Fiske sure ourselves against war we must be so fully preand Luce, say that war is an ordinance of God. pared for war that no nation will think of affronting Theodore Roosevelt says, “We must play a great part or attacking us. This is apparently a splendid in the world, and especially perform those deeds of peace method. It is embodied in the platforms of blood and valor, which above everything else bring both political parties; it has been advocated from pulnational renown.” (“Strenuous Life.”)
pits, by woman's clubs, by the National Educational Such, in brief, has been the place of war in history. Association, by almost every congressman that wishes It has been regarded as inevitable, inherently neces
to be returned to office, by every business man that sary, because of the pugnacious characteristics of men wants to retain the patronage of his customers. We and society, a divine arrangement, which in spite of have had a national hysteria of preparedness. We its horrors and destructiveness has produced such
have been told that if only the European powers had splendid moral and artistic results that it must be prepared for war there would have been no war. If maintained.
England, Germany, France and Russia, instead of But society has not been unanimous in regarding penuriously expending only one-third of their annual war as inevitable and beneficent. Ever since the re national income for their armies and navies, had spent motest ages of recorded history there have been lit two-thirds for military purposes, there would have erary men, poets, philosophers, statesmen that have been no war. If only their armies and navies had been lauded peace and opposed war. There have been in prepared for war this great human calamity could not numerable projects to make war impossible. Within have occurred. And so the United States, in order to the last twenty-five years peace societies have been
avoid such a calamity as has befallen Europe, approorganized in every country of the world, richly en
priates the largest sum of money ever appropriated dowed organizations are conducting a propaganda at any one time by any nation for military purposes. against war and in favor of various methods to secure School boards are seriously considering the introducpeace and make it enduring.
tion of the cadet system into the high schools, and However ineffective this propaganda has been in
even into the grade schools, in order to prepare this securing its ultimate object, it can point with satis nation for war as a peace-preserving measure-in faction to one glowing success, and that is that war is
which we are outdoing the European powers, for none now no longer regarded by very many people as desir
of them have introduced military drill into their pubable. War is a thing to be avoided; the divineness
With all due deference to the words of wisdom that of war is no longer asserted. Few people emphasize war's development of manly qualities and other
have been uttered by our editors, preachers, National alleged benefits. No one justifies war because of the
Education Association officers and others, I venture to things accompanying it. The nation that brings on a
say that our military preparedness program will be war loses the moral respect of other nations, and one
inadequate as a peace-preserving method. The ungreat party in this country is appealing to the nation
fortunate thing is that the munitions manufacturers, for re-election because it kept the country out of war.
who have in this country had so much to do with Society is definitely facing the problem of war and
frightening the American Congress and the American its elimination. Never has so much attention been public into their preparedness hvsteria, are doing the paid to this subject any time in history as now. Never
same thing in other countries. In every country there before has there been such a sentiment in favor of
is a preparedness propaganda, and in every one of peace, not merely temporary peace, but lasting peace,
the great nations there has been an increased expendiand enduring peace. Each of the belligerent nations ture for armaments during the last fifteen years. The of Europe openly proclaims that all it is fighting for great trouble with the military preparedness arguis a permanent peace.
Each has declared its willing ment is that it is such a good argument for any one
country that all other countries are quite ready to see Perhaps most significant is the fact that in the bill its value for themselves. Instead of having only our making the enormous appropriations for the increase nation making itself so strong in a military way that of our navy in the next five years, is a clause authorit cannot be attacked successfully by any power or izing the President of the United States to summon a group of powers, each of the other nations is trying conference of nations at a suitable time after the close to do the same thing; that is, each nation is trying to
of the war. If this conference unites in internabe stronger than every other nation, which is a mathe tional disarmament, the President is authorized to stop matical impossibility. Each nation cannot be the the execution of those parts of the armament plan that strongest, but all the great nations are competing for have not yet been carried out. this position; each is spending all the money it pos So we may rightly say that the main public sentisibly can, and relatively the strength of the individ ment as regards war and peace in the world to-day is ual nations will be determined as before, by the opposed to war and in favor of some method that will amount of wealth each nation controls.
