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years ago, the whites might have metropolis, from some of them, of little cause to apprehend the pro- the apprehended injurious effects bability, or the consequences of an of the discussions on the subject in insurrection, compared with what parliament. they now have. Hayti has arisen in Nor was much more accomplishthe midst of the West Indies, and ed during the last year. Indeed, given them a terrible example of ever since the first promulgation of what the infuriated blacks may the plans devised by the mother possibly do, should any unforeseen country, for meliorating the condiaccident place arms in their hands, tion of the blacks, a wordy warand create hostility between them fare has been kept up between the and their masters. On the neigh- colonial legislatures and the minisboring continent, too, a family of try, which forcibly recals to mind new republics, have sprung into the stamp-act remonstrances of the being, who do not encourage the early stages of our revolution. institution of personal slavery ; nay, Without copying the resolutions of whose most effective troops are all the islands, it will be sufficient oftentimes composed of the African to exhibit what Jamaica, the largest races. Sound policy, therefore, of the islands, has done. dictates the propriety of placing the The colonial house of assembly condition of the blacks on such a adjourned in December, after an footing, that, neither trodden into unusually long session; and, it is the earth by oppression, nor filled said, in perfect good humor with with impracticable ideas of liberty, the duke of Manchester, the gothey may have such a stake in the vernor; both parties feeling desicommunity as to make sure of their rous of preserving harmony, beobedience to a just and firm, but tween the colony and the governnot capricious authority.
ment at home. But some of the Little progress was made in acts of the session indicated a de1825, towards procuring the adopt- cided hostility to the projected reion of the plan which we have ex- form. We pass over the tempoplained, by any of the colonial le- rary refusal of the legislature to gislatures. They refused, for in- provide means, for paying the cusstance, to relinquish the use of the tom-house officers their salaries, in whip as a stimulus to labor; to consequence of which, the duke abolish Sunday markets and Sun- gave orders for the temporary colday labor; or to give their slaves lection of additional duties. We opportunity of religious instruction. pass over, also, some minatory reRepresentations also went to the solves of comparatively small mo
ment, to relate a vote, which, af- discreet in them to pause, and obfecting the prominent subject of tain minute information on the subdiscussion in the colonies, proba. ject. bly spoke the sentiment, not of Ja. Cuba, until very recently, was maica alone, but of her sister islands. the great rendezvous of Spanish
The assembly unanimously vo- forces, for the purpose of aggrested for a memorial to be addressed sive warfare againt the insurgent to the king, praying him to inter- colonies. But its policy is now pose his authority, and save the changed. Spain having been decolonies from ruin, by preventing prived of all her territory on the the introduction of measures, total- continent, by the surrender of the ly inconsistent with their inter- castle of Callao, in the Pacific; nal government, and incompatible and of St. Juan de Ullua, the last with the welfare and happiness of strong holds of her power ; lost all all classes of their population ; and the means of successfully underfarther, entreating him, that, if such taking offensive operations, even if measures were again to be submit- she could have commanded the reted to them, a definite pledge of quisite resources of troops and equitable compensation for the sa. money. Completely prostrate, at crifice of their property should be home, by means of intestine congiven, previous to demanding their vulsions, she was far from havcompliance.
ing the ability to be any longer Certain it is, the colonists are so formidable to the new Spanish far in the right, that infinite pre. American nations. On the concaution is necessary, in touching trary, the question with her now, the condition of the black popula- was to preserve Cuba and Puerto tion. Legislators living a thousand Rico, from the fate of the contileagues off, amid different institu- nental colonies. tions, a different people, and with Those islands, owing to pecuno practical knowledge of the liar circumstances, indicate no subject, may imagine they are general desire to separate from very philanthropic, when they the mother country. Possessing are, in truth, only enthusiastic. freedom of trade, their condiEre the British parliament under- tion is flourishing ; and their intake to force upon the colonies a habitants have, on the whole, much system of slave laws, which the risk of loss, to balance what they colonial legislatures declare to be might gain, by a revolution. The fatal to their security; it may be authority of Spain attached to them
but slightly. Their government is, Colombia has more than once been indeed, as mild, probably, as their confidently supposed, to be fitting condition will admit. Its greatest out squadrons against Cuba. Mexifault, perhaps, is that it has not had co has twice been publicly prepathe power, or having the power, ring forces for a descent; and even had not the inclination, to repress suffered her intentions, to be the tomany outrages, which would never pic of parliamentary discussion in have been suffered to exist under her congress. Finally, the invasion a firmer and better government of Cuba, it is well known, was an Hence the prevalence of piratical important object of consideration expeditions, in which too many of in the congress of Panama. the inhabitants were concerned ; In the United States, the matter as well as of voyages to the Afri- is one of hardly less interest, than can coast, for slaves, in violation of it is to the immediate parties themSpanish treaties with England. selves. Cuba is the key of the
