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In many schools in the country the boys and girls on election day, November 7, reproduced in school the principal methods of balloting pursued in their community. An account of such a school election is given below, describing what was done in the two junior high schools of Kenosha, Wis., a description of which appears in the “Educational News Bulletin " (Wisconsin) for December 1, 1916.

“A broad swath was recently cut in the important field of training for citizenship by the holding of an election in the two Kenosha Junior High Schools. These two schools of about 250 boys and girls each are housed according to a sort of modified Gary plan in one building known as the Frank School.

“The plans for the election experiment were made by the teachers in civics of these two schools, Matilda Hansen and Winifred Farley. Here is their report.

“About two weeks before the election Russell H. Jones, the county clerk, visited the school, and described the management of an election and the process of voting. He also furnished regular polling lists and tally sheets for tabulating returns. A room in the basement of the Frank School is used as a polling place for the fourth ward of Kenosha, and this enabled the children to carry out the voting in the regular way by using the room the day before election. The whole program was carried out even to the swearing in of one of the election clerks.

“The campaign situation had been studied in connection with current events in the civics classes in anticipation of the election. An outline of the necessary material was made, and the following subjects were fully discussed in the civics classes.

“l. The legal qualifications of candidates for the several offices.

“2. Personal qualities necessary to the ideal man for each office. “3. The method of procedure in the nomination of candidates: a for the presidential ballot; b. for the state, legislative, congressional, and county ballot. “4. Manner of registration and the necessity of registering. “5. Methods of voting—straight ticket— scratch ticket. “6. Method of counting votes: a. By the election board; b. By the county board of convassers; c. By the state board. “The plan of conducting the election was as follows: “l. The school represented the city. “2. Each section of the Junior High School was a ward, viz.: There were the Frank school ward and the Lincoln school ward of the Junior High School City. “3. The count was made in each ward independent of the other. “4. The results were totaled as for an entire city. Each ward had its own officials for election. “We set aside Wednesday, November 1, as registration day. On this occasion, the board of registry, previously selected from the class, took full charge and performed the required duties. “The following Monday, November 6, was named as elec. tion day. As we used the polling place of the fourth ward

of Kenosha, located in the basement of our school house, it was not possible to conduct our election on Tuesday, the regular election day. On this day, our chosen City Clerk swore in the inspector of election with all solemnity. The supplies were taken to the voting place, the ballots marked with the initials of the ballot clerks, every voter was questioned whether he had registered and no ballot was given to a voter not registered unless that voter could produce an affidavit, substantiated by two other voters from his own section. It was most strictly managed by the class members.

“After the votes had all been cast, the election board gathered to count the ballots. With the air of experienced men and women, these boys and girls of the board went through the counting, sorting into different groups the ‘straights' and the “scratches, then further dividing the ‘straights’ into their respective piles.

“The tally was made, blanks furnished for general election returns filled out, and these were filed with the County Clerk of our school.

“Too much credit cannot be given to the teachers who directed this impressive lesson on citizenship in its broadest and most practical aspect—that of voting for national, state and municipal officers.”


I find the following game very interesting and profitable when used in connection with history. One student is sent from the room and while out the teacher, or one of the pupils, decides what historical character he or she is to be. When the student reenters the room the others ask him questions as though he were the historical character selected; and from the questions asked the pupil guesses who he is. For example, the teacher sends John Smith from the room and they decide to make him Cyrus the Great. The pupils prepare their questions and give them as called on by the teacher. John is admitted and questions are asked. The following are a few good questions if “Cyrus the Great" is the character chosen: 1. “Were you a vassal to the Median King?” 2. “Were you really so great as history tells us your were?” 3. “Why did you wish to capture the Median King?” 4. “Did you expand the Persian Empire very much during your reign?” etc. The pupil guesses who he is as soon as possible and the one who “gives it away" is sent out the next time. In case the pupil cannot guess who he is and “gives up,” he is sent from the room again and another name is chosen. This game is very interesting and at the same time is a splendid incentive to study, for the pupils must be thoroughly familiar with the character in order to ask good questions, and in order to guess who they are. In my ancient history class we play the game for at least half of the period every Friday, provided the average daily grade for the week is good. And the pupils usually bring up good lessons, for it is a dreadful punishment if they are not permitted to play. This game is just as effective when used in English or American history as it is when used in ancient. Original by HENRIETTA AYRE.

