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small parties, voluntarily surrendered to the English. It was believed that Philip applied to the Mohawks for assistance, but without success. In this condition of his affairs, he returned during the summer to his paternal abode, near Mount Hope; where a few of his tribe still adhered to him and his falling fortunes.

Perhaps, this act of the resolute sachem entitles him to the highest praise he justly merits. He was too intelligent, not to perceive that his plans had failed, and that he had forfeited his life, by his hostile acts towards a powerful people. He could now expect no success, even in a defensive contest, nor could he promise himself a pardon for his unprovoked and aggravated aggressions. He chose, however, to return to his native soil, and to sacrifice himself on his father's sepulchre, and among the remnant of his native tribe. This was heroic, this was patriotic, and this gives him as honorable a rank, as justice and impartiality can award him. In this quarter, Philip was again attacked, soon after his return, by captain Church, who slew many of the Indians still attending the sachem, but he once more escaped. Church still pursued and followed him to Mount Hope Neck, where he had retired. Here, the brave savage fell by the hands of an Indian who was in the service of the English. It was, in truth, the fall of a brave man; for he was even then preparing to annoy his enemy, or to defend himself to the last. With his death, the hostile spirit of the Indians within Massachusetts and Plymouth was quenched; or, on account of their weak condition, was seldom manifested. In the neighboring territories, at the west and the east, they were still feared; for they depredated on the frontier towns, though they did not really endanger the safety of the whole English settlements.

Although no immediate acts of oppression towards Massachusetts followed on the report of the commissioners, sent out in 1664, which was well calculated to raise the displeasure of the king, he was the more ready, afterwards, to listen to complaints against the colony, and desirous of showing his sense of his royal right to govern and control its proceedings. On their statement, that the acts of navigation and trade were not duly regarded in Massachusetts, orders were given that they should be strictly observed. These acts were of several years standing, and had been passed, or revived, as well in the time of the commonwealth, as of the monarchy: they operated as restrictions on the trade pursued by Massachusetts, and were considered as, no doubt, they were designed, for the chief benefit of England. It was, indeed, the great question, so often

afterwards agitated in the colonies, of raising a tax or revenue from this trade, for the parent state. The object of that government, in all the acts respecting trade, was not chiefly to regulate it on general principles, but with reference to its own prosperity, while little regard was had to their effect on the colonists.

At this period there was no distinct officer of the customs, by appointment of the king, nor had there previously been any, except that the governor was authorized to see that the acts of parliament, respecting trade, were observed, and that the duties imposed were collected. But the payment of the customs was often evaded, under the pretence that they were oppressive; or in the hope of escaping prosecution.

The men who conducted the controversy in behalf of Massachusetts, with the king and his agents, at this era, with their strong love of liberty, united something of the spirit and policy of courtiers; for they were always most respectful in their addresses to the crown, and when they failed to comply fully with all the requisitions of the king, they cast themselves on his clemency, and sometimes sought to flatter his vanity, or purchase his favor by presents. On this occasion, though they declined a ready compliance with the royal directions, they made a present of £500, a ship load of spars, and a large amount of provisions, to the English navy in the West Indies. And from motives of humanity, or policy, they made large collections for the sufferers by the great fire in London, in 1666.

Charles II. had not been long on the throne, before the friends of episcopacy became very active in favor of the established church, and caused an act to be passed for strict conformity to its rites and its government. Those who did not

conform were again oppressed, as they had been thirty years before. The people in Massachusetts were in fear, that such a system would be introduced into the colony. A day of public fasting and prayer was set apart by the general court, to avert a calamity so much dreaded. In all seasons of apprehended danger, both as to the welfare of the church, and the liberties of the people, such was the practice; their faith in an overruling providence instructed and justified them in the devout act.

On the complaints of Gorges and Mason, in 1676, that Massachusetts had assumed jurisdiction over their several territories, in Maine and New Hampshire, Charles II. required that agents be sent over from the colony, to answer for the alleged usurpation. The general court appointed William Stoughton and Peter Bulkley for this service. They were in England,

for this purpose, nearly three years; but without adjusting the difficulties which had arisen, connected with the subject. Massachusetts had set up a claim, which could not fairly be supported. Gorges' ancestor received a grant of the territory in Maine, which he claimed; and the heirs of Mason had shown a similar title to the land they demanded, in New Hampshire; while the claim of Massachusetts had no other support than an arbitrary construction of their patent, which made their northern bounds three miles north of Merrimac River. They had caused a line to be run, a few years before, to the most northern stream of the Merrimac, and then running east to the ocean, claimed all south of such line to be within their patent. This construction gave all the eastern parts of New Hampshire, and a great part of Gorges' grant in Maine, to Massachusetts.

