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The exceptional student can be required to do more portance of the problem and the interest and value reading, bear larger burdens in the recitation, and per involved in it. form more notebook tasks. He can also be assigned When we approach the problem of how the student to pursue independent investigations of his own along should study, we are confronted with the fundamental lines in which he is particularly interested. The fact of individual differences in ideational type. amount and character of such additional work should Many students must lay more emphasis in study on be adjusted by the teacher to each individual case. one kind of imagery than on another. One girl
The problem attitude should be fundamental in his- studies best by moving her lips, and creating kinestory study. The subject matter upon which the mind thetic images, another by consciously forming vivid of the student is at work, may be treated as presenting mental pictures, another by forming verbal images, , a series of problems, which call for essentially the
etc. The teacher must diagnose each case as it comes same kind of attack as algebra problems or chemistry before him, and with a full understanding of the experiments. The various forms of problems that pupil's peculiar mental makeup, prescribe a method occur in history study may be classified as follows: of study which best utilizes his peculiar imagery.
This demands a careful examination of each student I. The study of secondary work, including the text,
who appears to differ from the normal, with perhaps which involves :
the use of some simple psychological tests, and a perA. Analysis.
sonal conference in which the pupil and the teacher B. Retention. C. Reasoning—about the nature and importance together work out the study method adapted to his
Thus, by reason of the supervision of study, of facts and their relation to each other.
the course is adapted to the student in degree of diffiII. The study of source extracts, which involves :
culty and in quantity, and his method of attack is A. Analysis.
adapted to his individual characteristics and abilities. B. Retention.
Perhaps 75 per cent. of the class, however, have C. Comparison.
a complex ideational type, and respond to various D. Reasoning-inductive and deductive-build
kinds of imagery in practically the same degree. In ing up of facts.
practise, therefore, the teacher should work out a norIII. Notebook exercises (maps, themes, outlines) the mal study method, which is calculated to fit the mass
DOING OF OBJECTIVE Tasks which necessi of the class. It is impossible, in an article of this tates study as above and is the APPLICATION length, to discuss the possible variants from the norof its results.
mal, and the appropriate study methods for each.
All that can be done here is to discuss the method of In supervising the student's attack on these various
study which fits the normal student, and to leave the problems, there are three problems:
prescribing of study methods for the abnormal student 1. How to motivate the study.
to the individual case. 2. How the student should study.
The writer's idea of the proper study methods for 3. How the teacher should teach the student to
the normal student will be best presented by giving in study.
full the study instructions which he hands out to his The first is the problem of the teacher in making pupils. No claim is made that these instructions are the assignment; the second is the student's own prob- perfect; in fact they have been revised many times in lem of method, which the teacher should solve for him
the course of the year, and will probably be revised in advance; the third is the problem of the technique many times again. These instructions have been the of the supervised study period.
result of the inductive experience of the study period. The first essential to effective study is to arouse a It is not claimed that any particular student should mental state which finds its logical expression in active follow all the suggestions given, merely that every and purposeful effort. This involves arousing inter student will find suggestions of value which he can est and curiosity. The pupil should be made to feel apply with profit, and that most of the instructions, that there is a real problem to be solved, and that it particularly those of a routine character, in which is a problem that he would like to solve. If the uniformity is desirable in itself, should be followed by student feels that the assignment is simply part of the all. These instructions follow: daily grind, his performance is apt to be lifeless and perfunctory. If there is a real desire to find out
HOW TO STUDY HISTORY.2 some new facts that promise to be important, or to The most important thing for history students to learn perform a task which he is satisfied will improve his early in the course is “How to Study the Lesson Effecknowledge and grasp of the subject, the study will be tively” and “How to Perform Well the Tasks that the properly motivated. In this sense, the teacher is a Teacher Assigns.” If you do not learn these things well, sort of advertising agent for the problem assigned; he
you are not likely to learn much else. These directions are must feel enthusiasm for his article of trade, and must
prepared to help you study effectively. If you will follow
them conscientiously and carefully in the preparation of have the ability to transmit that enthusiasm to others.
each day's lesson you will be richly repaid in the satisfacCare should be taken, however, not to indulge in any tion that comes from doing things well. superficial and shallow displays of interest or enthusiasm, for the student sees through the mask. It is es 2 These instructions, complete, are to be published as a sential that the student be really made to see the im part of each syllabus mentioned in note 1.
