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THE NEW WORLD ORDER

THE N E W~
WORLD ORDER

INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION

INTERNATIONAL LAW
INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION

By

FREDERICK CHARLES HICKS

A.M., LL.B.
LAW LIBRARIAN OF
COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY

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COPYRIGHT, 1920, BY
DOUBLEDAY, PAGE & COMPANY
ALL SIGHTS RESERVED, INCLUDING THAT OF
TRANSLATION INTO FOREIGN LANGUAGES,
INCLUDING THE SCANDINAVIAN

PREFACE

In the Summer Session of 1919, the author gave a course of lectures on International Organization and Cooperation, in the Department of Public Law, Columbia University. The lectures were supplemented by discussions and written reports by members of the class on various phases of the subject. The general purpose was to examine the League Covenant analytically in its relation to (1) international organization, (2) international law, and (3) international cooperation, using the comparative method whenever precedents could be found.

The substance of these lectures and discussions was put into form in August, 1919. During the period up to March 31, 1920, the manuscript was kept abreast of events in connection with the League and the Treaty of Versailles. As the purpose was to analyze the Covenant and Treaty at first hand and not to defend a thesis, or support policy with regard to any particular state, the failure of the United States to become an original member of the League has in no way disturbed the plan of the book. On November 19, 1919, the United States Senate defeated ratification by a vote of 55 to 39, and again on March 19,1920, by a vote of 49 to 35. On March 20, 1920, the Treaty of Versailles was returned to President Wilson. Whether or not the United States remains outside of the League, or becomes a member with reservations, the League Covenant is In force as to the present members; and, unless it fails utterly of its purposes, will affect the foreign relations of the United States both in the matter of peaceful cooperation and in settling disputes which might lead to a rupture. Moreover, the wisdom of the reservations proposed by the United States Senate can be appraised only by such a study as has here been attempted.

For the most part, the facts have been allowed to speak for themselves, opinions and prophecies rarely being hazarded; but the

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