bring an enduring peace. War is more unpopular However, it is not my purpose especially to attack
to-day than ever before; there never was such a dethe idea of the ultimate efficacy of preparedness. But
sire for durable peace. Society has clearly stated the I do wish to show that the military preparedness pro
problem; two chief ways of achieving peace have been paganda indicates that there is a strong sentiment proposed: (1) preparedness, and (2) international oragainst war. Preparedness has been urged as ganization. I do not mean to maintain that we are necessary preventive of war. Even this militaristic ready as yet for the full acceptance of a program of measure is regarded as a peaceful measure; its
internationalism. It may take a hundred years or strongest advocates state that its purpose is to prevent
more before the world sees the wisdom of applying
the plan. But it should be stated that in this country But, along with preparedness, there is another kind the chief public men that are advocating preparedof peace propaganda that has been carried on for ness, such as Wilson, Hughes, Taft, regard this as a many decades, namely, the peace movement, which ad temporary measure, and they are also advocating vocates joint international disarmament, international
world organization. Prominent public men in the organization, a world legislature to codify inter
belligerent countries have the same attitude. national law and to formulate new laws as needed, a
But we can never have an internationalism that system of international courts to settle disputes that
will permanently bring peace until the following might lead to international friction and war, a world things have been achieved: executive, with a world police force to enforce the 1. There must be created an international sentiobservance of peace. Contrary to the ideas of the ment in all the nations in the world. Our present preparedness advocates this group of propagandists narrow patriotism, bigoted nationalism, must be do not believe in the maxim, “ If you wish peace, pre- greatly modified. The nations must learn to feel that pare for war;” they hold that “if you wish peace, national ambitions, national ideals are not the highprepare for peace.” In every one of the great bel est good, that there is a still higher good, the rights ligerent countries there are at least several organiza of humanity. tions that are working not merely for the cessation of 2. There must be created a world machinery, supthe present war, but are planning a campaign after ported by the states of the world. There must be the war to secure joint international action for the created an international personnel, a body of officers creation of institutions and sentiment that will pre that can be trusted, whose sense of fairness and jusvent wars in the future. Some of these organizations tice is well recognized, so that nations will be willing were in existence before the outbreak of the war, some to entrust their interests to world courts and world have been founded since the war broke out. 'In our administrative officers. own country there are several organizations with these Whatever else may be necessary for a world state, ends in view.
these two things cannot be wanting, an international The schemes advocated by these organizations are sentiment and an effective, trustworthy administrano longer merely in the realm of the visionary. One tive personnel. This is largely a task of education, of the organizations that the war has produced in this of creating public sentiment. Never was a greater country is the League to Enforce Peace. This has educational task offered to the teachers of the world. already had two sessions, which were attended by The students of to-day will be the public of the governors, mayors, educators, diplomats, congressmen, future. Are they going to be bigoted nationalists? and capitalists. These meetings were presided over
Are they going to be actuated by a narrow patriotism - President Taft; at the second meeting President
that will sanction the humiliation of Mexico or any Wilson made a memorable address in support of the other weaker country merely because the United plan. Mr. Hughes has at various times spoken in States has more powerful military equipment? favor of the League's program, and within the last Will they be willing to rush into war every time there two months Lord Bryce and Viscount Grey have given is international friction? Will they fight first and public utterance in England in support of the plan. reason afterwards? A scheme that is fostered by such men, experienced The problem is one not only for the teachers of in practical affairs, cannot be regarded as the chimera Colorado and America, but for the educators of every of visionaries.
