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Let us imagine ourselves visitors to Babylon, per in the house of a merchant not far from the line of chance Greek mercenaries come to offer our services the great procession street. We enter the vestibule, to Nebuchadnezzar. We have left behind the avoiding the entrance to the right, which leads to the rolling prairie and have come down into the flat mud

ore private apartments, and pass through the porplains. "At last, there appears on the horizon a long ter's lodge to wait in the next until the master of the wavering line of palms, marking the course of the house has been informed of our arrival.

After some Euphrates. Then we behold, rising against the sky, delay, due to the fact that he is taking his afternoon a long low ridge which we identify as the circuit wall siesta, we are led across a good sized court with the of the city. Leaving to our right the huge fortress at servants' rooms to one side, and enter a large room, the northern projection of the walls, we come closer almost fifty feet long, which is shut off from the noise and observe that the circuit wall really consists of of the street by rooms on all sides and is cut off from two, with towers bristling across each and with a even the heat of the courtyard, leaving but a small space between so wide that four-horsed chariots may opening. With its cool looking walls, washed with drive along the top and thus troops may be rushed white gypsum mortar, it is indeed a most comfortable with the greatest ease from one spot to another along place. Our duty done, we bathe, eat, and climb the the whole circuit of eleven or twelve miles. In front wooden stairway to sleep on the flat roof. lies a deep fosse filled with water, while the outer The next morning we arise early, to visit the sights face is of the very best quality of burnt brick. We in the cool of the day. First we are taken to Emah, come to a broad gateway and pass through its double the temple of the goddess, Nin mah. It is our first doors of cedar wood overlaid with copper. Amaze- Babylonian place of worship, and we examine it with ment seizes us when we realize how massive the wall

interest. It is built entirely of crude brick, for the is, ninety feet in all, but our wonder is a little les ever religious Babylonians do not dare neglect the unsened when we note that the inner wall is but mud written law which says that no new fangled processes brick and when we are told that this alone was the must be used. The temple is therefore merely a great circuit wall before the days of Nebuchadnezzar. block with few ornaments. Here and there the dead Passing through gardens and villas, being walls, covered with white plaster, are broken by vercrowded out by the new houses, the rapidly increas tical groovings and towers with stepped battlements ing population demands, we reach the inner city wall, project on either side of the gate. Passing the altar again double, but this time with both frankly of mud of crude brick at the entrance, and the double leaves brick. Our guide informs us that here we have the shod with bronze and set in stone sockets, we note age famous walls of the old city, called respectively how the door was shut on the inside with a huge Imgur Bel, “ Bel has been gracious,” and Nimitti Bel, beam. In the court, we see the cult well, metal vases “My foundation is Bel.”

set in depressions in the pavemerrt, caskets for offerWe cross a canal and enter the main residential por- ings each side of the door. Here we take our stand tion of the city. The streets do not wind, as we are and gaze through the room to a second where, on a accustomed to see them at home, but run straight low pedestal set in a shallow niche, is the statue of ahead, forming square blocks of houses. Some of the Nin mah, over life size, standing with her hands streets are paved and our guide remarks with pride folded below her breast, her only adornment her neckthat some are also drained. After the blazing heat laces, her anklets, and her well dressed hair, while of the open country, the narrow streets of houses her full face indicates the beauty which the oriental crowded closely together furnish a welcome shade. demands. Under the pedestal, so we are told, is a We would gladly see some bazaars from which we casket with the image of Papsukal, the messenger of might buy and the dull monotony of the dead walls the gods, a gold staff in his tiny hands. As we gaze does not even furnish a window. There is one break, about, the walls are in general white, but behind the a curious vertical stepping back in a constantly re statue and over the entrances we find squares of ceding line on the mud brick fronts of many of the black asphalt with white borders, standing out with houses. Our guide tells us that this is due to the fact barbaric distinctness in the gloom. that the squares are not quite square after all, that To the west of the temple, we come upon the prothe houses set due north while the streets run some cession street, named Aibur shabu, along which Marwhat to the south of west. Fortunately, we are not duk is wont to go in procession on New Year's Day. to be kept in a vermin-haunted inn, we are to reside It is a broad pathway of large white limestone flags,



on the


bordered on the sides by other slabs of red breccia vaulted roofs, something we have never

seen atveined with white, and chariots are not normally per- tempted before. In the next court, we mitted to traverse it. On either side are high walls south side a large reception room, which, we are told, which make the approach a death trap for the enemy is a part of the private quarters of the vizier or prime who would dare approach by this

