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Of these the under-mentioned, viz :

Mr. Buckley,
Mr. Heaviside,
Colonel Ouseley, and

Mr. Monier Williams, gave their services, in accordance with the arrangement made at the closing of Hailey bury College ; but Mr. Buckley being suddenly summoned from town by the illness of a near relative, his place in the vivâ voce examination was supplied by T. Walrond, Esq., Fellow of Balliol College, Oxford, the senior assistant examiner permanently employed at this office.

The examination was held partly at Burlington House (by permission of the Senate of the University of London and the Royal Society) and partly at this Office.

The only alteration in the conduct of the examination sufficiently important to deserve mention in this place was the extension of viva voce examination. In the two preceding years candidates had been examined vivâ voce in English, and in the language and literature of Greece and Rome ; but it appeared to the Commissioners desirable to apply the same test in the case of the other subjects also, and they have every reason to believe that the alteration has been a beneficial one. They enclose, for the perusal of the Commissioners for the Affairs of India, extracts from the reports of several of the gentlemen who have assisted them.

The Commissioners observe with satisfaction that the candidates who have distinguished themselves in particular subjects, occupy, for the most part, very high places on the general list. Mr. Geoghegan, the first in mathematics, is also first on the whole. Mr. Smith, who stands first in the English portion of the examination, is second on the whole ; Mr. Tyrrell, the first in classics, is third ; and Mr. Fitzpatrick, the first in natural sciences and in moral sciences, is sixth.

It may be added that 15 of the selected candidates are among the first 20 in the English subjects, and that 15 are among the first 20 in classics. The candidates who appear among the first 20 in both lists are the following

Mr. Geoghegan.
Mr. Tyrrell.
Mr. Smith.
Mr. Watts.
Mr. Wynne.
Mr. Sperling.
Mr. Gardner.
Mr. Powlett.
Mr. Whinfield.
Mr. Eades.
Mr. Brown.
Mr. Armstrong

Mr. MacGregor. The Commissioners have only to add that the Enclosure marked No. 1 contains the names of all the candidates, and that No. 2* shows the marks obtained by each candidate in the several subjects, the unsuccessful candidates being represented by numbers only.

I have, &c.

* This is printed at p. 326...

ENCLOSURE. From G. W. Dasent, Esq., D.C.L., and G. L. Craik, Esq., Professor of History and

English Literature in Queen's College, Belfast. On reviewing the recent examination in English for the Indian Civil Service, the examiners entertain no doubt that oral examinations, though laborious to the examiners, from the amount of time which they necessarily consume, are highly advantageous, since by no other means can the natural readiness of the candidate be so fairly tested, or cramming and copying be so easily detected; while, at the same time, an opportunity is afforded to the candidate of retrieving any error which he may have made, through inadvertence, in the written portion of the examination. They have no hesitation, there. fore, in declaring their opinion that oral examinations, as supplementary and ancilliary to those conducted in the form of written answers to printed questions, form a most important branch of the competitive system, and ought on no account to be abandoned. They would also recommend that these oral examinations should be made as public as possible, for they are sure that such publicity will best secure the efficiency of the examiner and protect the interests of the candidate.

(Signed) G. W. Dasent, D.C.L. 18th August 1858. I cordially concur in every word of the above.

(Signed) Geo. L, CRAIK.

From the Rev. Dr. Donaldson. (Extract.)

London, 6th August 1858. « It does not fall within the scope of my duty to indicate those who appear to me generally best fitted for the appointments in India about to be bestowed as the prizes of this examination. But having proposed three papers which I found to be adequate tests of literary proficiency, and having subjected the candidates to a searching oral examination, which I regard as a necessary supplement to all work on paper (for when employed by a competent examiner it makes cramming useless, exposes plausible ignorance, and deprives a candidate of any undue advantage gained by lucky anticipations)-I may venture to express my conviction that the Commissioners will find

among these

young men a sufficient number of persons well qualified to enter upon the Indian Civil Service with credit to themselves and benefit to the public. *"

The Commissioners are also permitted to publish the following statement from the Rev. Dr. Graves, Professor of Mathematics in the University of Dublin.

“Now that public appointments are distributed as the rewards of those who are most successful in competitive examinations, it becomes a matter of general interest to determine the best mode of examining. Formerly this was a question only for those who were engaged in the business of schools or colleges. In the present day it concerns the public at large. In the English universities the greater part of the examinations is carried on by means of papers. Still, oral questioning is occasionally resorted to, and I have been informed that there amongst university examiners an increasing disposition to adopt this method.

“ In the university to which I belong viva voce examination is regarded as an essential part of our system, and I believe all my brother fellows and professors hold that no examination, whether scientific or literary, is perfect without some viva voce.