I. HOW TO STUDY THE TEXT-BOOK:
A. In the first place, be sure that you understand the assignment and know just exactly what the teacher wants done. If you are in doubt on any point, ask the teacher to explain more definitely what is required.
B. Review the main points of the lessons that you have had, that are related to the subject of the new lesson. Five or ten minutes spent in a review of this sort will make it easier to'master the new assignment.
C. Read over the assignment once to get the main ideas.
D. Look up the meaning and pronunciation of all new words and names.
E. Wherever any reference is made to any place (city, mountain range, river, country, etc.) look it up on the map and fix it in your memory so firmly that you can locate it without hesitation on the large map in the class-room.
F. Study the maps in the text-book, and try to estimate the importance of geographical facts in determining historical events. You cannot understand history without geography
G. Underline neatly with pencil sentences or words that seem to you particularly important or helpful. Be careful, however, not to do too much of this, and be sure that you do it neatly.
H. Memorize all important names and dates.
I. In reading the text-book with the purpose of remembering what you read, you are confronted with two problems:
1. To understand thoroughly what you are reading.
2. To fix all those points in memory so that you can reproduce them.
You will be greatly helped in doing these things by mak. ing an outline of the assignment, for you must understand what the book means in order to make a good outline, and the act of writing it down fixes it in mind so that you can remember it better.
Usually each paragraph in your text-book has a topic summary in heavy type at the beginning of the paragraph, or in the margin. Read this. What does it mean? Then read the paragraph. What does each sentence mean? How does it add to the topic of the paragraph ? Are there some points in the paragraph of more importance than others ? If so, what is the relation between the important topics and the less important ones? Do the latter explain the former? Do they give you details of the former? Try to condense the meaning of each point into four or five well chosen words. Are there any points in the paragraph which do not belong under the topic summary of that paragraph? If you are sure that they do not, what topic summary would you write out to cover them? Do you understand the paragraph fully, the importance of each sentence and part of a sentence in it, and the relations that exist among the parts ?
When you are sure that you understand the paragraph fully, write out an outline of it. Write down the main topic summary under a Roman numeral (I, II). Then write down the first main sub-topic under a capital letter (A). Under this sub-topic enter the details that explain it under Arabic numerals (1, 2, 3). Then pick out your second main sub-topic (B), and under it enter its sub-topics. Go through the whole paragraph in this way.
How is the paragraph which you have outlined related to the main topic of the lesson? How does it add to the development of that topic? Look up from your work and see if you can remember the points of the paragraph and give them in your own words. If alone, you may find it helpful to say them aloud. If working with a classmate, you can repeat them to him or her in the same way, and have him or her criticize your recitation, you in turn helping him or her. If working in the study room, go through them silently or moving your lips. If you cannot give the
points of the paragraph, study your outline and the paragraph until you can.
When you have done this to your satisfaction, pass on to the next paragraph, and study it in the same way. In what way is each paragraph related to the main topic, and to the paragraph which went before? What more do you know about the main topic after studying the paragraph than you did before? When you have outlined all the paragraphs, look up from your work and see if you can summarize the important points of the whole lesson in the same way as above. If you cannot, study your outline and the text-book again until you can.3
While this seems a great deal of trouble you will find that you can get your lesson more quickly and thoroughly by this method than without it. As you become more advanced in your work and become more experienced in study methods, you can gradually reduce the amount of writing and outline, if you go through the same process of thinking as if you were making an outline. In other words, you should always make an outline in your mind, even if you do not commit it to paper. Keep up the outlining, how. ever, until you can get the teacher's permission to drop it. On very difficult lessons, you may find it useful to outline on paper, even after years of history study.
J. Study the pictures as carefully as the printed portion of your text-book. Many students make the mistake of simply looking at the pictures, and not studying them. One can learn just as much from the pictures as from the printed words. Close your eyes and try to see the events or persons or places of the lesson. Make a mental picture of the lesson. Try to imagine yourself as being in that place, or as doing the things of which the lesson tells. Try to make the lesson as real to your mind as if you had actually been living in those times, and had been an actor in great events.
