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Balkan Wars of, 1912-14, 37;
dissatisfaction of, with treaty
of Bucharest,

course of, upon outbreak of
war of 1914, 203-206 ; war
declared upon, by Entente pow-

ers, 206.
China, friction between Russia

and Britain in, 15; foothold
gained by Germany in, 161;
Japan's request in 1914 that
Germany withdraw from, 164-

Concert of Europe, league of

great powers known as, 4;
duration of, 4; progress toward

world peace made under, 4-5.
Crimean War, Moldavia and

Wallachia freed from Russian

protectorate as result of, 26.
Dardanelles, closing of, by Ger-

man rather than Turkish or-

ders, 175.
Delcassé, Théophile, appointed

French foreign minister, 17;
brings about friendly relations
between France and Great

Britain, 17-18.
Dernburg, Bernhard, defense of

Germany's violation of Belgian
neutrality by, 153-154.
Diplomacy, inefficiency of Euro-

pean, during Austro-Serbian

crisis, 88.
Dual Alliance, formed between

Russia and France, 10.
Ducarme, General, conversations

between Colonel Barnardiston
and, 150-152.

Fashoda, Marchand expedition to,

France, effect on, of loss of Al-

sace-Lorraine, 6–7; Bismarck's
policy toward, 7; success
of Bismarck's policy of iso-
lation of, 10; forms Dual
Alliance with Russia,
rivalry between Great Britain
and, at end of 19th century,
16; establishment of Entente
Cordiale between Great Britain
and, 17-18; attempted inter-
ference of Germany with Mo-
roccan policy of, 20-24;, at-
titude of, toward Austro-Hun.
garian ultimatum to Serbia
upon assassination of Archduke,
70; asked by Germany to in-
Auence Russia to moderation,
in Austro-Serbian crisis, 89;
attitude of, toward Germany's
proposal, 89; acquitted of re-
sponsibility for Great War, 99;
immediate steps leading to war
between Teutonic powers and,
117-119; effort made by Ger.
many to secure neutrality of,
129-130; charged by Germany
with intentions of marching

through Belgium, 146, 153.
Francis Ferdinand, Archduke, as-

sassination of, 43.
Franco-German War, results of,

Frankfort, treaty of (1871), 6.
Fuehr, The Neutrality of Belgium,

cited, 144; quoted, 159 n.
Gerard, Ambassador, interview
between Kaiser and,

quoted on President Wilson's
desire for peace, 245; difficul-
ties of, in Berlin, after rupture
between Germany and Amer-
ica, 250-251; cited on hostility
of public sentiment in Germany
against America, and
Kaiser's personal bitterness,

Germany, policy of, as dictated by

Bismarck, following Franco
German War, 7-9; forms Triple
Alliance against Russia, 9;
growth of rivalry between
Great Britain and, 11; begin.
ning of policy of economic
penetration of Ottoman Em-
pire, with building of Bagdad
Railroad, 12-13; bad feeling
toward, aroused in Great
Britain by designs in



Edward VII, influence of, in es-

tablishing friendly relations be-
tween Great Britain and

France, 17.
Egypt, arrangement between
France and England as to

(1904), 17; as & cause of
trouble between Great Britain

and Turkey, 176-177.
Einstein, Lewis, cited as to Pots-

dam Conference, 65.
England, party to quadruple al-

liance of 1815, 3; drops out of
quadruple alliance,

4. See
Great Britain.
Entente Cordiale, establishment

of, between Great Britain and
France, 17-18; Russia and
Japan become included in, 18-



Minor, 13-14; condition of
Bagdad Railroad question at
opening of Great War, 14;
friction between Great Britain
and, over rapid development of
Germany's naval power, 14-15;
defeat of attempt of, to inter-
fere in French Moroccan policy,
20-21; further controversy with
France over Moroccan policy,
21-22; devolopment of rivalry
between Russia and, in the
Balkans, 29-31; supports Aus-
tria-Hungary in Balkan pol
icy, 32; relation of, to af-
fairs between Austria-Hun-
gary and Serbia following as-
sassination of Archduke, 61-68;
counts neutrality of Great
Britain in Serbian crisis, 70;
plan of, for solving war prob-
lem in Austro-Serbian crisis,
86-89; key to situation in Aus-
tro-Serbian crisis said to have
been held by, 94; declines to
exercise influence over Austria,
94; objection of, to Earl Grey's
suggestion of mediation, by four
powers, 95; shares with Aus-
tria responsibility for Great
War, 99-101; ratifies Austria's
promise to respect integrity of
Serbia, 105; attitude toward ef-
forts of the powers to isolate
the war, 108-109; war de-
clared between Russia and
(August 1), 112; steps that led