advanced nation of the world. It will take decades
to prepare the minds of the coming generations. This In all of these cases, the conservative, anti-reform movement of progress will meet with much inertia, forces were as firmly entrenched in precedent, legalmuch skepticism and ridicule. There will be many ity, scriptural authority, as the anti-peace crowd is hard-headed practical men who will continue to say: to-day. But the reforms came anyway. “War is as old as history, there will always be war. This does not necessarily prove that war is going You cannot change human nature.” But the same ar to be abolished. But it does make clear that the guments have been used time and again concerning forces of conservatism have been beaten time and other things. Slavery, too, was as old as history. It again when they had the same attitude that they now was a legalized institution; it was divinely ordained. take toward war. In the light of history it is not Great writers defended it. In the South, before the certain that war will always prevail. In the light of Civil War, there was not a college president or pro- history, when human society gets ready to abolish an fessor or minister or public man that did not defend age-long evil, it does it. It is merely getting ready it. It was maintained that slavery was fundamental for it that is important. Society is more ready to to the best interests of society. But slavery dis abolish war than it ever has been before. Greater appeared.
effort is being expended on this problem than in any It used to be felt that religious uniformity was previous age. The terribleness of war has never been necessary; religious toleration would disrupt society, more fully known and recognized than at the present and many a religious civil war was fought against re time. ligious toleration. But now we have religious tolera No one can tell what the outcome will be. But for tion in all advanced countries. It used to be argued, optimists, and especially for us history teachers, who with the Scriptures as authority, that woman must be know how the alleged impossible things of the past kept in a position inferior to man; that woman is the have become achievements, the only thing to do is inferior of man mentally, physically, spiritually. For confidently to teach that in the light of history war a long time this was firmly believed. But now in many
is not necessarily here to stay, and that the world will countries woman has been given rights that make her
get permanent peace when it is sufficiently educated the equal of man, and neither man nor woman has suffered in consequence.
It used to be maintained that morally to see that other nations have rights, and that the use of alcoholic liquor could never be abolished.
world peace cannot exist until there is a world state.
To secure this desideratum much education is necesMan has always used intoxicants; you cannot change human nature. But half the United States is dry to
sary, and all history teachers ought to be glad for an day, and the European governments are working opportunity to do their part in this important educatoward the abolition of strong drink.
Values of History Instruction
REPORT OF A COMMITTEE OF THE NORTHWESTERN ASSOCIATION.
To the Members of the Northwestern Association of The Most IMPORTANT By-PRODUCTS OF HISTORY History, Government and Economics Teachers:
INSTRUCTION. Your committee appointed at the meeting of the as
1. Owing to the fact that history deals with comsociation last April to draw up a statement of what plex phenomena, it affords a good opportunity for the history instruction aims to do for general education
weighing and balancing of arguments and the forming reports as follows:
of judgments on the strength of the evidence. History, like every other study, has certain essen
2. Dealing with strange lands and old customs full tial values, and certain educational by-products. The
of vital human interest, it gives a splendid stimulus to word by-products is used to include those values that
the imagination. accrue to the student from the study of history, but
3. Politics forming a considerable part of the story which are only incidental. The same returns may be of the past historical study stimulates an interest in obtained in an equal or greater degree from other one's country, and lays a basis for intelligent patriotstudies, or from training outside of school. These byproducts, however, must be taken into consideration
ESSENTIAL VALUES OF HISTORY INSTRUCTION. by the educational administrator in estimating the full value of history for the school curriculum, and to a
We speak of essential values of historical study, lesser degree by the teacher in presenting the subject meaning thereby those returns that are peculiar to the in the classroom. Your committee feels that it is im- subject, and so important as to compel their presentaportant that both administrator and teacher recognize and keep it there.
tion—those values that put history into the curriculum
These appear to the committee to these minor returns as merely by-products, not to be confused with the essential values of history instruc 1 A paper read before the History Section of the Colorado tion.
State Teachers' Association, Denver, Col., November 2, 1916.
be: (1) a familiarity with social phenomena, or what contemporary problems, for this is rarely the case. might be called social experience, and (2) the devel There are few rule-of-thumb principles that can be opment of an historical point of view.
