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tions and make the world itself at last free. To such a task we can dedicate our lives and our fortunes, everything that we are and everything that we have, with the pride of those who know that the day has come when America is privileged to spend her blood and her might for the principles that gave her birth and happiness and the peace which she has treasured. God helping her, she can do no other.18

The idealism behind the high motives mentioned by the President was doubtless an important reason for our joining the Allies. Our people considered that the Entente Allies were championing in Europe the principles held dear in America. A defeat for the Allies would, therefore, mean a defeat for democracy and world peace and a victory for autocracy and militarism.

There was also a feeling in the United States that a far-sighted policy of self-defense demanded our participation in the conflict. For it was thought that if Germany should win in this war, her enhanced power and prestige would lead her to attack us at no distant date in the future. With our natural allies weakened and humiliated and ourselves isolated, the German Government, flushed with victory, might soon be tempted to measure swords with us on our side of the Atlantic. The occasion for such a contest could easily arise. Germany had ambitions in South America and does not recognize our Monroe Doctrine. Besides, feeling in Germany was already strong against America because of our sympathy for and alleged partiality to the Allies. We now have reliable evidence to support the belief that the German Government was contemplating the future possibility of chastising us. Mr. Gerard speaks of the hostility of public sentiment manifested toward us in influential circles in Germany. He tells of an interview given out by Admiral von Tirpitz (in the name of a “high naval authority”) and published in the Frankfurter Zeitung in which the German admiral boasted that Germany would force America to pay an indemnity big enough to cover the cost of the war after the Allies had been defeated and the English fleet captured.19 Mr. Gerard also reports some big talk indulged in by the Emperor on the occasion of an interview held between the Emperorand himself as early as October, 1915. . On this occasion the Kaiser showed “great bitterness against the United States and repeatedly said, 'America had better look out after this war; and I shall stand no nonsense from America after the war.'» 20

18 Dip. Cor., 422–29.

Congress was prompt to act on the recommendation of the President and declared on 19 Gerard, 249.

20 Gerard, 252.

April 6, 1917, that a state of war exists between Germany and the United States by act of the German Imperial Government.21 The President had not asked for a declaration of war on the allies of Germany because they had “not made war upon us or challenged us to defend our right and our honor.” 22 Germany was, therefore, the only one of the Central powers formally included in our list of enemies at this time, and it was not until December 17, 1917, that a declaration of war was made against Austria-Hungary.23 21 War Cyclopedia, Art., “War.” 22 Dip. Cor., 437–8. 23 War Cyclopedia, “War.


Adrianople, treaty of (1829), 25.
Afghanistan, clash of Russian and

British interests in, 15; agree-
ments finally made between
Great Britain and Russia as to

relations with, 18.
Africa, friction between France

and Great Britain due to con-
flicting claims in, 16-17; at-
tempted interference of Ger-

many with France in, 20-21.
Agadir crisis, 22-23: attitude of

Belgium at time of, 156
Albania, early history of people of,

24, 33, 35; by treaty of Lon-
don (1912) becomes an autono-
mous state, 36; disadvantageous
effect of creation of Kingdom of.
on Serbia, 39-40; offers of
Austria-Hungary to Italy re-
garding (1914–15), 186, 193,

Albert, King of Belgium, appeals

for help to King of England,

135, 150.
Algeciras Congress, diplomatic de-

feat of Germany at, 21: effect
of Italy's attitude in, on Triple

Alliance, 180.
Alsace-Lorraine, effects of loss of,

on France, 6.
America, reasons for entrance of,

into Great War, 213 ff.; begin-
ning of controversy between
Germany and, with issuance of
war zone declaration (Febru-
ary 4, 1914), 213; protest of,
against Germany's proposed
policy, 214–215; position taken
by Germany in reply to pro-
test, 215-217: lives of citizens
lost in submarine sinkings,
219 n.; Lusitania sinking and
subsequent exchange of notes,
220–225: the Arabic sinking,
226-227; diplomatic victory
won by, in Arabic incident,
227: controversy over trade in
arms and ammunition, 228-
232; discussion concerning
armed merchant vessels, 232-
237; diplomatic victory of, in
Sussex case, 243; immediate

steps leading to break in rela-
tions with Germany, 244-250;
publication of Zimmermann
note and passage of armed neu-
trality bill, 253-254: idealism
behind motives of, in joining
the Allies, 260; Germany's en-
mity to, previous to declaration
of war, 260-261; declarations
of war by, against Germany

and against Austria, 261-262.
Anatolian railroad, building of,

under German auspices, 12.
Arabic, sinking of the, 226-227.
Armed merchantmandiscussion

