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To each of these last, the admitted competitors, an “ Order for Examination” was sent about a week before the day fixed for the commencement of the examination.

The means adopted to ensure that all persons admitted to compete should be of good character were as follows -Every applicant was supplied with two printed forms, containing questions respecting himself, his moral conduct, his industry, &c. The regulations prescribed that one of these forms should be filled up from personal knowledge by a clergyman or other minister, a magistrate, or a head of one of the public departments. The second form might be filled up by any respectable person acquainted with the candidate.

In order to test the genuineness of the testimonials, and in order also to identify the persons on whose behalf these testimonials purported to have been given with the persons who had applied to be admitted as candidates, a communication was addressed to all the persons whose signatures appeared to be attached to the first testimonial (viz., that from clergymen, &c.), requesting them to state whether such signature was authentic, and whether the statements made referred to a person of the name of the applicant for admission. The results were in all cases satisfactory, and it was then considered that sufficient proof had been supplied of the identity and respectability of the candidates to justify their admission to the competition.

It still remained to take precautions that the person who presented himself for examination should not be a different person from the person who applied to be a candidate, and to whom the favourable testimonials referred. The check used against any fraudulent substitution of this kind consisted in a careful comparison of the handwriting of each person, as shown in the dictation paper, with the handwriting of the person of the same name, as shown in the preliminary Form filled up by the candidate immediately after his first application. The result of this scrutiny was to establish the fact of so close a resemblance between the different specimens as to warrant the conclusion that they were written in each case by the same person.

• The effect of the condition requiring as indispensable that one of the testimonials as to character should be given by a clergyman, minister, magistrate, or head of a public department, was that the 391 admitted candidates tendered statements from these parties in the following proportions :From clergymen of the Established Church

254 other Protestant ministers

78 Roman Catholic priests

4 Jewish rabbi

From magistrates

heads of public departments

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It was clear, therefore, (1), that the person examined was the same person as had previously filled up the preliminary Form ; and (2), that a person of the same name as the party examined was spoken of by clergymen or other responsible parties as a person of good character.

The order of examination sent to the 391 candidates contained a note alluding to the large number of persons who might be expected to compete, and requesting that any candidate who might abandon his intention of being examined would announce his change of purpose by returning the order. A certain number (but not so many as might have been anticipated) did thus withdraw, so that the total number of those who presented themselves on the morning of the 18th January, and then sat down to the first exercise, was 339.

As might have been expected, there was considerable variety in the social positions of the candidates. The principal divisions, as tested by the parentage of the competitors, were these :Sons of commissioned officers in the army

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officers of the Civil Service (superior officers 29

and clerks).
clergymen of the Church of England

dissenting ministers

6 barristers

3 solicitors

9 physicians and surgeons

9 merchants, agents, tradesmen, &c.

85 artificers, manufacturers, &c.

78 secretaries, managers, &c., to public companies 5 clerks (mercantile and law)

14 schoolmasters and private tutors

12 farmers

11 gentlemen and persons of no profession

27 residue


in the navy

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As tested by the previous occupations of the candidates them selves, the chief divisions were :Clerks in Civil Service

14 Mercantile clerks

99 Law clerks

31 Clerks to public companies, &c.

32 Schoolmasters, teachers, &c.

Assistants to tradesmen

Artizans, &c.
At school or college

Of no regular occupation

53 Residue



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As to their education, the following statement shows the schools, &c. attended :

Universities of Cambridge, Oxford, and London, and
Galway College

Public schools (including Eton, 2 ; Rugby, 1; King's

College school, 6 ; University College school, 3 ;
City of London school, 8 ; Christ's Hospital, 6;

Marlborough College, 3; St. Paul's school, 2 62
Proprietary schools

Training colleges

13 Diocesan schools

4 National and British schools

51 Free schools

17 Private schools in England

- 155 Foreign schools

- 16 Residue



As it was not possible to receive so large a number of candidates at this office, we engaged for the purpose of the examination the first floor of Messrs. Willis's Rooms, in King Street.