used in determining social action. The phenomena Historical instruction sets out consciously to give are so complex that they defy generalization. There the student that contact with human society that are few rules such as are laid down in the more exact comes otherwise merely as an incident of every-day sciences that the man of limited experience may delife. The reading and study of history is social ex pend upon in forming his conclusions and basing his perience concentrated and administered according to action. Social decisions must be based, for the most rule and measure. It crowds into a few hours time part, on opinions, the result of a wide social experithe greatest and finest experiences of the ages. The
They can rarely be proved to be right or boy who at sixteen years of age has no acquaintances wrong. The sanity of public action in a democratic but his neighbors, and no experiences but the prosy society must, therefore, depend largely upon the happenings of the immediate community, may in a breadth of social experience, the acquaintance with year of historical study rise above both time and space varied social phenomena that the individual members and revel in host of new emotions and desires
possess. spread his tent with Abraham, help Alexander to It is the object of instruction in history and the found a world empire, stroll with Socrates beneath other social sciences to supply the material for this the walls of Athens, march to world conquest with the cosmopolitan outlook.
cosmopolitan outlook. In the school courses a beRoman legions, listen to wandering minstrels within ginning is made in presenting material and developthe massive walls of a baron's castle, or march in all ing a point of view, and an impetus is given toward the trappings of chivalry to redeem the Holy City. independent reading throughout life. With the inWith Petrarch or Michelangelo he may give the world creasing complexity of our society, and the growing a new art, and with Luther or Loyala fire mankind movement towards democracy, it seems clear that the with religious enthusiasm. This same inconspicuous work of instruction in the social sciences must beyouth may live, in part at least, the life of king, phil come more and more important. osopher, peasant, zealot, barbarian, baron, priest and The second, and really unique, function of history acolite. In the world of his reading he wears a teaching is to develop what may be called a historical thousand kinds of dress, lives in strange habitations, point of view. It is a common criticism of history and eats strange foods. He is present when empires that it deals with the dead past, while the really live fall, when creeds crumble, when all the world goes man should have his attention focused assiduously wild over some new thing. He sees barbarous hordes upon the present. No one, assuredly, will attempt to grow into great nations, slaves and serfs rise to eco argue against a man's attentive study of his own age, nomic and political independence, well-established its capabilities, its wants, its temper. But a man institutions and beliefs decay and disappear. If he must have a wholly distorted and confused conception possesses spirit and a heart he thrills with enthusiasm of his own times unless he sees them as a part of a for some struggling cause, and catches from a great much larger thing—the life of the human race. A leader the splendid animus that makes the world glimpse of the present is meaningless without a picmove. Through his historical study he is gaining a ture of the past and vision of the future. To live ingreat social experience, and is fitting himself for a telligently in the present it is necessary for one to broader and saner social life.
perceive our age as the latest phase of a great social The same results, it is true, may be obtained development. Human society is a living, growing through a more personal contact with society, through thing, having its beginning somewhere in the darkness social and business activity, by association with great of antiquity, passing through the present, and pushleaders and taking an active part in large social, eco ing on into the mists of the future. It is a complex nomic, and political enterprises, by travel, by reading thing made up of millions of little ideas, interests, newspapers and magazines and imaginative literature, hopes, fancies, prejudices, superstitions, running especially the novel and the drama. But for most along from year to year, side by side like strands in persons all this is impossible, or comes only as the re a rope. Any age, that of Caesar, of Luther, of sult of a life's activity. Few of us are privileged to Rousseau, of Gladstone, should be looked upon as a be associated personally with big movements, or to be cross-section of this continuous growth. Our presenton intimate terms with great leaders. Our activities day political, social and religious institutions, our maare in limited fields.