mobilization in, 112-117;
declaration of war between
France and, 117-119; steps
leading to declaration of war
upon by Great Britain, 121 ff.;
seeks to keep Great Britain
neutral, 124; effort made by,
to secure neutrality of France,
129-130; reasons given by, for
violating Belgian neutrality,
136; declaration of war
against, by Great Britain, 140;
violation of neutrality of Lux-
emburg by, 140; bound by
treaty of 1839 to observe neu-
trality of Belgium, 143; argu-
ments of, in defense of viola-
tton of Belgian neutrality. 144-
160; events leading to Japan's
declaration of


161-165; course followed by,
to win support of Turkey, 170-
179; Italy declares war against,
202; declares war on Portugal,

207-208; causes leading to
war between America and,
213 ff.; proclamation issued by,
declaring a war zone around
British Isles, 213; protest of
United States Government
against proposed policy, 214-
215; position taken by, re-
garding protest of United
States, 215-217; policy

nounced by, a violation of in-
ternational law, 217-219; Lusi-
tania sinking and its

quences, 220-225; attitude of,
in Arabic incident, 226–227;
controversy with America over
trade in arms and ammunition,
228-232; disagreement over
armed merchantmen, 232–237;
the S488ex

case, 237-243;
statement of Emperor, as to in-
ternational law no longer exist-
ing, 240; outcome of Sussex
case a diplomatic victory over,
243; peace demands of (1917),
247; entrance of, upon policy
of unrestricted submarine war.
fare, 248–249; breaking of re-
lations between America and,
249–250; resumption of unre-
stricted submarine warfare by,
251-252; reasons for declara-
tion of war against, given in
address by President Wilson,
254–260; strength of feeling
and hostile plans in, against
America, prior to declaration
of war, 260–261; war declared
against, by America (April 6,

1917), 261–262.
Goschen, Sir E., account of final

interview with German chan

cellor, 137-139.
Great Britain, isolated position of,

between powers of the Triple
and the Dual Alliance, 10-11;
industrial and colonial rivalry
between Germany and, 11-15;
strained relations with Russia
and France, 15-16; alliance
with Japan due to Russian
rivalry in Far East, 16; con-
flicting interests with

in northern Africa, 16-17;
friendly understanding brought
about between France and, 17-
18; steps leading to friendly re-
lations with Russia, 18-19; de-
clares a neutral attitude con-
cerning Austro-Hungarian ul.
timatum to Serbia, 70; not re-


sponsible for Great War, 99;
steps leading to declaration of
war on Teutonic powers, 121-
140; declaration of war against
Germany, and later against
Austria, by, 140; promises aid
to Belgium in case neutrality is
violated, 152; intention of vio-
lating neutrality of Belgium
disavowed by, 156-160; deal-
ings between Turkey and, lead-
ing to break in relations, 165-
179; reported agreement be-
tween Italy

and (May 9,
1915), 200; use of American

flag on vessels of, 218.
Greece, steps leading to independ-

ence of, 25-26.
Greindl, Baron, dispatch from, to

Belgian minister of foreign af-

fairs, 153.
Grey, Sir Edward, gives impres-

sion that England will remain
neutral in case of Austrian war
with Serbia, 70; opinion of, as
to proper course for Serbia to
follow, 77; opinion of Serbia's
reply to Austria, 84; asked by
Germany to exercise moderating
influence with Russia, 88; pol.
icy of joint mediation proposed
by, 89–90; asks Germany to
use influence with Austria
against war, 94; second pro-
posal of, concerning arrange-
ment of an agreement by four
powers, 95; proposal of July
31, looking to prevention of
war between Russia and Aus-
tria, 107; statement by, of
British position as to taking
part in possible European war,
122-124; failure of, to give
positive declaration of Great
Britain's attitude concerning
war between powers, 124-126;
statement as to preservation of
neutrality of Belgium, 126;
negotiations between German
ambassador and, 127-132;
quoted on British protection of
neutrality of Belgium, 156–157.

Hague Tribunal, Franco-German

dispute over Casablanca affair

settled by, 22.
Hayes, Political and Social His.

tory of Modern Europe, cited,

12, 18, 19, 23, 32, 34.
Hazen, Europe Since 1815, cited,

24, 26, 27, 28, 29, 162.