We entrusted the management of the examination to Mr. Walrond, late Fellow of Balliol College, Oxford, and Mr. Headlam, Fellow of St. John's College, Cambridge, the Assistant Examiners permanently employed at this office, and we also engaged the services of the following gentlemen :

Rev. G. Butler, M.A., late fellow of Exeter College, and Public

Examiner, Oxford, Vice-Principal of Cheltenham College.
G. W. Dasent, Esq., D.C.L., Magdalen Hall, Oxford.
W. F. Edwards, Esq., M.A., Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge.
Sir A. Grant, Bart., M.A., late Fellow of Oriel College, and

Public Examiner, Oxford.
F. Headlam, Esq., M.A., Fellow of University College, Oxford.
G. D. Liveing, Esq., M.A., Fellow of St. John's College, and late

Examiner for the Natural Science Tripos, Cambridge.
E. Poste, Esq., M.A., Fellow of Oriel College, and late Moderator,

J. Roberts, Esq., M.A., Fellow of Magdalen College, and late

Examiner for the Classical Tripos, Cambridge. On the first day of examination 339 candidates presented themselves, but the number who passed through the whole examination, and to whom places were assigned was somewhat smaller, in consequence of the withdrawal of candidates from various causes during the examination. It is due to the candidates to state that their conduct throughout the examination was in every way creditable to them.

The table in Appendix No. I. table I. shows that the first nine places were obtained by :

1. Mr. Austin Robert Lord.
2. Thomas Henry Baird.
3. {. Robert Thomas Hampson.
George Crowdy.

5. Henry Hill.
6. Edmund Neel.

Edward George Clarke.

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7.", A. B.



C. D.

Two of these candidates, A. B. and C. D., having failed in prescribed subjects, (A. B. in history, and C. D. in handwriting), were disqualified from obtaining our certificate. To the remaining seven, after careful inquiries as to their age, character, and the physical competence, the results of which were satisfactory, certificates of qualification were issued.

The merits of Mr. Pope and Mr. Wollaston, whose names occupy the tenth and eleventh places, appearing to be equal, we felt it to be our duty to leave for Lord Stanley's consideration the course which should be adopted with reference to the eighth of the proposed appointments. In point of fact, both candidates appeared to be well qualified, and satisfactory evidence was obtained as to the age, character, and physical competence of each. It gives us much gratification to be able to add that a vacancy for a ninth writer having occurred, Lord Stanley has been able to appoint both Mr. Pope and Mr. Wollaston.


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Seven of the successful candidates offered themselves for a voluntary examination in extra subjects, and obtained honorary additions to their certificates for proficiency as follows :Mr. Lord.-German translation.

Crowdy.--Algebra, as far as quadratic equations.
Hampson.-Latin translation, précis writing ; and shorthand.
Hill.–Algebra, including quadratic equations ; first three books

of Euclid ; translation from French, German, Latin, and

Greek into English, and from English into German.
Neel.–First three books of Euclid ; algebra, as far as simple

equations ; translating, writing, and speaking French.
Clarke.-English literature ; and the elements of political

economy. „ Pope.-First three books of Euclid ; and algebra as far as

quadratic equations. Wollaston.—First three books of Euclid ; and algebra, as far as

and including the binomial theorem. The table of marks inserted in the Appendix M. exhibits the marks which each candidate obtained in each of the subjects of the examination ; and the table M., also inserted in the Appen

2 dix, shows the total of marks obtained by the first hundred candidates, and the particulars of their age, station in life, and schooling

From these tables and from the facts already stated the following conclusions may be drawn :

1. That there is an ample supply of persons within reasonable limits of age willing to enter the public service as clerks for a very moderate remuneration, who possess intelligence and industry, and more than sufficient acquirements for the duties which they will be called upon to perform.

2. That such candidates proceed generally from the professional and from the middle classes.

3. That there exists no serious difficulty in conducting the simultaneous examination of large numbers of such candidates.

4. That effective precautions may be taken to prevent fraud and personation.

5. That it does not appear that the success of the candidate is influenced by his age, inasmuch as in the order of marks the the youngest and the oldest of the candidates are indiscriminately mixed.

6. That the existence of a considerable interval since leaving school, which might have been expected to operate unfavourably upon candidates, does not appear to have that effect.

It is right that we should call attention in reference to this unrestricted competition to the time which it occupied.

As before has been stated, it commenced on January 18, and the actual period during which the candidates were competitively examined, was six hours per day for three successive days.

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