No minister, and has direct connection with the palace. windows look out from these walls, but instead we The third court is the most interesting. On the north see huge white lions with yellow manes or yellow lions are open archways, permitting the rooms to be cool with red hair, all on a blue ground and resting on ro after dusk. On the south is the throne room of settes. The whole is formed of enamelled bricks of Nebuchadnezzar himself, a huge space of some fiftythe finest technique and makes an almost uncanny im five by a hundred and seventy feet in size. Three pression of life. Looking south along the street, our huge doors lead into it and opposite the central one is view is blocked by Ishtar sakipat tebisha, the Ishtar a recess and platform whereon the king sits when he Gate, located at the point where the street enters the gives audience. The guards do not permit us to enter old city through the walls Imgur Bel and Nimitti Bel. and we must content ourselves with looking at the orAs the gate is now within the second line of defense, namentation of the court facade, consisting of enamit can be more adequately decorated. The gate is elled tiles with dark blue ground. On this we see flanked by two huge brick towers, crowned by tri- strangely familiar columns, yellow drums with white angular stepped battlements in blue enamel, which border, double volutes in light blue, rosettes of white surmount small circular loopholes through which the and yellow, connected by lines of half open buds, the archers may shoot. On the walls are more enamelled whole making us suspect that the royal architect was figures, huge bulls and great dragons, with scaly coats attempting to imitate a columnar architecture someand hairy manes, forked tongues and viper's horns, thing akin to what we saw in northwest Asia Minor. sting in tail, their fore legs feline, their hind ones Above and enclosed by a border of yellow, white and those of a bird of prey. Under our feet, our guide black squares, is a long row of double palmettos. Our whispers, are still more dragons and bulls, set into way farther west into the old palace of Nabopolassar the walls as guardian spirits of the place. We gaze is barred as it is now used for the harem. But we upon the cedar doors covered with copper and the have seen enough to justify the great king in declarbronze thresholds and hinges, but we are not per ing that he “ built the palace as the seat of my kingmitted to pass through the fourfold gate and look dom, the bond of the vast assemblage of all time, the upon the carved cedar ceiling. This is open only dwelling place of joy and gladness, the royal comwhen the king rides forth in state and we must pass mand, the lordly injunction I caused to go forth from through a smaller side entrance. We are not sur it.” prised that the king boasts that he made these same We have but a short time to visit the northern citatown gateways to be “ glorious for the amazement of del, with its similar arrangement of rooms and courts. all peoples."

Here we note especially the pavements of white and Beyond the Ishtar gate, the procession street mottled sandstone, of limestone, and of black basalt. brings us to the Lady gate on our right, the entrance At the entrances are huge basalt lions of the Assyrian to the southern palace of Nebuchadnezzar. As we type and we observe particularly one

unfinished have been given special permission, we enter the Al group, one of these enormous animals treading upon bit shar Babili, or “ City of the house of the king of a prostrate man, Around the walls are reliefs whose Babylon,” from which so many of the business docu various elements are of blue paste and are detachable. ments issue.. We pass the guard rooms