terial resources, our tastes, ideals, strivings may all Yet as citizens of a democracy, and as members of be regarded as various elements in the newest layer a rapidly developing world-society, we are all called of social growth. upon to think and act upon national and world ques Nothing is more important, probably nothing else tions—matters that call for big vision and wide social is so important to intelligent living, as this perspective experience. History, a study of the development of of the conditions under which we live. It cannot fail human society, is a short-cut to this necessary urban to affect our every act and interest. The things about ity. It is here that the student gathers the facts, ob us are no longer static, but alive and growing: some serves the tendencies, forms the judgments that help are in the freshness of youth, some in the firmness of him to make enlightened decisions when called upon middle-age, some are tottering in their senility. All to act in present-day society. Not that the so-called are part of an orderly progress that has been going “ lessons of history ” can be concretely applied to on for all time. Such a view point saves us from both
a vaunting radicalism and a stifing conservatism. attention and effort upon the accomplishment of two
crises, social states, movements—to serve the student It is the province of history alone to develop this as a store-house of experience to be drawn upon as an perspective. No other study deals directly with the aid in forming social judgments in his every-day life. time relation. Geography, physics, biology, eco 2. The development of an historical point of view nomics are all primarily concerned in discovering the so that the student will not exaggerate the importance relations existing between objects and forces at play of his own age, but will appreciate the fact that his in the existing order of things. History gives matters
activity and the causes that he serves are but tiny a place in time. This is its unique function. Since
transient incidents in the one great life going on we have become aware that we are part of an ever
through the ages. developing universe, it appears as important to know LEROY F. JACKSON, (Chairman), Professor of when an event happens as how it happens—the time
American History, State College of Washrelation is just as important as the space relation.
ington. History teachers should bear this fact in mind that
EDWARD McMahon, Associate Professor of the primary concern of their subject is time. It de
American History, University of Wash
ington. volves upon them to develop in the students the his
C. S. KINGSTON, Professor of History, State torical attitude of mind which sees everything in the
Normal School, Cheney, Washington. social world as elements in the age-long progress of RANSOM A. Mackie, Queen Anne High School, humanity.
Seattle, Washington. It is the opinion of the committee that the teachers
MARGARET BOYLE, Butte (Montana) High of history in the secondary schools should center their
Pictorial Documents as Illustrating American History
BY FRANK WEITENKAMPF, NEW YORK CITY.
In these days of the ever-present photograph and spectful attention for any printed statement in word “ movies” it seems hardly necessary to insist on the or picture, made with sufficient emphasis. documentary value of pictures. Education by pic But publishers of historical books seem also at times torial means is in the air. But this very easy accept to accept for reproduction, with implicit faith, any ance on the part of the public, of the printed picture pictorial material that has once before received the is a somewhat disquieting matter. If the pictorial stamp of approval in the shape of publication. And print is a document, it should be critically examined that delightfully vague term “old print " is set under as is the manuscript and printed document. Is it al the illustration, whether the original is fifty years old ways, even by historians ?
or two hundred. It might as well refer to one of The speed of production of the newspaper may per
Alonzo Chappel's reconstructions of the late sixties mit pictures to slip through without clear determina as to a Peter Pelham mezzotint of the early eighteenth tion of origin. For instance, one well-known paper century. Parenthetically, let me say that Chappel in 1913 pictured 0. H. Perry in the Battle of Lake really seems to have reconstructed with some conErie “after Stuart's painting," but the painting was scientiousness. At all events, my lurking doubts as by W. H. Powell and was executed many years after to the correctness of uniform detail in his drawing of the battle. And at the time of the Benjamin Franklin
the death of Col. Ellsworth were dispelled when I bicentenary there appeared in one or more papers a came across a photograph of the Zouave who shot reproduction of “Franklin chez lui, à Philadelphie” Ellsworth's slayer, which quite agreed with Chappel's illustrating Dr. Manasseh Cutler's letter describing rendering. Franklin with others, seated in his garden. A little
One has but to look over even a partial list of the investigation proved that the picture had been painted queries that come to a prints division, such as that about 1876 by Henry Bacon and was therefore a
of the New York public library, to realize that the
demand for pictorial illustration is a widespread one. purely imaginary depiction of something that might indeed have taken place. It was not the publication
Here are a few of the things asked for in the field
of American history: Saddles of Washington's day, of the print that was wrong, of course, but the im
Kit Carson's saddle, head-dress of an old lady in 1810, plied age of the picture. Perhaps such things might country girl of 1812, British caricatures on American be passed over, if it were not for the fact that so
subjects, log cabins, Conestoga wagon, country school large a portion of the public practically depends on house of 1840, advent of the American flag, inaugurathe daily press for printed information, and has a re tions before Lincoln, clipper ships, early railway