" but, even supposing that it were not thought advisable in a college examination, it might still be a necessary part of one the object of which is to test the fitness of the candidates to undertake public employments. Why, in general, does a man fail to answer a question proposed to him in a viva voce examination? In most cases, for the yery simple and sufficient reason that he does not know the answer. But there are other reasons. He may have known the answer at a former time, but, through a defect of mental digestion, he has not assimilated the knowledge and made it so much a part of himself as to respond instantly to the demand of recollection; or, suppose the question to bc new to him, he may be acquainted with certain principles from which, by a step or two in the way of deduction, he might derive the answer. But he may want the presence of mind and clearness of head that would enable him to make these deductions rapidly enough to meet the exigencies of a virá voce examination. Give him pen, ink, and paper, and impose no limit as to time, and he might work out the proposed question to a certainty.

" But is not such a man deficient in qualities which are of the utmost value in the ordinary business of life? Some men let the questions go by, because they have not been paying sufficient attention to what is passing. They have not noticed the incorrect attempts made by others, neither have they profited by the helping hints which the examiner occasionally lets fall. Now, every one must admit that a habit of vigilance, concentration of mind, and a sagacity in taking hints are really valuable qualities in every-day work. To persons who possess them, what advantage do they give over those who labour under the opposite defects of sluggish inattention, or mercurial volatility, or actual obtuseness !

"Students intending to undergo an examination, the nature of which is well defined, are, and alwaye will be, specially prepared for the trial by teachers. Some will be subjected to a long course of sound instruction; others will be put through a process of hurried cramming. I venture to assert that the success of examiners in distinguishing between these two classes of candidates is greatly promoted by the introduction of viva voce examination.

“ Mathematical students are exercised by their tutors in writing out proofs of leading propositions in various branches of science. They learn to do this in a manner almost mechanical, and with some the attainment affords a very imperfect test of their knowledge. It may be ouly the result of skilful cramming.

A proposition of Euclid or of Newton may be quite correctly written out by a candidate who could not perceive the connexion of the parts of the proof, who could not tell on what principles it depended, who could not point out the leading steps in it, who could not enumerate the chief

Mr. Maitland to Selected Candidates.

Civil Service Commission, SIR,

24th August 1858. With reference to the further examination of selected candidates, which, under the regulations of the present year, is to take place in December next, or earlier, at the option of each candidate, I am directed by the Civil Service Commissioners to recommend you to consult the following works relating to the history and geography of India :

1. “Elphinstone's History of India,” for the periods to which that history relates; and

2. Mill's History of India," continued by Wilson, for later periods.

3. The principal articles relating to India in M'Culloch's Geographical Dictionary.

You will also derive information as to Indian geography from the Introduction to Elphinstone's History.

With these works you should, of course, use a good map.

I am also to recommend you, if you select Bengali, to study the principal rules, as given in Haughton's grammar ; and if you take Hindustani, to use Forbes's grammar.

deductions made from it. All these are questions that naturally arise in the course of a vivå voce examination. I have frequently received written answers for which I felt bound to give full credit, though I entertained a lingering suspicion that the writer had not understood the exact meaning and force of all that he had set down. My doubts would have been dispelled if I had been given the opportunity of asking him one or two questions. In fact, I experienced the inconvenience of not being allowed to cross-examine him. Oral examination is peculiarly useful in testing soundness of knowledge. It is a good thing for a man to be able to give an oral statement of the fundamental principles of any subject which he has been studying. If he has not clear views respecting them, he will bungle in his attempts to apply them to cases lying at all off the beaten track of examples and deductions. A man who has this thorough acquaintance with principles is generally able to give an intelligible account of them in a few words.

Virá voce examination is also useful in helping one to ascertain whether a student has read a particular book carefully, digesting its substance and honestly working through its diffi. culties.

" It is worth while to observe, that an examination of this kind manifests both moral and intellectual qualities. It draws out presence of mind and vigour of character. It elicits proofs of patience, good temper, and gentlemanly feeling. These are qualities which the public servant ought to have. Again, if of two men who are equal in book knowledge, one gains a considerable advantage over the other in a virá roce examination, by his quickness in perceiving what the examiner wants, and by his readiness in developing the knowledge which he possesses; ought he not to have the benefit of this kind of superiority? I think he ought to have an opportunity of showing it; and, having proved his superiority, he ought to obtain some extra credit.

" It is frequently said that superficial men will do better than solid men in a virá voce examination. As the result of long experience, I can declare that this is scarcely ever found to happen. If such a case should arise, there is reason to question the discretion and skill of the examiner. A great deal, no doubt, will depend upon his tact.

In preparing his roll of questions, he must select such as ought to be answered, and he must take care to arrange them so that one candidate may not be plied with harder questions than his neighbour. Indeed, this art of examining can only be acquired by long practice, and I shall always be apprehensive that a want of acquaintance with it may bring the practice into undeserved disrepute. An examiner bent upon displaying his own learning and sharpness, rather than discriminating the merits of the men before him, may bring about results quite inconsistent with justice and common sense. It is desirable that the public should have as ample means as possible of estimating the fairness and discretion with which competitive examinations are carried on. To a considerable extent this end is attaine by the publication of the examination papers, and of the marks assigned to the candidates. But the presence of a few competent witnesses, standing by, during the progress of a viva voce examination, furnishes a most substantial guarantee.