on either

On these walls are also ranged various stelae which side and enter the great court. To north and to south have been carried off as booty, a Hittite inscription lie the private apartments of the higher officials, each such as we found them still erecting in Asia Minor, grouped around a central court, and those of the more another from the Euphrates region, said to tell of the important on the south where they never suffer from introduction of bee culture, still another in much the direct rays of this terrible sun. Also, we are simpler cuneiform characters written by an early king shown some of the alabastra manufactured here, al of Assyria. We are told stories of how frequently the most as beautiful as those we make at home. In the royal architect changed his mind and how much labor walls of the court yard are set inscriptions which tell was wasted as a result.' Then we snatch a look at the how mighty cedars have been brought from the moun great quay walls along the river and at the ships from tain of Lebanon, the splendid forest, for the ceilings, the Persian gulf, at the kalaks or rafts built upon inhow the palace foundations have been grounded firm Alated skins from the north, at the round tubs of on the breast of the underworld and raised mountain rushes bound together by bitumen, which ferry men high by asphalt and brick, and they beg the god Mar across the stream. In the midst of the Euphrates is duk to grant forever that the posterity of Nebuchad an island, its space fully occupied by another great nezzar should rule the black headed folk.

fortification. North of the palace are still more imThe floor of the courts is sprinkled with water,

pressive walls and a great canal, forty feet wide, whose evaporation cools the air appreciably. Still


around the fortifications, its entrance more lions appear at the various gateways. Then closed against the enemy by huge stone gratings, and we are taken to the underground storerooms for grain supplying water to the palace by means of the numerand other palace supplies, long narrow

rooms with cus well shafts.

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We turn back to the procession street and follow used for incubation, where the god appears to patients it down the slope to the south, over a canal which in a dream. Ea sits on a wooden throne, richly branches into a broad basin to our right. Beyond carved with figures, such as a fish, a dragon, or a man this, to the west, lie the slums, while to the east is the holding a water vase. Unusual in this temple is the residential quarter of the merchants, clustering around symmetry they have here secured. Again we listen the shrine of Ishtar, goddess of Agade. Soon we be to our guide translating one of the royal records: “I gin to see on our right the long wall, studded with brought before Marduk all conceivable valuables, gateways and towers, which forms the outer enclos great superabundance, the product of the mountains, ure of Etemenanki, the house of the foundation of the wealth of the sea, a heavy burden, a sumptuous heaven and earth,” the great temple tower of Baby- gift, a gigantic abundance. Ekua, the chamber of lon. In the midst of this side wall is a deep recess Marduk, lord of the gods, I made a gleam like the into which a section of our pavement enters and

Its walls I clothed with solid gold instead of follow to the brazen doored entrance to the sacred clay or chalk, with lapis lazuli and alabaster the enclosure. Much of the enclosed space is given up to temple area. Kahilisir or the door of state, as also store houses, to little cells along the walls for the the Ezida gate of Esagila, I made bright as the sun.” lodging of pilgrims, or to the houses, little less than By this time, we are thoroughly fatigued with our palaces, where live the priests and their assistants. sightseeing and ready for food and rest, but our guide The one point of supreme interest is, of course, the insists that we must still see Epatutila, the “house of great temple tower, a high square structure faced the scepter of life,” dedicated to the dread god Ninib. with brick, and consisting of eight stories, each So we visit its triple cella, and see the three deities, smaller than the one below. Towers break the monot Ninib himself, in a hat, and with a vase, from which ony of its sides and on the south, in the center and pours water grasped firmly in both hands, his wife at the corners, are stairways, protected by stepped Gula, a nude figure with her arms at her side, and walls along their ascent. On the summit is a temple,


the ape.

This last interests us very much, as we have covered by blue glazed brick, and containing a golden never before seen the like, and we buy one of the table and couch. We can understand how the Baby- little clay figures which represents the animal in a lonians, knowing little of mountains, assert that its crouching position. Then, too weary even to laugh summit reaches to heaven or even rivals it.

at the strange figure he makes, we return to our house Before crossing the street to visit Esagila, the

and to repose. temple of which Etemenanki is the tower, we follow the procession street around the corner of the enclosure and then through the Urash gate to the bridge

American Political Science Review across the Euphrates, which Nabopolassar erected, a

