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A.R.B. .......... Austro-Hungarian Red Book (No. 1)
A.R.B. (2)....... Austro-Hungarian Red Book (No. 2)
B.C. (13) ....... British Correspondence, Miscellaneous, No.

13 (1914) B.C. (14) ....... British Correspondence, Miscellaneous, No.

14 (1914) B.G.B. .......... Belgian Grey Book (No. 1) B.G.B. (2)....... Belgian Grey Book (No. 2) B.W.P. .......... British White Paper Col. Doc......... Collected Diplomatic Documents Relating to

the Outbreak of the European War, printed under the authority of His Majes

ty's Stationery Office Dip. Cor....... . Diplomatic Correspondence with Belligerent

Governments Relating to Neutral Rights and Duties. Department of State. Euro

pean War, No. 4 F.Y.B. .......... French Yellow Book G.W.B. ..........German White Book I.G.B. ........... Italian Green Book Jour. (9)........ Supplement to the American Journal of

International Law, vol. 9 Jour. (10).......Ibid., vol. 10 R.O.B. .......... Russian Orange Book (No. 1) R.O.B. (2)....... Russian Orange Book (No. 2) S.B.B. .......... Serbian Blue Book S............ ... Diplomatic Documents Relating to the Out

break of the European War, edited by James Brown Scott and published under the auspices of the Carnegie Endowment

for International Peace References are to numbers except where page references are indicated.

PART I

SOME INDIRECT CAUSES OF THE

WAR

THE IMMEDIATE CAUSES OF

THE GREAT WAR

CHAPTER I

THE TRIPLE ALLIANCE AND THE TRIPLE

ENTENTE

DURING the greater part of the first decade and a half of the nineteenth century, the great powers of Europe were united in an effort to curb the imperial ambitions of Napoleon. After years of useless war, Napoleon was sent to a deserved exile, and the balance of power was restored in Europe. A peace congress was then held at Vienna (1814–15), and the map of Europe was rearranged. Europe was sick of war and was anxious for an agreement whereby the nations would be forced to keep the peace. In November, 1815, therefore, the Allies-England, Prussia, Russia, and Austria-concluded a quadruple alliance, pledging themselves to the preservation of “public peace, the tranquillity of states, the inviolability of possessions, and the faith of treaties." For the next eight years, European congresses were held from time to

time to enforce this policy. France, too, took part in these meetings, and so there was in effect a sort of league to enforce peace. This league included all the great powers of Europe, and is known as the Concert of Europe.

The Concert subsequently declared in favor of intervention to put down insurrections in the various states of Europe, and carried out this policy by sending troops to stamp out revolutions in Spain and Italy. Great Britain dissented from this interpretation of the treaty of alliance and so dropped out of the Concert. Therefore, the Concert, in so far as it rested on formal engagements, did not last many years. There has been a feeling, however, during the entire century following the Congress of Vienna that certain questions are of interest to all Europe and should be settled only by joint agreement of the powers. Such joint action has been taken occasionally, and in a sense the Concert of Europe continued until the outbreak of the war in 1914.

This important experiment in internationalism was neither a complete success nor an entire failure. The great aim of maintaining peace in Europe was not realized, but some progress toward world peace was probably made. Peace conferences were held, and the principles of international law were expounded. The fact that only four wars (and most of these

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