K. Refer to the syllabus and look over the outline. Are there any points in that outline which are not in your own or in the text-book? If so, look in the list of suggested readings, and try to get information on that point from other books.
L. Refer to the questions in the syllabus and at the end of the chapter in your text-book. Try to answer each one of these, either in writing or in your mind, carefully considering all the facts. Make a list of other questions that occur to you in regard to the lesson, and bring them to class. These questions may be classified as follows:
1. The causes of an event or movement. 2. The results of an event or movement.
3. The importance of certain facts. (Why do we study them?)
4. The right or wrong of an action or an institution. (What would you have done ?)
5. The moral character or mental greatness of men.
6. The motives or reasons for doing certain things, of men or of governments.
7. Comparisons of men, institutions, customs, nations, etc., with others you have studied.
Thinking about the lesson in this way will make the facts easier to remember, will make the lesson more interesting, and will make you a better thinker,
Remember that the test of your lesson preparation is ·
3 An excellent work on the peculiar problems involved in the study of history is Professor Johnson's “ Teaching of History,” recently published. Professor Johnson's suggestions as to the method of studying the text-book are practically the same as those suggested above. It is fair to state, however, that these suggestions are the outcome of class-room experience, and were developed before the writer read Professor Johnson's book,
your ability to recite on a given topic, or on the whole of 6. Studying all the documents that you have read and the lesson, giving all the important points under each topic, criticized, and applying to them the principles given at the and making clear the importance of each, expressing your last of the section on How We Know About the Past," opinions of men and institutions, and answering the ques come to a decision as to what facts are proved, and what tions expressed above (in L) without any assistance from facts are not proved or are doubtful. Be sure that for each the teacher, either by prompting or by asking questions. If one you can quote from the documents definite statements you can do that, you have prepared your lesson well. as to these facts. Write these in your notebooks, together II. READING IN OTHER BOOKS:
with your reasons for considering them proved or doubtful, Your text-book does not contain all the material that
and the proper quotations from the documents themselves. you should study in order to get a proper understanding of
7. Your permanent notebook should have a section in
which you can put the results of your source studies. Each your work. Only the most important things are in the
study should be recorded in this notebook. By checking text-book. Often your text-book states a fact in so general
this notebook record the teacher will know the amount and a way and so briefly that you cannot understand it without reading more about it in some other work. The text-book
quality of your source work. Your notes should be in the
following form: contains only the viewpoint of one man; to understand
a. The topic on which you are studying. history properly you should get the viewpoint of several
b. A description of all the documents studied, with the authors, and also read from the original sources and docu
names of their authors, if known, and the name of the ments. There are two kinds of books to which you will be re
source book and pages on which it is to be found.
c. A brief sketch of what you have found about the auferred: Source books, which contain documents or sources
thor. from which we have gained important knowledge or which
d. The outlines of each document or notes on each made are interesting as illustrations of statements made in your
in studying it to get its meaning. text-book, and secondary works, which are books like your
e. What you have found out by applying the tests for text-book, but usually more detailed and complete. All
good faith and accuracy. secondary works are based on a study of sources or docu
f. All the information asked for in c, d and e, for each ments, some of which are contained in the source books.
document you have studied in addition to the first one. In no good secondary work will you find a statement which the author could not prove by reference to original sources.
g. The facts you consider proved, your reasons for consid
ering them proved, and quotations from the sources to prove It is important to distinguish between these two kinds of books, for they must be studied in different ways.
h. The facts you considered disproved or doubtful, with A. Source books. (Before reading this section read and study carefully the section on “How We Know About the
your reasons for considering them disproved. Past." 4) Source books are collections of some of the most
B. Secondary works. The chief reason for reading in secimportant and helpful written documents. All the opera
ondary works is to gain more information than your text
book contains. The chief purpose of studying source books tions of external criticism have been performed with these
is to understand how the historian works with documents. documents; they have been restored and read. It remains only to interpret them, and to ascertain from them the
ince the purpose of studying secondary works is to gain
more information, you should study them in much the same facts of which they are the traces left to us.
way as you study your text-book. In some
cases you In studying sources as supplementary reading, apply to
should make a careful outline of the selection. In other them all the tests of internal or higher criticism, and read
cases, where the information is not entirely new to you, it all the sources that you can find on your point with a view
will be sufficient to note down point by point the new facts, to comparing them and drawing conclusions from them. Follow these directions:
or to note the points, if any, in which the author disagrees
with the author of your text-book. There is a great deal of 1. Find out what you can about the author. In most
room for differences in ways of looking at the same facts. source books, a paragraph or two at the beginning of each selection or in the back of the book gives this information.