“An examination of this kind has also the advantage of enabling the candidates to measure one another's abilities and acquirements. They will thus, and their friends for them, acquiesce more cheerfully in the final award. In the mathematical part of the examination which has just concluded, all the rest of the men must have seen quite clearly that Nos. 27 and 9 possessed a more extensive and accurate knowledge of mathematics than they did themselves.

“I should be sorry, however, to see the public admitted indiscriminately to be present at the virâ voce part of our public competitions. Such a step might lead to disadvantageous results, both as regards the examiners and the candidates.

* In all these observations I hope I may not be understood as meaning to advocate the use of virâ voce examination as snperior to that which is carried on by means of papers. I am very far from meaning any opinion of the kind. I only recommend viva voce as a necessary supplement, and corrective to the other method of examination; I would always devote most time and attention to the papers."

In estimating the proficiency of candidates, the Civil Service Commissioners will have regard to the shortness of the time which it has been considered proper, in the present instance, to allow for preparation.

You will have learned from the regulations, that even after passing the further examination, no person will be allowed to proceed to India, unless he shall comply with the regulations in force at the time for the Civil Service of India, and shall be of sound bodily health, and good moral character. If, with regard to the very important qualification of physical competence, you entertain any doubt, you will do well to communicate with me, in order that you may undergo at once the medical examination to which all candidates will ultimately be subjected.

I am, &c.

Mr. Maitland to Selected Candidates.

Civil Service Commission, SIR,

1st September 1858. I am directed by the Civil Service Commissioners to aaquaint you that the selected candidates will have the opportunity of presenting themselves for the further examination required by the regulations, on the three under-mentioned days :

The 12th of October,
The 16th of November, and

The 21st of December. If you are desirous of presenting yourself at either of the two earlier examinations, you must signify the same within a fortnight from the receipt of this letter, and must specify which examination you propose to attend.

The Commissioners have further to acquaint you, that you will be required to leave England within two months after passing your final examination,

I am, &c.

Mr. Maitland to Selected Candidates.

Civil Service Commission, SIR,

22nd September 1858. ADVERTING to the regulation which states that “no person will, even “ after passing the further examination, be allowed to proceed to India, “ unless he shall be of sound bodily health and good moral character," I am directed by the Civil Service Commissioners to request that you will send me, at your early convenience, the names and addresses of two gentlemen well acquainted with you, and willing to answer questions as to your eligibility, in respect of character, for the public service.

I am also to state that the Commissioners will, in cases where it may appear necessary, require candidates, before leaving England, to make a formal declaration as to their freedom from pecuniary embarrassments.

I am, &c.

Mr. Maitland to Sir G. R. Clerk, K.C.B.

Civil Service Commission, SIR,

18th October 1858. REFERRING to the 10th and 12th of the Regulations presented to Parliament in the month of April last, and to my letter of the 18th of August, which announced the result of the competitive examination of candidates for the Civil Service of India conducted by the Civil Service Commissioners under those Regulations,

I am directed by Civil Service Commissioners to acquaint you, for the information of the Secretary of State for India in Council, that three of the selected candidates, namely, Mr. Henry Le Poer Wynne, who obtained the fourth place in the competitive examination, Mr. Hugh Morris, who obtained the fifth place, and Mr. Alexander Brown, who obtained the fourteenth, presented themselves for the further examination prescribed by the 10th Regulation, on Tuesday the 12th instant, and were then found to have a competent knowledge of the several prescribed subjects.

The Commissioners have made, with reference to the above-named candidates, the inquiry into health and character contemplated by the 16th Regulation, and if, as the Commissioners anticipate, the result should be satisfactory, the Commissioners will forward to the Secretary of State for India in Council the necessary certificates of qualifica tion.

The three above-named candidates having passed their further exami. nation at the same date, and no other selected candidates having yet passed, the order of seniority among the selected candidates of this year will, under the 15th Regulation, be the following :

1. Mr. Wynne.
2. Mr. Morris.

3. Mr. Brown. I am to add that the Commissioners having availed themselves of the assistance of Professor Wilson in conducting the examination of the candidates in the History and Geography of India, and in the elements of Hindustani, are enabled to state that the candidates for the Indian service have answered more than half the questions given to them with entire accuracy, and the larger portion of the remainder with more or less correctness, showing very diligent and successful study, and that they consider them fully possessed of the qualifications required for the service.

I have, &c.

Mr. Maitland to Mr. Melvill.

Civil Service Commission, SIR,

23rd November 1858. I Am directed by the Civil Service Commissioners to enclose certificates of qualification for

Mr. Geoghegan,


» Sperling,

Birdwood, and
Hewitt ;

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