Hertslet, The Map of Europe by

Treaty, cited, 144.
Herzegovina, annexation of, by

Austria-Hungary (1908), 30.
Internationalism, significance of,

as opposed to nationalism, 5;
becomes allied with despotism,

5; lost opportunity of, 6.
International law, Germany's sub-

marine policy concerning neu.
tral vessels a violation of, 217-
219; provisions of, . regarding
trade by a neutral in military
supplies, 228–232; Kaiser's
statement as to non-existence of,

Italy, reasons of, for becoming a

member of Triple Alliance, 9;
attitude of, in Austro-Serbian
crisis, 90–91; effect of war with
Turkey in 1911-12 on rela-
tions of, to Triple Alliance,
180; weakening of feeling of,
for 'Triple Alliance, for decade
before Great War, 180; re-
mains neutral upon breaking
out of European

progress of events leading to
declaration of war against
Austria, 181-202; declaration
of war against Germany by,





Von, German foreign
minister, 215-216, 240, 241;
sincerity of, in friendship for

America, 245.
Japan, alliance between Great

Britain and, 16; joins sides
with Triple Entente,
treaties between England and,
161-162;_conduct of, at open-
ing of European war,
conduct of, at opening of Euro-
pean war, 162; ultimatum
sent to Germany, regarding
withdrawal from Orient, 163-
165; declares war on Germany,
165; Austria breaks relations
with, 165; Germany's plans for
embroiling United States and,
as revealed by Zimmermann

note, 253.
Joint mediation plan proposed by

Grey in Austro-Serbian
crisis, 89–90; approved by Rus-

sia, Italy, and France, 90.
Jungbluth, General, conversation

between Colonel Bridges and,
152-153, 155.

man generals, 167 n.; on the
sale of German war vessels to
Turkey, 168; on hostility of
Turkish press to Entente pow.
ers, 170; on effect of battle of

on relations between
Germany and Turkey, 171 n.;
on the closing of the Darda-

nelles by Germany, 175.
Morocco, friction between Ger-

many and France over, 20–24.


Nationalism, meaning of, 5; allied

with liberalism, 5; responsibil-

ity of, for war of 1914, 6.
Naval power, friction with Eng.

land caused by rapid develop-

ment of Germany's, 14-15.
Navarino, defeat of Turks in

naval battle of, 25.
North German Gazette, denial by,

of holding of conference at
Potsdam on July 5, 1914, 63;
quoted on negotiations be-
tween Sir Edward Grey and
German ambassador, 128; de-
fense of Germany's violation of
Belgian neutrality by, 153-154,

Kato, Baron, Japanese foreign

ministerspeech by, quoted,

Kiaochou, held by Germany,

161; Japan demands Ger-

many's withdrawal from, 165.
Lansing, Robert, American secre-

tary of State, 222-227, 233;
error made by, in armed mer-
chant controversy, 234;
raigns Germany for whole sub-

marine policy, 238–239.
Law, A. Bonar, letter to Asquith,

quoted, 133.
Lichnowsky, Prince, reference

made by to Potsdam Confer-
ence of July 5, 1914, 64; cited
on responsibility of Central
powers for the war, 99, 100;
negotiations between Sir Ed.

ward Grey and, 127–131.
London, treaty of (1913), 37
London, Declaration of, 214.
Lusitania, sinking of the, 220.
Luxemburg, violation of neutral-

ity of, by Germany, 140; dif-
ference between relations of
Great Britain to, and her rela-

tions to Belgium, 140.
Mallet, Sir Louis, cited as to

Germany's responsibility for

Turkish raid on Odessa, 177.
Marchand affair, 16-17.
Marne, effect of battle of, on

German desires regarding Tur-
key, 171 n.
Mesopotamia, proposed develop-

ment of, by Germany, 12.
Metternich, reactionary influence

of. 5.
Mexico, German plans for

broiling United States and, 253.
Mobilization, steps that led to

Russian and German (1914),

Moltke, General von, present at

Potsdam Conference, 65.
Monroe Doctrine, not recognized

by Germany, 261.
Montenegro, disposition of, under

treaties of San Stefano and
Berlin, 28; declares war

Austria-Hungary and Germany

(August, 1914), 120.
Morgenthau, Ambassador, testi-

mony of, as to Potsdam Con-
ference, 65–67; cited concern-
ing mobilization of Turkish
forces under direction of Ger-

Odessa, German responsibility for

Turkish raid on, 177-178.