The February number of the “ American Political structure some four hundred feet long, resting on Science Review” contains the following papers, sevseven stone piers of boat form and with their prows

eral of which were read before the Cincinnati meetpointing up stream. On the other side of the river, the

ings of the American Political Science Association: procession street runs on to where in the distance we

“The Scientific Spirit in Politics," by Jesse Macy; see the high temple tower of Ezida, Nabu's home in

“Pan-Turanism," by T. Lathrop Stoddard; “The Borsippa. Our guide informs us that there is nothing

Control of Foreign Relations,” by Denys P. Myers; new to be seen there and we return to Esagila, the

The Department of the Navy," by Robert W. “ lofty house.” For the most famous shrine of our

Neeser; and “ Obstacles to Municipal Progress," by time, the external appearance is distinctly disap- John A. Lapp. Under “ Legislative Notes and Repointing, another of those square blocks of mud brick

views are treated such topics as “ Powers of the and with little adornment, some two hundred and fifty

Lieutenant Governor," Direct Legislation in 1916," feet long; but the interior compensates. At the en

Constitutional Conventions,” State Budget Systrance is a crude brick altar on which sacrifices are

tems," Economy and Efficiency,” and “Absent Votregularly offered while a smaller one of gold is used

ing. There are not only book reviews, but also only for sucklings. We enter the court yard and see

“News and Notes," giving information of a personal on the west, behind a facade marked by mighty tow

character, of new publications, of international hapers, the cella of the god Marduk himself, the very

penings, of municipal affairs, and of the annual meetcenter of the empire's religious life. The cedar with

ing of the American Political Science Association. which it is covered is almost hidden by the masses of

The full list of recent publications of political intergold and precious stones, drawing attention even from

est, including books, periodical articles, and governthe golden cult statue of the god, of more than mor

ment documents, is of much value to the student of tal size, seated with his right hand on his knee, his

political science. long beard sweeping down upon his flounced garment. Before him stands a table, and this, together with the

1 The above sketch is based primarily on the detailed throne and footstool, is of solid gold, the whole weigh

sketch by the leader of the excavations, Koldewey, “ The ing no less than eight hundred talents. Here at

Excavations at Babylon,” supplemented by King, “ History least is no disappointment. In the next cella is Mar of Babylon.” Whatever life it possesses is due to four days duk's

's consort, Zarpanit, and on the north side that of during which Dr. Koldewey most delightfully entertained Ea, the god of the deep. Behind are two chambers, the writer at the German excavation house.

Laboratory Methods of Teaching Contemporary

History at Columbia University


It is no longer necessary to apologize for teaching his acids and tests their purity.

his acids and tests their purity. We knew something current topics in history, economics, and civics. Fully of the joy of the scientist who after patient peering cognizant of the difficulties and hazards of the enter- through the microscope at length discovers a new form prise, the teachers of these three social sciences

of animal life; for were not we also scientists, in our have nevertheless attacked the problem with all the way, observing and describing the living phenomena enthusiasm of a confident assurance that the scientific of history and politics? study of our yesterdays and of our to-days is not only To be sure there were critics of the innovation. Mr. justifiable, but supremely necessary and vital, Arnold Bennett, led by a traveller's curiosity to visit whether it be in the class-room of the secondary the laboratory in 1912, gave utterance to the cynical school or in the lecture-hall of the university,

prophecy—“I can hardly conceive a wilder, more I come to you, therefore, not as the crusader to fearfully difficult way of trying to acquire the historchampion the cause of recent history against unbe ical sense, than this voyaging through hot, fresh newslieving enemies, but rather as the craftsman to ex

papers, nor one more probably destined to failure.." plain in the friendly circle of his guild the methods of The prophecy was false; the cynicism, unjustified. his work, and to ask for the helpful criticism of his The fundamental idea of the laboratory was not desfellow-workers.

