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occasioned by the formation of a new church in Boston. The settlement of Mr. Davenport, of New Haven, in the first church in Boston, was, for various reasons, opposed by a very large minority, who afterwards separated and formed another church. The chief objections to Mr. Davenport were his leaving his people at New Haven, without their full consent, and his rigid notions in refusing baptism to children, except those whose parents were members of the church. For this opposition to Mr. Davenport, and for separating from the first church, the seceders were censured by many, and the general court solemnly condemned them; while a large number of the clergy publicly disapproved of the conduct of the first church, and of Mr. Davenport. The interest taken in the dispute was so great, that it had an influence on the subsequent elections of representatives; and the result was that the majority in the next assembly was opposed to the vote of censure before passed. The magistrates and legislators, then, and from the earliest days of the colony, claimed to have a voice in ecclesiastical affairs; and their decisions, perhaps, were sometimes made under the influence of political and party motives. Such has often been the conduct of men in power, both in ancient and modern times.


War with Philip-He meditates the destruction of the English-War defensive on part of the English-Plymouth Colony most exposed-United Colonies raise Troops-Battle at Narragansett-War continued to 1676Character of Philip.--Col. Church--Death of Philip-Difficulties with Government of England-Claims of Gorges and Mason-Leverett, Bradstreet, Dudley, and Danforth-Claims of Power-Regulations of Trade-Randolph-Agents to England-Charter vacated, and Dudley appointed President-Andros arbitrary and oppressive-His Council-J. Mather Agent to England-Arrest of Andros and Randolph-Revolution-New Charter -Sir William Phipps-Expedition to Nova Scotia, and to QuebecFailure-Expenses-Paper Money-Difference of New and Old Charters -Sir Williain Phipps first Governor-His Character.

IN 1675 began the formidable war with Philip, sachem of the Pokanokett tribe, in the Plymouth patent. Before this period, even from the expedition against the Pequots, there had been no hostile attempts by the native Indians, which excited general or very serious alarm. Massasoit, the father of Philip, was always friendly to the English, and so was Chikataubut, of Massachusetts, and his son. The other tribes were too small to venture any attacks on the English, whatever might have been their secret wishes. And many of these were evidently friendly to the colony, through the influence of Eliot, and other missionaries.

Philip had, indeed, been often found complaining of the English, before this period; and was known to have endeavored to excite the jealousy and hatred of other Indians. against them. He had visited distant tribes for the purpose of forming a union among them, the whole force of which should be employed to extirpate the white men, who had obtruded themselves on the soil. He could complain however of no particular act of injustice or oppression; for the lands occupied by the English had been fairly purchased of the Indian chiefs, or entered upon and possessed, with their consent and approbation. If any had been wronged, on proof of the injury they always found redress. Individuals, indeed, made encroachments, on the Indian lands, if encroachments they could justly be called, by purchasing for trifling articles. But this was early forbidden by the government, and laws were passed for their protection and welfare.


Philip chose to consider the English as trespassers; and he determined to make one great effort to drive them from the land, or to destroy them.

The merit of wishing to maintain, or to recover, the power of his tribe, and of making great efforts for that object, may be justly awarded to this brave aud intelligent sachem. But his merit would have been far greater, had he been injured, as he pretended, and had there been any plan of the English to take from him the territory of his fathers by fraud or violence. Neither his father, nor the other Indian chiefs in New England complained of injustice on the part of Massachusetts or Plymouth governments; and when complaints were made against individuals, they were readily received, and the wrongs fully redressed. When Philip was called upon to state the injuries done him or his tribe, or to explain his conduct in plotting against the English, and in attacking individuals, his answers were evasive and his statements often false. The English acted on the defensive and he was the aggressor; unless it was just in him to destroy them or drive them by force from the territory, which they possessed by fair purchase, or the full consent of the natives. He caused some of the friendly Indians to be put to death, for giving the English information of his hostile plans and preparations; he burnt the houses and destroyed the cattle. of individuals, living at a distance from the older settlements. And many of the people were murdered by his orders, from a cruel spirit of vengeance, though under a pretext of former aggressions. Without measures of defence by the English, they would have suffered severely by savage ferocity; and when they raised troops and proceeded to attack the Indians in their own territory, it was to protect defenceless individuals and to save themselves from destruction in their more com

pact settlements. The conspiracy he had attempted and in some measure effected, was as extensive as New England; and included even the eastern tribes and the Mohawks of the west. He acknowledged he had no just cause for hostilities, and promised to be friendly; but he continued secretly to prepare a powerful force to execute his plans of destruction. And it was not till they had full proof of his inveterate hostility and his disregard of promises often made, that the English concluded to raise troops to act against this insidious sachem.