Where you find disagreement try to reach your own conclu
sion as to which is right, by further reading and thinking. You can also learn much about the author while reading the document, just as you can often learn the character of a
of your own. man by hearing him speak or reading his letters.
On some readings which are interesting simply because 2. Determine whether the document is an official record,
they seem to make the lesson more real to you, you need
take no notes at all. You must be the judge, ordinarily of an account by an eye-witness, or an account written by one who got his information from others.
how to study the selection and of how carefully to study it.
Sometimes the teacher will assign definite readings to you 3. Study the document carefully to get what it means. Usually it will be necessary to outline the document just
or to the whole class, and specify the method of study. In as you would outline your text-book. Follow other direc
general, a knowledge of what you have read, definite enough tions in the section on “ How to Study the Text-book
for you to give some new information of importance to the to new words, use of maps, etc.
class in the recitation, will be evidence that you have 4. Apply the tests for good faith and accuracy. Consider
studied the selection carefully enough. each statement of the document separately, and ask if there
Your permanent notebook should have a section for readis any reason to doubt the accuracy or truthfulness of the
ings in secondary works. This section should contain a statement. Ask all the questions given in the section on
record of every reading you have made, as follows: “ How We Know About the Past.”
a. Topic. 5. Find any other documents that you can in the same
b. Name of author, name of book, publisher, city and date
of publication, and the pages read. (Robinson, James H., or other source books, that bear on the same point. If un
“The Development of Modern Europe.” Ginn & Co., Boston, able to do so, ask the teacher's help in finding them. Study
1907, pp. 206-220.) them in the same way as you have studied the first one.
c. Whatever notes, outlines, etc., you have made.
d. Your opinion of the value of the reference and of the 4 Section V of the instructions contains a short summary book. of the operations of historical research.
C. Reports to the class. In reading any selection in sec
ondary works, or in studying any sources, you should always room, make a key. In a square drawn with pen and ink, keep in mind the class. You may be called upon by the put a block of each color used, and after it print in SMALL teacher at any time to report to the class the reading you CAPITALS the name of the country represented by that have done and what source investigations you have been color. making. The purpose of these reports is to introduce new 8. In a conspicuous place on the map, where there is and interesting material into the recitation, and to train plenty of room, PRINT IN LARGE CAPITALS THE TITLE you in expressing your knowledge fluently to others. Try of the map, so that it is plain what the map is meant for. to read and study selections that the class would be inter C. The outlines: Frequently you will be assigned to make ested in hearing you report. Often you will be asked to an outline of some event or movement or period. This outprepare certain readings or source studies especially for the line should be made at once, while the topic is still fresh in purpose of bringing them before the class.
your mind. You have already been instructed in the secIII. THE NOTEBOOK : 5
How to Study the Text-book” how to make an Notebooks are of two kinds, the study notebook which is
outline. Apply the same principles to the making of these to contain the outlines you make in studying the lesson,
special outlines, picking out first the large topics, and then
the sub-topics under each. Make these outlines as brief and and the permanent notebook which is to contain:
compact as possible. This means that you must condense 1. Records of source studies. 2. Records of readings in secondary works.
everything into as few words as possible to make your
meaning clear. Following is an example of a good out3. Maps, assigned by the teacher.
line: 4. Special outlines of importance, assigned by the teacher.
OUTLINE—THE FIRST CRUSADE. 5. Themes on special topics, including the term report.
The first two have already been discussed. Both of these I. Growth of the power of the Turks. kinds of work should be kept in separate sections of the A. The Turks were an Asiatic people related to the Huns. notebook. In another section of the notebook should come B. They had driven the Arabs out of the Holy Land. "the maps, themes and outlines, in the order in which they C. They had driven the Eastern Empire out of Asia Minor. are assigned by the teacher.