tined to failure. It is still the basis of the course in I. Origin. The use of periodicals and of news

contemporary history at Columbia. papers as material for the historical study of cur II. Method. The laboratory course in contemporent topics in the history department at Columbia rary history, which I have had the pleasure of conducthas been endorsed by a long record of successful ing for the past year and a quarter, is now a fullachievement. More than seven years have elapsed fledged elective, counting as three hours a week, and since the creation of what was picturesquely called open to students who have had a year of modern the Laboratory of Contemporary History. It was an European history. One of the three hours is devoted ambitious undertaking. Files of foreign newspapers to lectures—of which, more anon—the other two hours were ordered ; a number of foreign and domestic peri are spent in the laboratory, where the students actuodicals were put on reference; massive work-tables ally work on their reports and confer informally with and multitudinous pasteboard filing-boxes were in the instructor. stalled. The students were set to work, clipping, fil The central feature of the course remains, as at ing, sorting, and comparing political items from the

the inception of the laboratory, the compilation of newspapers. From those assorted clippings, supple- bi-monthly reports on current events. Each student mented by information gleaned from magazines, from selects some country or some special topic, following foreign newspapers, and from books of reference, bi

the bent of his own inclination. One will write the monthly reports were compiled, each covering current history of British domestic politics during October events in some particular country. Such a report was and November, 1916; another will chronicle the not merely a scissors-and-paste summary of news events of two months in the Rumanian theatre of war. paper items for two months; it was an explanation of Each student subscribes to a good local newspaper, those items in their historical setting.

the “New York Times," the “Christian Science Whether it was due to the inherent attractiveness

Monitor," the “New York Sun,” and the “World” of the scheme, or to the contagious enthusiasm and are among the best, and systematically cuts out and sincerity of the instructor, the students in that labor

files away in large envelopes all items bearing on his atory, from the first, evinced remarkable interest. I topic.

topic. He is also required to take copious notes from myself had the rare good fortune to be one of those weekly and monthly reviews, in all cases carefully students, and I may say from personal experience noting the page, date, and title. In preparing a rethat we felt a certain fascination, a real pleasure, in port on current events in England, or in France, the the concreteness and freshness of the work. It was

student must painstakingly peruse the files of some really a laboratory. We were dealing with tangible British or French newspaper, chiefly for the purpose things-newspaper clippings; we were weighing and

of making a critical comparison between different acsifting historical evidence as the chemist weighs out counts of the same events. And always considerable

reading in standard histories is required, for the in1 Professor Carlton J. H. Hayes was in charge of the course during its early years. An article descriptive of

structor is ever insisting that the study of current the laboratory was read by Professor Hayes before the

topics is of little worth unless constantly connected American Historical Association in December, 1909, and up with the events of past decades. published in the HISTORY TEACHER'S MAGAZINE for Febru By actual experience I have learned that the value

of this kind of work with newspapers and periodicals

ary, 1910.


is greatly enhanced if unremitting attention be given fact that the former governor-general of Canada, and by the instructor to the following four principles: the Liberal minister, Sir Edward Grey, now Viscount

(1) Personal supervision. The instructor should Grey, were quite different persons. Again, on Febbe present in the laboratory—or library, as the case ruary 23, 1916, in the same reliable newspaper, the may be—at specified hours each week, to make sug- world-famous Russian foreign minister, M. Sazonoff, gestions, to answer questions, and to stimulate inter was absurdly labelled “Russian premier." Upon est.

another occasion the headline-writer betrayed inexcus(2) Precise directions. It is necessary to be able ignorance of the fact that the Prussian “ Landdefinite—very definite—in giving directions regarding tag " is not exactly the same thing as the German the length and the formation of the report and the "Reichstag." manner of citing authorities in footnotes.