The majority of the population gulf of Mexico. Its contiguity to seems, therefore, content with sub- the coast of Florida, and its posijection to Spain ; and such of the tion as respects the Mississippi, Creoles as are anxious for indepen- make it of vast importance to us, dence, have to yield to the superior that no foreign power, capable of numbers and greater power of the being unfriendly to us, should gain royalists, whether Creoles or Spa- possession of it. Our commercial niards. Besides, none can fail to intercourse with it, in its present appreciate the danger of a rising political situation, is also immense ; among the blacks, if the island and there is no great cause to beshould be shaken by civil war. lieve, that we should be any better
In the mean time, however, the off in this respect, were Cuba indedisaffected in these islands, appear pendent. We should certainly be to have kept up a constant corres- greatly prejudiced in our trade, if pondence with the independents in it were occupied by France or Colombia and Mexico. These England. Farthermore, we sustwo governments, naturally desire tain numberless inconveniences by to see Cuba and Puerto Rico in the continuance of a war at our their own hands; especially, so very doors. long as their independence remains Hence the United States, feelunacknowledged by Spain. Hence ing that, for them, no change is deexpeditions against the islands have sirable, in the political or combeen constantly a subject of con- mercial condition of Cuba and sideration among the patriots. Puerto Rico ; have used the great
est exertions to secure the islands to sired effect, and induced Mexico Spain, on proper conditions. Ear- and Colombia to delay any attack, ly in 1825, they made overtures to which they might have contemRussia and France; having for plated, upon Cuba and Puerto. their object, to procure an acknow What influence the late events ledgment of the independence of in Colombia and in Europe, may the American republics, on the ba- have upon the critical condition of sis of guaranteeing to Spain, the those islands, it is vain to conjecpossession of Cuba and Puerto Ri- ture. Our government could never co. These overtures of our govern- see them pass into the hands of ment appear to have been well re- France, or of England, with indifceived. All our information from ference ; and it is to be hoped, that Europe authorise the belief that the united efforts of Europe and the great powers were favorably the United States may end in girinclined towards peace, and would, ing peace to Spain, and stability separately or conjointly, give paci- of political condition to Cuba. fic counsels to Spain. It will be Its affairs are said to be well adunderstood, of course, that our ministered by the captain-general, ministers at Madrid, Mr. Nelson D. Francisco Dionisio Vives. Its and Mr. Everett, were not back- whole population is about a milward in urging Spain to desist from lion; and its revenue may be estia contest injurious to her, and des. mated from that of Havana, which perate in itself, by all the most con- amounted, in the year 1824, to clusive arguments.
3,025,300 dollars. Under the efUnder these circumstances, when ficient management of the Intenit was generally and confidently dant, Pinillos, the finances are said rumored in the United States, du- to be in a flourishing condition, and ring the last winter, that Colombia have furnished the means of defrayand Mexico were fitting out a joint ing several expensive out-fits of expedition against Cuba; our the Spanish squadron; and the degovernment communicated to the mands for the support of the army, ministers of those republics, the fortifications, and local governnegotiation which it was carrying ment. In addition to the large naon in Europe ; and urged upon val force, now stationed at Havana, them the expediency of suspending a line of battle ship, and several the contemplated invasion, in the smaller ones, destined for Cuba, actual posture of affairs. This are said to be now in preparation recommendation coupled with other at home, out of the exhausted rerauses, undoubtedly had the de- sources of Spain. Apprehensions
from the enterprise and energy of The legislature consists of two Com. Porter, who upon leaving chambers ; the popular branch the service of the United States, being elected by the people, to entered into that of Mexico ; may serve five years ; and the senate probably hasten their equipment. being elected by the chamber of
Next to Cuba, none of the West deputies, on nomination by a triple India islands has, deservedly, com- list, from the president. The senamanded more attention, in the tors are twenty-four in number, United States, than Hayti. Under chosen for nine years; and being the mild and judicious government a permanent body, receive a salary of Rigaud, Petion, and Boyer, the in- of 8000 francs each. They are habitants of the south and west sides particularly charged with the affairs of the island, long enjoyed a life of of administration. contentment, daily increasing in During the early periods of their riches and information ; while the independence, France exerted all her Spaniards continued to hold the strength, to subdue them by force ; eastern part ; and Christophe ruled but the climate, no less than the dein the north with a rod of iron. termined bravery of the blacks and The insurrection of his subjects, mulattoes, defeated even the disciwho could not but contrast the plined and victorious troops of Naporigor of his government, with the leon. After a series of horrid scenes mildness of his republican adver- of savage excess, in which both sary's, compelled Christophe to sides indulged, the French being commit suicide, to avoid the obliged to abandon the island to its vengeance of the insurgents, and warlike defenders, they turned his dominions fell into the hands their arms upon each other, and of Boyer. The Spanish part of another succession of lamentable the island was reduced in the same events occurred. On every occamanner; partly by force of arms, sion, but most when the island was but more through the good will of a tranquil, under Petion, and Chrismajority of its inhabitants. tophe, the ex-colonists busily en
The president of Hayti, as the deavored to regain a foothold in government is now constituted, is in Hayti. All their secret attempts elected for life, by the senate, with were frustrated, one by one ; until, a salary of 200,000 francs. All at length, after Boyer's accession, the executive functions are vested negotiations, for obtaining a recogin the president, who appoints to nition of their independence, were office, and nominates his successor, seriously undertaken by the Haysubject to rejection by the senate. tians.