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sides, it looked as if Britain would be dragged into the war. In fact, he believed that nothing but an unconditional promise of neutrality would save her from that fate. Great Britain, of course, could not afford to make such a dishonorable promise; for if she did, her people would sacrifice their “respect and good name and reputation before the world and should not escape the most serious and grave economic consequences." 27

By the fourth of August, the King of Belgium had made an appeal to Great Britain "for diplomatic intervention on behalf of Belgium,” whose neutrality was threatened by Germany. In response to this appeal, Sir Edward Grey sent a protest to the German Government and demanded immediate assurances that “the demand made upon Belgium will not be proceeded with and that her neutrality will be respected by Germany." 28

On the same day the German foreign secretary telegraphed to the German ambassador at London as follows:

Please dispel any mistrust that may subsist on the part of the British Government with regard to our intentions, by repeating most positively formal assurance that, even in the case of armed conflict with Belgium, Germany will, under no pretense whatever, annex Belgian territory.

27 London Times, Aug. 3, 1914, quoted by Stowell, 345–351. 28 B. W. P., 153.

In giving his reason for the violation of Belgian neutrality, the German foreign secretary said:

Please impress upon Sir E. Grey that German army could not be exposed to French attack across Belgium, which was planned according to absolutely unimpeachable information. Germany had consequently to disregard Belgian neutrality, it being for her a question of life or death to prevent French ad

vance. 29

On this same day (August 4), Sir Edward Grey, having learned that Belgian territory had been invaded by the Germans, sent an ultimatum to Germany. In his telegram to the British ambassador at Berlin he said:

We hear that Germany has addressed note to Belgian Minister for Foreign Affairs stating that German Government will be compelled to carry out, if necessary, by force of arms, the measures considered indispensable.

We are also informed that Belgian territory has been violated at Gemmenich.

In these circumstances, and in view of the fact that Germany declined to give the same assurance respecting Belgium as France gave last week in reply to our request made simultaneously at Berlin and Paris, we must repeat that request, and ask that a satisfactory reply to it and to my telegram of this morning be received here by 12 o'clock to-night. If not, you are instructed to ask for your passports, and to say that His Majesty's Government feel bound to take all steps in their power to uphold the neutrality of Belgium and the observance of a treaty to which Germany is as much a party as ourselves. 30 29 B. W. P., 157.

30 B. W. P., 159.

Upon receiving this telegram, Sir E. Goschen, the British ambassador at Berlin, went to the Imperial foreign office and delivered the ultimatum to Von Jagow, German Secretary of State. · A little later on the same evening Sir E. Goschen had an interview with the German chancellor, Von Bethmann-Hollweg. Both Von Jagow and the chancellor were very much agitated and apparently were greatly pained at England's decision to join the ranks of Germany's enemies. This last interview between the British ambassador and the chancellor has been dramatically described by the former as follows:

During the afternoon I received your further telegram of the same date, and, in compliance with the instructions therein contained, I again proceeded to the Imperial Foreign Office and informed the Secretary of State that unless the Imperial Government could give the assurance by 12 o'clock that night that they would proceed no further with their violation of Belgian frontier and stop their advance, I had been instructed to demand my passports and inform the Imperial Government that His Majesty's Government would have to take all steps in their power to uphold the neutrality of Belgium and the observance of a treaty to which Germany was as much a party as themselves.

Herr von Jagow replied that to his great regret he could give no other answer than that which he had given me earlier in the day, namely, that the safety of the Empire rendered it absolutely necessary that the Imperial troops should advance through Belgium. I gave His Excellency a written summary of your

telegram and, pointing out that you had mentioned 12 o'clock as the time when His Majesty's Government would expect an answer, asked him whether, in view of the terrible consequences which would necessarily ensue, it were not possible even at the last moment that their answer should be reconsidered. He replied that if the time given were even twenty-four hours or more, his answer must be the same. I said that in that case I should have to demand my passports. This interview took place at about 7 o'clock. In a short conversation which ensued Herr von Jagow expressed his poignant regret at the crumbling of his entire policy and that of the Chancellor, which had been to make friends with Great Britain, and then, through Great Britain, to get closer to France. I said that this sudden end to my work in Berlin was to me also a matter of deep regret and disappointment, but that he must understand that under the circumstances and in view of our engagements, His Majesty's Government could not possibly have acted otherwise than they had done.

I then said that I should like to go and see the Chancellor, as it might be, perhaps, the last time I should have an opportunity of seeing him. He begged me to do so. I found the Chancellor very agitated. His Excellency at once began a harangue, which lasted for about twenty minutes. He said that the step taken by His Majesty's Government was terrible to a degree; just for a word—“neutrality, a word which in war time had so often been disregarded—just for a scrap of paper Great Britain was going to make war on a kindred nation who desired nothing better than to be friends with her. All his efforts in that direction had been rendered useless by this last terrible step, and the policy to which, I knew, he had devoted himself since his accession to office had tumbled down like a house of cards. What we had done was unthinkable; it was like striking a man from behind while he was fighting for his life against two

assailants. He held Great Britain responsible for all the terrible events that might happen. I protested strongly against that statement, and said that, in the same way as he and Herr von Jagow wished me to understand that for strategical reasons it was a matter of life and death to Germany to advance through Belgium and violate the latter's neutrality, so I would wish him to understand that it was, so to speak, a matter of “life and death" for the honor of Great Britain that she should keep her solemn engagement to do her utmost to defend Belgium's neutrality if attacked. That solemn compact simply had to be kept, or what confidence could any one have in engagements given by Great Britain in the future! The Chancellor said, “But at what price will that compact have been kept. Has the British Government thought of that?" I hinted to his Excellency as plainly as I could that fear of consequences could hardly be regarded as an excuse for breaking solemn engagements, but his Excellency was so excited, so evidently overcome by the news of our action, and so little disposed to hear reason that I refrained from adding fuel to the flame by further argument. As I was leaving he said that the blow of Great Britain joining Germany's enemies was all the greater that almost up to the last moment he and his Government had been working with us and supporting our efforts to maintain peace between Austria and Russia. I said that this was part of the tragedy which saw the two nations fall apart just at the moment when the relations between them had been more friendly and cordial than they had been for years.31

Soon after this interview, an extra edition of the Berliner Tageblatt came out stating that Great Britain had declared war on Germany. A mob then formed, attacked the British em

81 B. W. P., 160.

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