The decision by the authority in England was, that both the soil and jurisdiction of Maine, belonged to the heirs of Sir F. Gorges, who had the original grant of the territory, from Piscataqua to Sagadahoc, or Kennebec River. After this judgment, Massachusetts employed an agent to purchase it of Gorges' heirs; but subsequently, the king ordered its restoration to their associates, or assigns, and the purchase money was refunded. No judgment was given as to the claim of Mason's heirs, for the instrument was found to be imperfect, intended to convey the land, nor had there been any charter from the crown for a civil government over the territory claimed. Massachusetts was confirmed in her claim, to three miles north of the Merrimac, a certain distance up the river only, which excluded them from Maine, and all New Hampshire, as it now is. Mason's heirs had claimed as far as Salem, but it was adjudged, that the claims of Massachusetts were good against his pretensions. Edward Cranfield was soon after appointed by the king, to govern New Hampshire, in his name and as his pro


On the return of Stoughton and Bulkley, in 1679, other agents were ordered from Massachusetts, by the royal authority, which was then declined by the general court, on a plea of poverty, and of heavy taxes to be raised to meet the great expenses of the war with Philip, and of the preparations made against the Dutch and French.

John Leverett was the governor of the colony from 1673 to 1679, when he died, and was succeeded by Simon Bradstreet, now almost the only survivor of those who came over with Winthrop, in 1630. Leverett was one of the board of assistants when young; and was several years agent in England, in the time of Cromwell. His reputation was that of a wise,

liberal, and upright man, and of an able and discreet magistrate. Bradstreet was seventy years old when chosen governor, and continued till 1686, when the charter was vacated; and Joseph Dudley was appointed temporary President by the crown. Bradstreet was distinguished for his discretion and probity; and yet he was less decided against the measures of the parent government, which others thought arbitrary and oppressive, and which they openly and firmly opposed. Danforth, who was deputy governor with Bradstreet, in 1679, and after, and who was one of the assistants for several years previously, was the leader among the most decided and active, in opposition to the claims, then set up by the counsellors of the king, over the colony, not only as to regulating trade, but for controlling all its proceedings, both civil and ecclesiastical, and internal, as well as external; and that by officers from England, who had little regard for the welfare or the rights of the people; and for collecting a revenue from the people to add to the treasures of the parent state. Soon after Charles II. was restored to the throne, designs were formed for governing the colonies more fully and more rigidly than they had been; and these designs were continued, with little intermission, till the charter was taken away, in 1686. There was, certainly, some reason to complain, that the king's authority and prerogative were not duly recognised in all cases, and that powers of government were assumed, which went almost to a denial of the supreme authority of parliament over the colonies. The general court of Massachusetts yielded to the authority of the crown, as to the oath of allegiance, as to the judgment respecting Gorges' and Mason's claim, as to a toleration of Episcopalian forms of worship, of Baptists and Quakers, and as to the admission of freemen, who were not members of a congregational church. But the regulations of trade were disregarded, and no revenue was collected for the parent state. That some provisions of the acts regulating trade and navigation were severe in their operation on the colonies, there can be no doubt. The political friends of the Stuart family, in Virginia and Maryland, complained loudly of such oppressions. And it would have been good policy, perhaps, as well as a generous clemency, on the part of the parent country, to have favored and cherished these infant plantations, rather than to have pressed so heavily on them, for the purpose of meeting the high expenditures called for by the court.

Edward Randolph distinguished himself, at this period, by his complaints against the government of Massachusetts, and his efforts to call forth oppressive and arbitrary measures of

the king towards the colony. He complained, among other things, of gross and constant violations of the acts regulating trade; and was thereupon appointed collector of the customs; to reside at Boston, the capital of Massachusetts. Randolph was styled "the accuser of his brethren;" he acted as a spy, and was a bitter enemy to the colony, for many years; and events proved, that, in this dishonorable conduct, he regarded less the authority of the king, than his own interest and profit.

After more than two years of delay, in 1682, the general court sent other agents to England, as ordered, to vindicate the colony from various charges which had been preferred against it. These were Joseph Dudley, a son of the governor, Thomas Dudley, and a child of his old age; but who had little of the disinterestedness and integrity of his venerable parent; and John Richards, who had been several years in public life, but not possessed of all that talent and firmness to qualify him to be a useful advocate for the rights of the colonies, at an arbitrary court. Dudley had talents, but they were employed in providing for his own honor and profit. To these agents, unfortunately, perhaps, were given more powers than had been given to the former ones. But to them, as well as to those before sent, instructions were given, not to consent to any propositions or demands, which should commit their rights, as secured by charter. But the king and his counsellors were too desirous of power, or too jealous of their authority, which was then pretended to be sacred, to dispute about rights in the colony, or to recognise the agents in the character of envoys from a sovereign nation; and insisted, that the colony was a part of the empire, under the control of the crown; and must therefore submit to its will and pleasure in all things. And yet some of the officers of the crown, even at this time, declared, that the colonies ought to be represented in parliament, in order to render it proper to lay taxes on the people residing in them. When Dudley and Richards sailed for England, Randolph accompanied, or soon followed them, to prefer more charges against the colony. He had met with opposition in attempting to discharge his duty, as a collector of the customs; and when he called on the governor and general court for assistance, they either declined, or took no notice of his request.

In 1686, the charter of Massachusetts was solemnly declared to be vacated;* and Dudley was soon after appointed presi

*When the agents found that no favor or justice could be expected, unless they had power to consent to give up the charter, to be altered and moulded as the king and his ministers might dictate, they wrote to the general court, of such determination; and advised them to submit to the

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