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he maintained, not those asked for by Baron Sonnino on April 8, and, if accepted, would leave Austria-Hungary in possession of the gates to Italy. The offer provided for the autonomy of Trieste; Sonnino had asked for its independence. Besides, there was no provision that would give Italy a satisfactory position in the Adriatic.38
Austria's final bid had indeed come too late, for the Entente Governments had offered and Italy had accepted terms more favorable than any that the Central Powers had been able to promise. For by a secret treaty with the Allies, dated May 9, 1915, Italy had entered into an engagement with the Allies which tied her hands as regards further bargaining with the Teutonic Governments.37
36 See Salandra's speech.
87 This treaty was published by the Bolsheviki after they got control in Petrograd in November, 1917. The full text of the treaty, translated from the Russian language, is printed in the Current History Magazine, published by the New York Times Company. The extracts given below are taken from this text by permission of the publishers. The following are the main provisions of the treaty:
IV. By the future treaty of peace Italy shall receive the Trentino, the whole of Southern Tyrol, as far as its natural and geographical frontier, the Brenner; the city of Trieste and its surroundings, the County of Gorizia and Gradisca, the whole of Istria as far as the Quarnero, including Volosca and the Istrian Islands, Cherso and Lussin, as also the lesser islands of Plavnik, Unia, Canidoli, Palazzuola, S. Pietro Nerovio, Asinello and Gruica, with their neighboring islets. ..
V. In the Same way Italy shall receive the Province of Dalmatia in its present extent, including further to the north Lissarika and Trebinje (i. e., two small places in Southwestern
The war policy of the Government was supported by both houses of Parliament by large Croatia), and to the south all places as far as a line starting from the sea close to Cape Planka [between Trau and Sebenico] and following the watershed eastward in such a way as to place in Italian hands all the valleys whose rivers enter the sea near Sebenico-namely, the Gikola, Krka, and Butisnjica, with their tributaries. To Italy also will belong all the islands north and west of the Dalmatian coast
To Italy will be conceded the right of conducting the foreign relations of Albania ; in any case Italy will be bound to secure for Albania a territory sufficiently extensive to enable its frontiers to join those of Greece and Serbia to the east of the Lake of Ohrida.
VIII. Italy shall obtain full possession of all the islands of the Dodecannese, at present occupied by her.
IX. France, Great Britain, and Russia recognize as axiom the fact that Italy is interested in maintaining the political balance of power in the Mediterranean, and her right to take over, when Turkey is broken up, a portion equal to theirs in the Mediterranean-namely, in that part which borders on the Province of Adalia, where Italy has already acquired special rights and interests, laid down in the ItaloBritish convention. The zone to be assigned to Italy will, in due course, be fixed in accordance with the vital interests of France and Great Britain. In the same way regard must be had for the interests of Italy, even in the event of the powers maintaining for a further period of time the inviolability of Asiatic Turkey, and merely proceeding to map out spheres of interest among themselves. In the event of France, Great Britain, and Russia occupying during the present war districts of Asiatic Turkey, the whole district bordering on Adalia, and defined above in greater detail, shall be reserved to Italy, who reserves the right to occupy it.
X. In Libya Italy obtains recognition of all those rights and prerogatives hitherto reserved to the Sultan by the Treaty of Lausanne.
XI. Italy shall receive a military contribution corresponding to her strength and sacrifices.
XIII. In the event of an extension of the French and British colonial possessions in Africa at the expense of Germany,
and enthusiastic majorities,38 and on May 23, 1915, war was declared against Austria.39 It was not until August 27, 1916, that a declaration of war against Germany was made, which was to be effective August 28.
France and Great Britain recognize to Italy in principle the right of demanding for herself certain compensations in the form of an extension of her possessions in Eritrea, Somaliland, Libya, and the colonial districts bordering on French and British colonies.
38 A. R. B. (2), 198, 201. 39 A. R. B. (2), 204.
THE LESSER BELLIGERENTS
As has been seen, Bulgaria at the opening of the war was smarting under the defeats of the last Balkan War, and was anxious to recover territory in Macedonia then held by Serbia. She had a seaport, Dedeagatch, on the Ægean Sea, but to get to it by rail her people were obliged to pass through Turkish territory. They were, therefore, desirous of getting from Turkey a strip of land that would properly link up Dedeagatch with their other possessions. Both the Teutonic and Entente Allies were, therefore, in a position to make tempting offers to Bulgaria.
The Bulgarian premier stated on August 9 that his country was ready to go to war on such terms as would satisfy her “national aspirations.” She would join in with the Entente Allies if they could give binding guarantees that the portion of Macedonia which had been lost to Serbia in the second Balkan War and minor portions of Greek Macedonia would be restored to her. This was virtually an an
nouncement that Bulgarian support would be sold to the highest bidder.
The Entente powers were handicapped in the game of bargaining. Serbia was unwilling to give up as much of her Macedonian territory as Bulgaria demanded, and the Greek king was opposed to the sacrifice of any of his possessions. Russia's announced intention to take Constantinople for herself also aroused the jealousy and fear of the Bulgarians. Besides, considerable friction developed between the Serbs and the Bulgars over the Valandova incident. On April 2 a Serbian blockhouse at Valandova was attacked by a band of raiders, with a loss of life on both sides. Serbia claims that these raiders were Bulgarian soldiers (Komitadjis). Bulgaria denied that they were and disavowed all responsibility for the invasion.
Russian diplomacy, however, smoothed over this cause of dispute, and the Entente were able (by August 10) to make Bulgaria a good offer. According to the Giornale d'Italia, they offered to meet her demands as to Serbian Macedonia, Serbia to be compensated out of Greek territory.
In the meantime, the diplomacy of the Central powers had been active and, as it later proved, more successful than that of their rivals. German bankers had in February made