II. The Eastern Emperor asks the Pope for military aid. A. General directions: Perform every notebook assign A. The fact that he asked the Pope rather than the Holy ment at home, while it is fresh in your mind. Use ink for
Roman Emperor shows that the Pope was the most everything. Aim for neatness and accuracy. The quality
important personage in all Europe. of your work will be judged largely by the quality of your
III. The Council of Clermont, 1095 A.D. notebook work.
A. Called by the Pope. As each assignment is made enter it in your table of
B. Composed largely of French nobles and clergy. contents. This table of contents should come first in your
C. The Council decides to send an armed expedition to the notebook, and should give the number of the exercise and
Holy Land for the recovery of the Holy Sepulchre. the page of your notebook on which it will be found. Fol.
IV. Causes of the Crusades. low this form:
A. Desire for adventure.
B. Religious enthusiasm. 1. Map-Peoples of Western Asia
C. Desire for land. 2. Outline—Important Discoveries of the Prehistoric
Etc., etc., etc.
D. The themes: From time to time the teacher will as-
sign themes to be written on certain subjects. The first B. The Maps: When you are assigned an outline map to thing to do is to read in secondary works and source books fill in with certain material that the teacher will assign, you and gather material for your theme. Do not write anyshould follow these instructions in order:
thing until you understand properly the subject of your 1. Using pencil, trace on the map the boundaries needed theme and until you have read at least one book besides to make the map clear. Make the pencil marks very light. your text-book. Do not introduce anything into the theme
2. When sure that the boundaries are accurate, trace them that does not bear directly on your subject. Do not use the with pen and ink, and when dry. erase the pencil lines. words of the book. Use your own. Make your theme 3. With dots in ink locate all important cities.
definite, accurate, original and brief. It is not the quantity 4. With printed letters in ink name all rivers, cities, coun of matter you write, but the quality, that makes a good tries, seas, islands, etc. Print the names of cities in small theme. letters, thus-Paris. Print the names of rivers in small At the very end of the theme give the names of the books capitals, thus-RHINE RIVER. Print the names of countries you have consulted, thus: in larger capitals. This will prevent confusion.
Robinson, J. H., Readings in European History,” pp. 5. With colored crayon, color carefully each country, tak 196-202. ing care:
Often these themes will take the form of letters, diaries a. To use a circular motion of the crayon.
and other writings of a personal character, written as if you b. To bear very lightly on the crayon.
were a participant in the events, or an actual eye-witness. c. Not to go too fast.
E. The term report: During the term you will write at d. To get the color on smoothly.
least one long theme of from 1,200 to 1,500 words on some e. Not to run over the boundaries.
special topic, on which you are to read a great deal and, f. Not to get the color on too thick.
find out all that you can. Work on this term report will 6. With blue crayon, draw a narrow edging, about an begin about the end of the first six weeks. You may choose eighth of an inch wide, just inside the borders of each body your own topic, after consultation with the teacher, either of water.
from the work already covered, or from work in the latter 7. In some corner of the map where there is plenty of part of the term's work if you are more interested in that,
and desire to read ahead. You are expected ot read all 5 The subject of notebook work is more fully discussed by that you can find on your topic, in at least three books, and the writer in the HISTORY TEACHER'S MAGAZINE for Octo to study in a scholarly way all the sources that bear on ber, 1916.
As you read these books, take notes on all important The effectiveness of the supervised study period depoints, noting down carefully the page on which your in
pends entirely upon the enthusiasm with which the formation was found. When you write up your report, you teacher embraces his opportunity, and the technique should write it from these notes, and refer to the books
which he develops for carrying it out. In the hands themselves as little as possible. Your final draft should contain footnotes, which will give the reader of your re
of a lukewarm and careless teacher the period may port the page and book which is your authority for every
mean nothing; in the hands of an alert and enthusiimportant statement you make. You should average at
astic teacher, it may mean everything. least two footnotes to the page. Often you can explain There is an element of danger in supervised study, some point in detail much better by adding a footnote. the danger, namely, that the teacher may use it to Your footnotes should follow this form:
solve all the student's problems for him, thus deaden1 Robinson's Readings, p. 202.