between United States and

Germany, 232-237.
Armed neutrality bill, passage of,

by American Congress, 253-

Arms and ammunition, controversy

between Germany and America

over trade in, 228-232,
Assassination of Archduke Francis

Ferdinand and his wife, 43.
Austria (Austria-Hungary), party

to quadruple alliance of 1815,
3; friendly relations between
Germany and, cultivated by
Bismarck, 7; rivalry of Russia
and in the Balkans, 8: dip-
lomatic victory of, over Russia
at Congress of Berlin (1878),
8; joins Triple Alliance against
Russia, 9; enters on policy of
expansion toward Ægean, 29;
annexation of Bosnia and
Herzegovina by, 30; agitation
among great powers against,
31; support given to, by Ger-
many, 31-32: increased hos-
tility of Russia to, on account
of attitude in Balkan Wars of
1912-14. 36: state of relations
between Serbia and, in 1914,
43; general sentiment in, upon
assassination of Archduke
Francis Ferdinand, 44, 48-51;
ultimatum sent by, to Serbia, in
note of July 23, 1914, 52-57:
statement issued by, to great
powers, 58-61; Germany's re-

sponsibility for ultimatum of


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to Serbia, 63-67; support given
to, by Germany, 67; reception
of note by Serbia, 67-68; re-
fuses Russia's request that time
limit set by ultimatum be ex-
tended, 75; moderate reply of
Serbia to, in note of July 25,
78-84; dissatisfaction of, with
Serbian reply and breaking of
diplomatic relations, 84-85;
question of desire of. for war
with Serbia, 92-94; rejects Sir
Edward Grey's mediation pro-
posals and proposals made by
Russia, 96; declares war on
Serbia, but continues negotia-
tions with Russia, 98: Ger-
many and, share responsibility
for Great War, 99-101: efforts
of other powers to prevent war
between Russia and, 102-103;
final offer made to, by Russia
(July 30), 110; declares war
on Russia, 117; steps leading to
declaration of war between
France and, 117-119: declara-
tion of war against by Great
Britain. 140; breaks off rela-
tions with Japan, 165; events
leading to declaration of war
against by Italy, 181-202; ap-
peals to America in regard to
latter's trade in army supplies,
228; war declared against, by
America (December 17, 1917),

specting Belgian neutrality,
126-137; charged with com-
mitting hostile acts against
Germany, 127; appeals on
August 4, 1914, to Great
Britain for diplomatic interven-
tion in her behalf, 135; Ger-
many's reasons for violating
neutrality of, 136: difference
between Britain's obligation to
preserve neutrality of, and
case of Luxemburg, 140; history
of events leading to guarantee.
ing of perpetual neutrality of,
by treaty of 1839, 141-144;
arguments of both sides con-
cerning Germany's violation of
neutrality of, 144-160; effect
in America of Germany's treat-

ment of, 231.
Berlin Congress and treaty

(1878), 8, 28.
Bernstorff, Count von, German

ambassador at Washington,
225, 226, 228, 248; fear in
Germany of detention of, in

America, 250.
Bethmann-Hollweg. made chancel.

lor, 22; present at Potsdam
Conference (July 5, 1914), 65-
66; final interview between
British ambassador and, 137-
139; quoted on violation of
neutrality of Belgium and
Luxemburg, 149; unrestricted
submarine warfare opposed by,
244-245; sincerity of, in
hopes for preserving America's

friendship, 245.
Bismarck, policy of, regarding

France, 7; formation of Three
Emperors' League by, 7-8;
succeeds in policy of isolating

France, 10.
Bosnia, annexation of, by Austria-

Hungary (1908), 30.
Bridges, Colonel, conversation be

tween General Jungbluth and.

152-153, 155.
Bryan. W. J., American secretary

of state, 216, 218, 220; resigna-

tion of, 222.
Buchanan, Sir G., views of, on

Austro-Serbian crisis, 70.
Bucharest, treaty of (1912), 38.
Bulgaria, revolt of. from Turkey

in 1876, 27; declared an au-
tonomous state under treaty of
San Stefano (1878), 28; by
treaty of Berlin is made an au-
tonomous principality tributary
to Turkey, 28-29; results to, of

Bagdad Railroad, beginning of

controversy over, 12-14; condi.
tion of controversy upon eve of
Great War, 14; effect of dispute
over, upon relations between
Great Britain and France, 17;
obtaining of concession for

building. by Germany, 30.
Balkans, account of peoples in

the, 24-25: history of states in
the, 25-29; wars between Tur.
key and states of. in 1912-14,
32-38; results of wars of 1912-

14, 38-40.
Barnardiston, Colonel, conversa-

tions between General Ducarme

and, 150-152
Belgium, neutrality of, not guar-

anteed in German propositions
to Great Britain before out-
break of war; 124: Sir Ed-
ward Grey's statement concern-
ing preservation of neutrality
of Belgium, 126; replies of
France and Germany as to re-

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