Church Hill, Tenn.



AURNEB, CLARENCE RAY. History of Education in Iowa. Volumes I, II, III, IV. Iowa City, Iowa: State Historical Society, 1916. Pp. xiv, 436; lx, 469; xii, 464; xi, 471. $2.00 each. It is gratifying to note that a State Historical Society has considered this aspect of State history worthy of inclusion in its archives. The State Historical Society of Iowa is to be congratulated upon its successful venture into a field of history which has been lamentably neglected by similar institutions. Its commission to Doctor Aurner has been creditably discharged; he has contributed a valuable chapter to the history of Iowa. In reviewing a work so comprehensive in scope, it will serve no commendable purpose to magnify relatively insignificant errors. The author has examined a huge amount of source material, and has treated it well. Undoubtedly opinions will differ on the matter of relative values and proportion, but it will be generally admitted that the work is authentic, and that, within its limitations, it is fairly complete. ROBERT FRANCIS SEYBOLT. The University of Wisconsin.

WHITE, J. WILLIAM. A Text-book of the War for Americans. Fourth edition of “A Primer of the War for Americans.” Revised and enlarged. Philadelphia : John C. Winston Co., 1915. Pp. 551. $1.00. This volume is a compilation of extracts from documents, essays, editorials, and books relating to the war. The author has adopted the Socratic method of presentation, each chapter having for its title a question, the answer to which lies in the chapter itself. The scope of the work is revealed by some of the questions so considered: “What evidence exists as to the fundamental cause of this war?” “What is the evidence as to the events immediately leading up to the war in their relation to the culpability of Germany?” “Has there been reason to modify or to mitigate the almost universal condemnation of Germany's treatment of Belgium felt and expressed at the outset in this country?” “What are the principles represented by the opposing forces in this war?” “What are the extent and the aims of the organized German propaganda in America?”“How much reliance is to be placed upon statements emanating from Germany at this time?” “What are the duties of America at this time ’’ “What can America do to bring about peace?” The author believes the war was made in Germany; its fundamental cause was “the determination of Germany to attain ‘world power” (page 17); this determination has been expressed for over forty years in the writings and teachings of prominent and representative Germans; the struggle was precipitated by an ambitious autocratic military caste headed by a neurotic—“in all probability a neuropsychopathic" (nage 52)—over-lord, “with medieval views of his relation to his country and the world, and supported by a subservient corps of “learned men,” the majority of whom are paid servants of the State” (page 499). Germany's conduct of the war has been the logical outcome of her philosophy that “necessity knows no law; ” for “she has disregarded, . . . or broken . . . many international laws and customs. . . . In each instance the infraction has been accompanied or followed by quibbling, . or untruthful attempts to explain, . . . or vindicate the action. The evidence as to atrocities committed by Ger

mans . . . is formidable, and is constantly increasing" (page 500). America should proclaim “our absolute and unreserved belief in the right and justice of the cause of the Allies, and our determination, should the worst come to them, that they shall have our material support to our last dollar, our last bushel of corn, our last drop of blood" (page 503). The above summary renders unnecessary any comment on the character of the work. Military events receive no attention. The volume is supplied with two illustrations, an unscholarly bibliography, and an incomplete general index. It also contains a useful “Index of Names,” giving a brief identification of each person listed. The placing of footnotes at the end of the volume is a nuisance. On page 28 the author uses “Arabia '' for “Bessarabia.” While the work cannot be regarded as an impartial or scholarly treatment of the Great War, readers will find it entertaining and useful as a collection of material upholding the causes of the Allies. HowARD C. HILL. State Normal School, Milwaukee, Wis.

MACE, WILLIAM H. Washington: A Virginia Cavalier. Little Lives of Great Men. Chicago: Rand, McNally & Co., 1916. Pp. 180. 35 cents. The story of Washington's life is told in a straightforward, interesting way that should hold the attention of grammar school pupils. The hero's boyhood is particularly well described. In the treatment of his adult life the account follows closely, with a few exceptions, the events in which Washington directly participated. The little book, which is only four by six inches in size, has no maps, but the illustrations are abundant; some of these are reproductions of paintings, some are fanciful pictures, and there are many sketches drawn from objects at Mount Vernon and elsewhere, associated with the Washington family. ALBERT H. SANFORD. State Normal School, La Crósse, Wis.