Pashitch, Serbian prime minister,

on public sentiment concern-
ing assassination of Archduke

Francis Ferdinand, 46–47.
Peace overtures of winter of

1916-17, 245, 247.
Persia, steps taken by Great

Britain in, to block Bagdad
Railroad scheme, 13; clash oi
British and Russian interests
in, 15; agreements between
Great Britain and Russia as to

relations with, 18.
Portugal, sympathies of, with Al-

lied cause in European war,
206–207; Teutonic powers de-

clare war upon, 208
Potsdam Conference of July 5,

1914, 63-67.
Prussia, party to quadruple al-

liance of 1815, 3.
Prussian-American treaty of 1799,


Quadruple Alliance of 1815, 3.
Quintuple Treaty, guaranteeing

neutrality of Belgium (1839),

Rogers, America's Case Against

Germany, cited, 214, 218, 226,

233, 243, 244, 251.
Rumania, races found in princi-

pality of, 26; results to, of
Balkan wars of 1912-14, 38;
position at opening of European
war, 208–209; joins sides with

Allies, 209.
Russia, party to quadruple alli-

ance of 1815, 3; a member of
Three Emperors' League, 7–8;
rivalry of Austria and, in the
Balkans, 8; diplomatic victory
of Austria over, by revised
treaty of San Stefano, 98; Bis-
marck aids Austria against, 8;
alliance of Germany, Austria.
Hungary, and Italy against, 9;
Dual Alliance formed between
France and, 10; treaties signed
between Great Britain and, con-
cerning Persian protectorates,
13; withdrawal of opposition of,
to Bagdad Railroad, 14; agree-
ments made in 1907 between
Great Britain and, 18-19; con-
tinued rivalry between Teutonic
powers and, in the Balkans,
28-31; Germany supports Aus-
tria-Hungary against, 31–32;
hostility ef, toward Austria-
Hungary increased by Austria's
attitude in Balkan wars


takes stand
against Austro-Hungarian de-
mands on Serbia following as-
sassination of Archduke, 69;
seeks support of Great Britain,
69-71; refusal of request made
by, to Austria, that time limit
set by ultimatum to Serbia be
extended, 73-75; plan of, for
preventing war in Austro-Ser.
bian crisis, 87; effort made by
Germany to secure neutrality
of, 88; mobilizes forces, but
shows anxiety to avoid a con
flict, 92; negotiations of, with
Austria, 96-99; acquitted of re-
sponsibility for Great War, 99;
determination of, to stand by
Serbia, 102, efforts of other
powers to prevent war between
Austria and, 102-103 ; final of-
fer made to Austria by (July
30), 110; war declared be-
tween Germany and (August
1), 112; steps that led to mob-
ilization in 112-117; Austria
declares war on, 117; events

leading to break in relations

with Turkey, 177-179.
San Stefano, treaty of (1878), 8,

Sazonof, Russian foreign minis-

ter, views of, on Austro-Serbian

crisis, 69-71, 72 ff.
Serbia, early history of, 25;

achieves independence, 28; ili
treatment of, by Austria-Hun.
gary, 32; results to, of wars
with Turkey in 1912-14, 33-
40; state of relations between
Austria-Hungary and, in 1914,
43; attitude of press, people,
and government of, concerning
assassination of Archduke
Francis Ferdinand, 43-51; ulti-
matum sent to, by Austria-
Hungary, in note of July 23,
1914, 52-57; responsibility of
Germany for Austrian ultima-
tum to, 63-67; attitude of,
upon receiving the Austro-Hun.
garian note, 68; moderate re-
ply of, to Austrian note, 78–
83; failure of reply of, to sat-
isfy Austria, and consequent
rupture of diplomatic relations,
84–85; reported inevitability
of war being thrust upon, by


war declared
against, by Austria, 98.
Stowell, The Diplomacy of the

War of 1914, cited and quoted,

9, 18, 31, 143, 144.
Submarines, opening of contro-

versy over, between Germany
and United States, 213–217;
use of, against neutral vessels
à violation of

law, 217-219; American lives
and vessels lost in sinkings by,
219 n.;

sinking of the Lusi-
tania, 220; America's firm
stand in regard to sinkings by,
235-243; division of sentiment
in Germany on use of, 244-

entrance by Germany
upon unrestricted use of, 248-

Sussex case, the, 237–243.


Three Emperors' League, forma-

tion of, 7-8; falls into abey-

&nce, 8.
Times, London, quoted on nego-

tiations between Sir Edward
Grey and German ambassador,
127; quoted on points which

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