The instructor may find it worth while to exhibit a (3) Bibliography. A priceless opportunity will few samples of fiction, culled from periodicals and have been neglected if the student is not given some newspapers. Such samples are easy to collect. Many really practical training in the use of bibliography. a Mexican revolt has been concocted in a newspaper Many a youth enters college blissfully ignorant of office, only to be denied a few days later; Pancho the existence of such a thing as the “Readers' Guide Villa, once certainly dead, now lives; the Turkish war to Periodical Literature,” not to speak of the “Book minister, Enver Pasha, is assassinated one week and Review Digest." To

this inexperience, revived the next; a dire revolt in India is authoritaeach student in preparing his essay is required first tively announced to-day and authoritatively denied toof all to make a list of recent encyclopedias and of morrow. The “ Independent,” of November 22, 1915, year books, such as the “ Annual Register," the “New prints a personal message from Yuan Shih-kai, assurInternational Year Book," the “Statesman's Year ing America that the Chinese Republic will be mainBook," and the "Almanach de Gotha,” indicating the tained; a little later, an official statement declares pages in each where information may be found re the whole message to have been malevolent fabricagarding the particular country about which he is to tion.” write. Next, he prepares a similar list of magazine By citing these evidences of the unreliability of our articles, with the aid of the “Readers' Guide to Peri

Readers' Guide to Peri- periodicals and newspapers, have I proved that the odical Literature;" the best of these articles are to be teaching of current events must of necessity be hoperead; the otlers, discarded. Furthermore, he selects lessly unscientific? Far from it! Have I not rather what he considers the ten most useful and recent his demonstrated that in the teaching of current events, tories dealing with the country under consideration; where one deals with admittedly mendacious sources, by actual practice he learns to use the critical biblio- the student will have much more frequent opportungraphies in such text books as Hayes “Modern ities to display discriminating incredulity than in a Europe," and Hazen "Europe Since 1815;" he dis course where his reading is largely confined to what covers the value of the bibliographies in the “States- he regards as a well-nigh infallible text-book? And, man's Year-Book," and in the encyclopedias; the above all, have I not proved the supreme necessity of

Times Book Review,” the “ Book Review Digest,” forewarning the newspaper-readers of the futureand the comprehensive bibliography of the war by who will also be the citizens of the future—against Lange and Berry are all pressed into service. The the errors and inventions of an untrustworthy press? student is expected to dip into all ten histories, and Another method of stimulating the critical spirit is to do enough reading in them to explain the historical what I perhaps fantastically style the newspaper background of his report. This bibliographical work symposium—the “ Periodical” symposium, if you is not merely perfunctory. Students not only learn will. Each student is referred to a certain newspaper how to find their way about in a reference library; or periodical for an account of a political event-say they begin to regard some of the books as something the Sarajevo assassination, or the sinking of the more than distant acquaintances.

“Lusitania,” or the death of Francis Joseph. Then (4) Critical training. There is a tradition at in informal conference, with the newspapers before Columbia that the soul of history is a critical spirit us, we compare the variant versions of the event. As the art of distinguishing, so far as is humanly possible, the banqueting philosophers in Plato's symposium between the true and the false, between the important each expressed his views in turn, so we allow each and the trivial. The student compiling his report is newspaper to set forth its opinion. When Francis constantly exhorted to exercise discrimination and Joseph died, we found the Parisian daily " Le Matin, judgment. But the critical sense of the college stud- denouncing the aged emperor as a fiend “escaped ent is too often lethargic.

reason for

from hell;" the “New York World” regarded him as citing authorities in footnotes, no purpose in compar one of the last specimens of the almost extinct race ing parallel accounts, no danger in relying upon news of divine-right monarchs; the New York “Staatspaper headlines and magazine editorials. He readily Zeitung" had only words of praise for his amiable sees the point, however, when he inspects my collec character and of regret for his death. Even with a tion of mistakes and absurdities, clipped from sup small number of magazines and newspapers, compariposedly reliable newspapers and periodicals. For sons of this kind, amply repay the small labor of preexample, the “New York Times” on June 28 last, paration. They acquaint the student with the merits gave the name of the foreign secretary of Great as well as with the defects and the prejudices of the Britain as Earl Grey, apparently oblivious of the different periodicals and journals; they give him a

He sees


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