MAcDoNALD, J. R. MoREToN. A History of France. In three volumes. New York: The Macmillan Co., 1915. Pp. 366, 399, 551. $6.00. For many years no general history of France of medium size has been written in English. Since Kitchin wrote, extensive research has gone on, and so a new work embodying its results is welcome. Mr. Macdonald has devoted his first volume to the medieval period, the second to the years 1515-1789, and the third to modern France up to 1871. It is a pity that he did not bring it up to date. His literary style is good and the book is readable. Perhaps it is somewhat open to criticism for emphasis on political, military and diplomatic history; but that does not mean that the economic side has been wholly neglected. The book seems to be based on sound scholarship, and should prove to be useful to the general reader. For high school pupils the language is perhaps a little difficult, but it may be helpful to the advanced students.

Ohio State University. CLARENCE PERKINS.

McCARTHY, CHARLEs; Swan, FLORA, AND McMULLIN, JENNIE. Elementary Civics. New York: Thompson, Brown & Co., 1916. Pp. viii, 232. 75 cents. In the nature of its contents, and especially in the apportionment of space to topics, this book follows no model known to the reviewer. Of its 224 pages preceding the index, 50 pages are given to appendices, most of which are quite usable. The amount of space devoted to the questions that follow each chapter is large, one-ninth that of the reading matter proper. The subject of city government is given two-sevenths of the entire space. A chapter on “Efficiency” comprises one-sixth of the book preceding the appendices, and treats of industrial, as well as political efficiency. - The book represents in a very marked way the reaction against the old style of civics text which was devoted mainly to descriptions of governmental organization and constitutional functions. The questions, and sometimes the text, suggest that facts should be gathered about forms and organization. For example, the text says (page 98) that Congress is so well described in the Constitution that “you can study it out for yourselves.” Criticisms of our government and comparisons with forms and activities of government elsewhere are frequent—an excellent feature of the work. Probably on account of its co-operative authorship, the subject matter varies considerably in its adaptability to pupils of the eighth grade. clear, and attractive; in other passages unwarranted assumptions are made, severe condensation renders the subject matter difficult, and complex topics are introduced. Surely, as the preface says, “the chapters are for reading and discussion. A teacher of strength and originality, by the aid of the stimulating text and questions of this book, may have a class of boys and girls who are learning facts instead of words, who are thinking as they learn, who are in touch with actualities, and who are getting real training for citizenship. S.

STEPHENs, KATE. The Mastering of Mexico. New York: The Macmillan Co., 1916. Pp. xi, 335. $1.50.

Channing, in Volume I of his “History of the United States,” page 60, footnote, says: “The student of United States history will gain a sufficient knowledge of the conquest of Mexico from Prescott's brilliant work, or better from Bernal Diaz del Castillo’s ‘Historia Verdadera,’ of which there are several translations.” The task Miss Stephens set for herself was the boiling down of the three volumes of Maudslay's translation of this narrative of Diaz (Hakluyt Society Publications), and combining the product with excerpts from Lockhart’s “Memoirs” of this conquistador. This companion of Cortes and participant in one of the greatest expeditions known to mankind, wrote with exceptional vividness and power, and these elements of strength have been carried over in good degree into this condensation of the chronicle. For scholars the fuller form of the narrative must continue to be essential, but in the briefer there is good source material for the high school pupil and stirring narrative for the general reader interested either in tales of adventure or in the earliest history of suffering Mexico.

DE Souza, CHARLEs, AND MACFALL, HALDANE. Germany in Defeat. A Strategic History of the War. First Phase. London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trübner & Co., Ltd. New York: E. P. Dutton & Co. Pp. 207. $2.00, net. DE Souza, CHARLEs. Germany in Defeat. A Strategic History of the War. London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trübner & Co., Ltd. New York: E. P. Dutton & Co. Pp. 232. $2.00, net. These two books have apparently been written for two reasons: First, to explain the strategy of the war so the civilian can understand what happened, and why, and not be misled by the reports and comments of badly informed journalists; and second, to make the public “realize that Germany was defeated at the Marne—that she has been a