ing his initiative and retarding his mental growth. 2 The Teutonic Knights, referred to above, went to the This danger makes it necessary that the teacher shores of the Baltic Sea after the crusades were over, and should clearly articulate his purposes and aims in the warred against the heathen Slavs. Later the order came study period, and hew strictly to the line, resisting under the control of the Hohenzollern House, and its pos the temptation, which is bound to come, to help too sessions were the nucleus of the Duchy of Prussia. Thatcher much. It has been well said that the purpose of & Schwill, “ Europe in the Middle Age," p. 335.
supervising study is not to level the mountain but to If maps would add to the clearness or interest of your train capable mountain climbers; it is not to solve the report, the teacher will give you outline maps which you problem for the student, but to show him how to solve can fill in and use to illustrate your report.
The teacher having developed his ideas as to the At the end of your report, on a separate page, should
proper methods of study for various types of subject come your bibliography, or list of books used. First give
matter and for various types of students, it is his the name of the author, then the full name of the book, then
function to teach those methods to the student, and the name of the publisher, then the city and date of publication. Then in a sentence or two give your opinion of
then see to it that the student follows them. the merits of the book and its usefulness to you in working The first step, as has been indicated, is to reduce up your report. Follow this form:
the standard study method to a definite form, and to
formulate it in an organized body of suggestions. BIBLIOGRAPHY.
Much time is saved by handing out at the beginning Oman, Charles. "A History of England.” Henry Holt &
of the term printed or mimeographed sheets, containCo., New York, 1898. I found Oman useful for the follow
ing whatever suggestions of the sort the teacher may ing points ...
desire to make. These should be ready for the first Thatcher, Oliver J., and Schwill, Ferdinand. Europe in
meeting of the class. the Middle Age.” Charles Scribner's Sons, New York, 1896. This work was useful to me for the following reasons.
At the first meeting, an informal discussion should
be held on the question of how to study the textbook. From these instructions, it will sufficiently appear, The sheets should be distributed and the various sugI take it, what the writer's ideas of the
proper gestions discussed. When the first textbook assignmethods of study for the mass of the class are. Fur ment is made, the teacher should conduct group study ther discussion would therefore be redundant, as the of the text, all of the students having before them the instructions are self-explanatory. It is apparent that
It is apparent that textbook and the instructions. An outline should be the course has been largely standardized, both as to worked out by the group, in accordance with the incontent, and as to method of attack. And yet as
structions, and placed on the board. After the lesson has been pointed out, it is sufficiently elastic, since the has been worked through in this way, students can be amount of work required is varied with the ability of asked to recite on topics, as a test. Then the opinion the individual pupil concerned, and variations from of the group should be asked as to what dates should the standard study methods are permitted to those who be memorized, and what are the most important things will benefit by using other methods. For the mass of to remember, etc. A beginning can be made on the the class, the standardization is of great advantage, questions for reflective thinking on the syllabus. In for the pupil has before him in black and white prac this way the class is introduced to the study problem tically everything that relates to the organization of inductively. the subject matter of the course, the character of the This group study should be discontinued as soon as tasks assigned, and the proper methods for perform- possible, as soon, namely, as the principles are thoring them. Where a variation from standard is per- oughly grasped. It may be resorted to time after mitted, it is always for cause, and much is gained over time during the term, when problems of a new sort, or a system or lack of system, where there are no stand- problems presenting particular difficulty are before ards objectively fixed, except those which the students the class. The tendency is to abuse it, however, and may fix themselves.
such tendency should be carefully guarded against. It remains to discuss the third problem, namely how After the first few days of the term, the students to put these study methods into effect, how to get the should be set to study the assignment individually. students to study in the proper manner. The most The teacher should go from desk to desk, making sure important feature of supervised study is the technique that the student understands the meaning of the sugof the study period. The teacher is the fundamental gestions and is applying them effectively. If he is fact in any system of education; the administrative not doing so, the teacher should state the requiresystem exists only that he may do his work effectively. ment more clearly and set the student right. If a