The colony of Plymouth was most interested in the dispute with Philip, and its inhabitants most immediately exposed to bis attacks. After he had thrown off all disguise, and committed many acts of barbarity and cruelty, Plymouth

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sent some men under Major Cudworth to protect the settlers on the frontiers of the colony, in Swanzey and vicinity; but little more was at that time attempted than for defence, or to learn the temper and purposes of the sachem. It was not the object at first to wage an offensive war against the Indians; and the early military movements were made by Plymouth alone. While Cudworth advanced to Swanzey, captain Church appeared at Pocasset, (at or near the present site of Fall River) with a view to prevent a junction of the Indian tribes, which was intended by Philip.

In the mean time, it was known that the conspiracy of the Indian tribes, through the persuasions of the Pocanoket chief, was so extensive, and so matured as to endanger the safety of all New England, unless prompt and decisive measures were adopted to prevent their united action. Not only Massachusetts but the united colonies resolved to assist, and to consider the hostile attitude of the Indians a common concern. It was agreed to raise 1000 men, for the occasion; Massachusetts to furnish 527, Plymouth, 158, and Connecticut, including New Haven, 315. This was in September, 1675. At a little later period, there was an order to enlist 1000 in addition to the former detachment; thus making 2000 in all. This was done, on learning that the formidable tribe of the Narragansetts, which had hitherto professed friendship for the English, was engaged in the hostile combination formed by Philip.

Governor Josiah Winslow, of Plymouth colony, was appointed commander in chief of the troops thus ordered to be raised. Major Appleton commanded the Massachusetts men ; Major Bradford, those of Plymouth, and Major Treat those from Connecticut. The character of the Governor was distinguished for mildness and lenity, as well as bravery; and he had always been considered by the Indian chiefs who knew him, as their protector and friend. The characters of all who took an active part in the expedition and of those who advised to it, were too well established both for humanity and piety, to warrant a belief, that any motives of mere revenge, or covetousness, or of military glory could have influenced them.

These troops marched into the Narragansett country in December, 1675; and attacked the Indians in a large swamp, who were there collected in hostile array; and after a desperate assault, vanquished and routed them. But in making the assault, the English troops suffered very severely. They advanced upon the enemy by a narrow path, which exposed them to the fire and the arrows of the Indians in ambuscade,

and 240 of the English were killed and wounded, six captains being among the slain. The number of Indians slain, on this occasion, was computed at nearly 1000. And many

who survived retired into the interior and distant parts of the country.

It does not appear that Philip was then with the Narragansett tribe. When Cudworth and Church marched to his neighborhood with the Plymouth troops, he made little effort to withstand them; and fled, or rather retired into the interior, to excite the various tribes, scattered through the country, to prepare for a vigorous and united attack on the English settlements. His plans, indeed, were not fully matured, when hostilities began in June 1675; as some of the chiefs of petty tribes confessed. He found the plan proposed, of more difficult accomplishment than he had imagined. The tribes nearest the English settlements and most acquainted with their conduct, were not easily persuaded to join in the conspiracy against them. Probably, the efforts and influence of the missionaries among them had attached them to the government of Plymouth and Massachusetts. Philip was an inveterate enemy to these holy men, and to the religion which they taught. It was owing to his violent passions and a thirst for vengeance, that he instigated the attacks early in 1675, on the defenceless inhabitants, and induced the government of Plymouth to send out Cudworth for their protection, before he was fully prepared to execute his bloody purpose.

During the following winter and spring, attacks were made by the Indians, at the instance of Philip and in pursuance of his great plan, except that the defeat of the Narragansetts might have interrupted it, on Lancaster, Groton, Chelmsford, Mendon, Medfield, Marlborough, Sudbury, Rehoboth, Wrentham, Deerfield, Hatfield, Bridgewater, Scituate and Plymouth. The combination was extensive and formidable; and the prompt efforts made by the English in 1675, were probably the preventive of the slaughter of all New England. Many of the Massachusetts and Plymouth people were slain in 1676. A company under captain Pierce was almost wholly cut off, at Pawtucket; and another from Boston, under captain Wadsworth, at Sudbury. But Philip did not succeed in collecting a sufficient number together, to overrun the English settlements; nor was he able to procure a simultaneous action of different bodies and on different settlements, to accomplish the purpose he had meditated. The Indians soon became dissatisfied with his plan; and occasionally, in

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