In places the style is simple,

defeated people ever since—and that at hand is, and must resolutely be carried out, her complete crushing as a fighting force.” The authors believe that “the arrogant publication of high Prussian officers of scores of books’ laying bare their elaborate plans for the conquest of France was intended to blind public opinion and lead the French to do what the German leaders wished and expected. The authors are sure that Joffre gained by the first offensive in Upper Alsace, though lesser officers made mistakes, that he wisely avoided a hasty advance into Belgium which would have made a defeat likely, and that he kept the initiative all along and won the campaign by superior brains. They give high praise also to generals like Sarrail and Foch, who did so much to help. The second volume covers the period from the Battle of the Marne to the close of the first battle of Ypres in October, 1914. Both volumes are very well written. They give clear explanations of the main movements, and make the motives plain to the civilian readers. They give a fine analysis of the moves in the great chess game of war. Naturally many will disagree with the views expressed by the authors. The complete truth will not be beyond dispute for many years. It is obvious of course that the author's point of view is decidedly French and English. The books are provided with very many excellent maps and plans to illustrate the various movements. The mature high school boys will be much interested in these books. Ohio State University. CLARENCE PERKINS.

How ARD, DANIEL. American History, Government and Institutions. Boston: The Palmer Co., 1908 and 1914. Pp. 233. $1.00.

Under the above title and in the compass of 233 pages the author discusses a little of almost everything concerning America, including history, geography, government, biography, citizenship and American life. The book was written primarily for classes of foreigners in public evening schools. It has no value for anything else, and should have been much better even for that. The part dealing with American history is particularly objectionable. Some 90 pages in all are given to American history, of which 51 pages are given to the colonial period, and 10 of these 51 pages are given to the military events of the Revolutionary War. Only 12 pages are given to the period from 1783 to 1860, followed by 14 pages given to the Civil War—chiefly military history of the old type. Only two pages are given to the period 1865 to 1898, and three pages to the SpanishAmerican War. The author showed little care for proper perspective. Likewise, it has evidently been some time since the author has studied his history. The following quotation will indicate the type of untruthful history—if there can be any such thing—which the author would have our new immigrants learn. Speaking of the effects of the French and Indian War, he says: “The Americans had to pay twice as much money as the English for the expenses of the army, but when the war was over the English tried to make the Americans pay them larger taxes so that they could get back what they had spent in all the wars that had been fought in America.”

Some other parts of the book contain some valuable information which might be used as reading lessons for foreigners in the evening schools, and made the basis of conversation in English. The author has attempted too much, however, in a book of this size, with the inevitable result that none is entirely satisfactory. The book would be more satisfactory if the part on American history had been left out entirely. WILSON. P. SHORTRIDGE.

North High School, Minneapolis.

Beca maintains, was the chief tactical cause of the defeat of the Austrians by the French in 1859, of the French by the Prussians in 1870, and of the Russians by the Japanese in 1905. Will history report a similar failure by the Allies in the present struggle? Many will learn with surprise that Mohammedanism was “the re-establishment of the reMohammedanism" ligion of Abraham ” (p. 24). “Martel” contains but one “1” (p. 24). The defeat of the French when using the linear tactics of Frederick II and the victory of the Prussians by their employment of Napoleonic methods in the Franco-Prussian war form one of the ironies of history (p. 46).

Students interested in military matters-and what student is not nowadays ?-will find this little volume worth reading. It contains a number of drawings illustrating the modern disposition of troops en route and in battle formation. It has no index.

Howard C. HILL. State Normal School, Milwaukee.

BREASTED, JAMES H. Ancient Times: A History of the

Early World. Boston: Ginn & Co., 1916. Pp. 742.

$1.60. Professor Breasted's book is divided into five parts, as follows: “ The Earliest Europeans," 34 pages; “The Orient," 186 pages; , “ The Greeks," 224 pages; “The Mediterranean World in the Hellenistic Age and the Roman Empire," 156 pages, and “The Roman Empire," 116 pages. The outstanding feature of this book's arrangement is the emphasis placed on pre-Greek civilization. The arrangement will provoke some grumbling, no doubt, but the author justifies it because so much Oriental history has been recovered in the past generation that it is impossible to explain the rise of civilization in the usual limit of pages. Therefore “A text-book which devotes a brief fifty- or sixtypage'introduction to the Orient, and begins . real history' with the Greeks is not proportioned in accordance with modern knowledge of the ancient world” (p. 5).

