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thus supplying its Christian subjects with grievances and at the same time giving them the means whereby their discontent could find effective expression. Under such

such circumstances, revolts could be expected at all favorable opportunities.

The first of the Christian peoples to win their independence were the Serbs of Montenegro. They claim never to have been conquered by the Moslem invaders, but their independence was not recognized by the Turkish Government until 1799.

In 1804 there was an unsuccessful revolt in Serbia. Another uprising eleven years later was partially successful, but it was not until 1830 that Serbia was recognized by Turkey as an autonomous principality.

The Greeks rose against their oppressors in 1821 and carried on against them for about eight years a war that was characterized by barbarous practices on both sides. Finally, France, Great Britain, and Russia intervened and demanded of Turkey that she grant local autonomy to Greece. This demand was refused, and the Allied powers attacked Turkey, destroying her fleet in the battle of Navarino. Two years later, Turkey yielded and by the treaty of Adrianople with Russia (September, 1829) recognized Greece as an entirely independent state. The independence of the new

state was placed under the guarantee of the liberating powers, France, Russia, and Great Britain, and in 1833 Otto, the son of the King of Bavaria, was placed on the throne as the first ruler of the Hellenic Kingdom.

The Rumanians are a mixed race, composed of Slavic, Gothic, Tartar, and Latin elements. They are proud of the name Ruman (Roman) and claim to be descendants of colonists settled north of the Danube (Dacia) by the Roman emperors. By the treaty of Adrianople, the provinces Moldavia and Wallachia (now Rumania) were practically, though not nominally, taken out from under the control of Turkey and placed under the protection of Russia. At the close of the Crimean War, in which Russia was defeated by France and England, Russia had to give up her protectorate over these two provinces and agree, by the treaty of Paris (1856), that thenceforth they should be “independent under the suzerainty of the Porte." 4 This arrangment, however, was not satisfactory to the Rumanians, who wanted the two provinces united into one nation and to be entirely free from Turkish control. In 1859 Moldavia and Wallachia each elected the same man as prince and so virtually became one principality. “Later the two assemblies were merged into one, and in 1862 the Sultan recognized these changes."? 5 Hazen, 615.

5 Ibid., 618.

In 1876 the Christians in the province of Bulgaria revolted against the Ottoman officials and put some of them to death. The Turks in their effort to put down the revolt committed awful atrocities. Their acts of savage cruelty aroused public sentiment all over Europe. Even in England, the traditional friend of the Porte, sentiment was so strong that the Disraeli ministry could do nothing in support of the Ottoman Government. Mr. Gladstone, then in retirement, “urged that the Turks be expelled from Europe ‘bag and baggage.' "6 Serbia and Montenegro joined the Bulgarians and declared war on Turkey.

The Russian people sympathized warmly with their kinsmen and co-religionists of the Balkans, and many of them enlisted in the army as volunteers against the Turk. Pressure was thus being brought to bear on Alexander II to intervene. He did not want war, declaring that he had no intention or desire to take Constantinople, but felt that Europe ought to put a stop to the Balkan troubles. He also said that he would have to undertake the task singlehanded if the other nations would not join him. Finally, after long delays and fruitless diplomatic negotiations, Russia issued a declaration of war against Turkey on April 24, 1877. After the defeat of Turkey, the treaty of San Stefano 6 Ibid., 622.

was signed in 1878. By this treaty Serbia, Montenegro, and Rumania were declared independent; Bulgaria became an autonomous state with a good deal of territory, Eastern Rumelia and most of Macedonia being given to her; and Turkey retained in Europe “only a narrow broken strip across the peninsula from Constantinople west to the Adriatic.7

All the countries interested except Russia and Bulgaria were dissatisfied with the treaty. Both Serbia and Greece wanted a part of the Macedonian territory that had been given Bulgaria. But the most effective opposition came from the great powers. Great Britain and Austria-Hungary contended that Russia could not change the Balkan map without the consent of the other powers, and Germany supported this contention. Austria-Hungary had an ambition to expand toward the Ægean, and both she and Great Britain were afraid that Russia would become too powerful in the Balkans and extend her authority to the Mediterranean. By a threat of war, Russia was frightened into yielding, and a conference of the powers was held at Berlin. The treaty of Berlin (signed July, 1878) was thus substituted for that of San Stefano (signed March, 1878). By the treaty of Berlin, Montenegro, Serbia, and Rumania became independent; Bul7 Hazen, 624.

garia was made an autonomous principality tributary to Turkey. Eastern Rumelia and Macedonia were, however, left out of Bulgaria, Macedonia being restored to Turkey and Eastern Rumelia being made an autonomous state under Turnish control. Bosnia and Herzegovina were turned over to Austria-Hungary to be administered by her, though they were still to be nominally a part of the Ottoman Empire. It is needless to say that the Bulgars were dissatisfied with this arrangement and were determined to modify it as soon as they could with safety. This they did in 1885 when Eastern Rumelia was united with Bulgaria.8

These important changes had all been made in southeastern Europe without any serious menace to the general peace. But early in the twentieth century the Balkans gave promise of trouble between the rival groups. By this time Germany and Austria-Hungary had entered upon a policy of economic and political expansion toward the. Ægean and had an ambition to bring the Ottoman Empire within their sphere of influence. These efforts had been rewarded with considerable success. Serbia had been under the tutelage of Austria-Hungary from 1878 to 1903, when King Alexander was assassinated and a new ruler, who was friendly to Russia, was placed on the Serbian 8 Hazen, 620–27.

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