In each part, only “a sufficient framework of political organization and historical events has been laid down; but the bulk of the space has been devoted to the life of man in all its manifestations-society, industry, commerce, religion, art, literature (p. iii). This method of treatment is highly commendable, and, with its charming and entertaining style, will captivate the attention of high school boys and girls,

This book has other points which recommend is as a textbook. It is profusely illustrated, and it is generously supplied with maps; the chapters are broken into sections, and the magazines contain topic headings; each chapter is followed with a list of questions designed to provoke thought,

mit and the last chapter is followed with a well organized bibliography, in which the books referred to usually have estimates placed on them. On the whole, the book represents the last word in text-book construction.

HENRY NOBLE SHERWOOD. State Normal School, La Crosse, Wisconsin.

BECA, COLONEL. A Study of the Development of Infantry

Tactics. Translated by Major A. F. Custance. With a
Preface by Brigadier-General G. W. Hacket Pain. New
York: The Macmillan Co., 1911. Pp. xvi, 131. 75

cents. Only a military historian can properly evaluate this brochure on the development of infantry tactics. But though published just before the war, the amateur student of military history can see that in some respects it is already out-of-date. The author, a colonel in the Portuguese army, perceived but dimly the astonishing changes which would be brought about by the aeroplane. While realizing the tendency towards more extensive battle frontages, he also apparently deemed the present extensive battle lines and intricate trench systems impossible, "for thin lines of great extent would rarely be able to bring about decisive results ” (p. 102).

The one point emphasized repeatedly is the all-importance of the human factor in modern as in ancient war. fare. “ Tactical science ... possesses two indispensable bases, the science of arms, and the science of human nature. ... The result of sound reasoning is this, that the study of man, of the psychical factors of battle-strength of will, courage and cowardice, discipline, coolness and excitability ... should in the intellectual education of officers take precedence of the study of arms and of the merely material factors” (p. 33).

To students of history, the sketch of infantry tactics from ancient to modern times (chapter II) will possess high interest. Fighting systematically on the defensive, Colonel

CORWIN, EDWARD S. French Policy and the American Al

liance of 1778. Princeton: University Press, 1916.

Pp. ix, 430. $2.00. The Franco-American alliance has been analyzed and interpreted from a variety of points of view. Students of the event agree that it was an important episode in the century-old conflict between France and England for world power; that it was a determining factor in the disruption of the British Empire and the attainment of American independence. They have, however, differed widely on the problems of motive which actuated France in giving substantial aid to the revolting English colonies. Each one has sought to make a single key to open the door to the mystery of motive. The alliance has been explained by the desire of France to recover a lost empire; to protect her over-seas possessions against English aggression; or to secure the advantages of commerce with a new nation. It is held that France succored America out of a spirit of revenge against her traditional and dominant rival; or that French liberalism heard and responded to the call of American freedom in distress.

Dr. Corwin presents the thesis that the focus of the French foreign office was adjusted to the continent of Europe, not America, as the first consideration. He seeks to prove that by linking herself to America, France was moved by an intense desire to restore her classical role of leadership in the European world. The power of France had been tarnished by the triumph of English arms in the Seven Years' War. The source of England's controlling position in world politics lay in her colonies; sever these from her and thereby undermine her economic and naval power as the instruments of her dominance. So ran the French argument. The enfeeblement of England in America as the stepping-stone to French prestige in Europe was the impelling motive in French diplomacy. The author does not set aside as negligible the various factors advanced by others to explain French motive in making the alliance. What he does is to show to what extent they are tenable as leading motives and what part they played in the efforts to reassert French control in Europe. And so questions of commerce, territory, sea-power and foreign relations all take their place in the scheme, not to rehabilitate the French empire in the new world, but to promote French influence in the old by shearing England's strength in colonies.

Dr. Corwin's study is not unique in the sense that it is based upon a wide examination of unpublished sources. The staple of source material is Doniol's great collection of documents from the archives of the French foreign office,

which Dr. Corwin has subjected to thorough examination and scholarly analysis. This has been supplemented by a careful use of memoirs, newspapers, writings of public men, Wharton, and the journals of Continental Congress. A critical bibliographical note is a worthy and instructive part of the volume. The study is not new because it assumes points of view and presents factors hitherto left out of account. What is distinctive, and which alone entitles it to a high place in the literature of the subject, is the author's conception and treatment of the whole matter. He recognizes the fact that historical treatment involves the adjusting and balancing of numerous factors and inter-relationships. Such was the Franco-American alliance; a sort of chess-problem difficulty demanding the power to comprehend and evaluate a good number of interacting forces. Herein lies the value of the work before us, that is, the analysis of all items, a careful apportionment of various forces and motives, and a nice synthesis of all in a general history of the alliance. Under his careful workmanship and broad view, the Franco-Spanish alliance, the attempts of France to adjust the antagonistic interests of Spain and the United States over western lands, the French influence upon Continental Congress, the final aloofness of France from America, and the separate negotiations of America for peace with England assume a fuller and deeper meaning in a period of episodes. It is altogether a fine and serious piece of work. W. T. ROOT.

University of Wisconsin.

YoUNg, ARTHUR Nichols. The Single Tax Movement in the United States. Princeton: University Press, 1916. Pp. x, 336. $1.50.

The single tax doctrine is almost a religious tenet with many people, some would call it a superstition. Its advocates have in some cases become fanatics, and its opponents have fought it with the zeal of those who fight a thing which they fear may be right after all, but which they feel is against their interests or class creed. No one who is interested in the development of economic thought can afford to ignore the movement which, ignoring writings of the Physiocrats, may be called the evolution of the doctrines of Henry George.

The opponents of this doctrine insist that George's followers are dishonest since they would take from those who hold a particular kind of property their accumulations, and give these accumulations to those holding other sorts of property. On the other hand, the devotees of the doctrine claim that it will solve all the ills of man arising from economic causes, and therefore they at once, by making ridiculous claims, alienate the confidence of the intelligent student. The single tax is generally discussed with heat rather than with light; and those who argue it generally do so for the purpose of winning a debate rather than to discover the truth.

“In the present volume the writer has undertaken to give a complete historical account of the single tax movement in the United States, together with a discussion of the

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single taxers, their program, the present status of the movement, and its influence upon economic thought and upon fiscal and social reform. . “A brief introductory survey of the chief anticipations of Henry George's doctrines is presented in order to show the place of the movement in the history of economic thought. Then is traced the formulation of George's economic ideas in the light of the economic environment amid which he spent the formative years of his life, the California of the two decades following the gold discovery of 1848. Next follows a description of the reception of ‘Progress and Poverty' in the eighties and of Henry George's activities in the spreading of his gospel. Succeeding chapters describe the development of the single tax movement through the recent political campaigns undertaken with the aid of the Joseph Fels endowment. Finally there is a consideration of some general aspects of the movement, and an appraisal of its significance.” The work is admirably done, and the present reviewer knows of no other single volume likely to give to the reader a fairer or a more illuminating account of this important movement. It is the work of a careful student and an impartial critic, who has spared no pains to collect and digest all the best that has been written for and against . George's thesis. Furthermore, mirabile dictu of a discussion of an economic problem, much of the discussion is so interesting that when one begins a chapter one is very likely to finish it before putting down the book. EDGAR DAwson. Hunter College of the City of New York.

HALL, JENNIE. Our Ancestors in Europe. New York: Silver, Burdett & Co., 1916. Pp. xx, 428. 76 cents.

Among the numerous books that have appeared recently to meet the requirement of the sixth grade work in history, as outlined by the Committee of Eight, this is one of the most successful. Its text is more extended than that of some of its rivals. The story is everywhere well told and is thoroughly enjoyable. The maps and illustrations are very numerous and appropriate. Notes under the pictures call attention to their prominent features, and the “List of Illustrations” states the origin of each one. The questions that follow the chapters are excellent, suggesting constructive endeavor and plans for dramatization, and calling for comparisons of the topics discussed with similar features of our present civilization.


State Normal School, La Crosse, Wis.


ListED BY CHARLEs A. Coulomb, PH.D.

American History.

Burton, Annie C. The Ku Klux Klan.
W. T. Potter. 38 pp. 35 cents.

Camden, N. J., City Council, Publicity and Welfare Committee. Camden, N. J., its past and present. Camden, N. J.: The Council. 42 pp.

Dexter, Franklin B., editor. Documentary history of Yale University. New Haven: Yale Univ. 390 pp. $4.00, net.

Emery, M. G., and Emery, R. J. The story of Minnesota. Rochester, Minn.; Hack and Wegner Pr. 174 pp. 75 cents.

Nelson, William. Biographical and genealogical notes from the volumes of the New Jersey Archives, with additions and supplements. Newark, N. J.: N. J. Hist. Soc. 222 pp. $2.00, net.

Los Angeles, Cal.:

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