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destitute of navigation, and offered cumscribing the trade of this reextensive markets for British manu- public. factures, which they were obliged Having, it is to be presumed, asto pay for in raw materials. They certained that supplies could be possessed no colonies, and there obtained from those states, an orfore, if they accepted the offer of der of council was issued July trading with the British West In- 27th, 1826, closing the American dies, it had the effect of placing colonial ports, excepting in Nova English vessels upon the most fa- Scotia and Canada, to vessels bevored footing in their ports-in longing to the United States, after fact, upon the footing of free trade, the 1st of December, 1826. To while the equivalent was a re- the offer made by the American stricted trade with the British co- minister, (Mr. Gallatin, who had lonies. The same effect would just arrived at his post,) to renew have taken place if the United the negotiation on this subject, the States had accepted of that offer. following pointed remark was made When properly considered, there in answer, accompanied by a refore, these laws seem to be only fusal to discuss the matter by Mr. another mode of maintaining and Canning ; a remark which fully experpetuating the colonial mono- plains the policy and design of his poly.

government. “It is not made matTheir objects were twofold: 1st, ter of complaint,” said he, “ by to lay the foundation for a claim the British government, that the of favors in the ports of the South United States have declined conAmerican republics, by throwing ditions which other nations have open her West India ports to their thought worthy of their acceptnavigation, sensible that nothing ance. It is, on the other hand, could be apprehended from their not the fault of the British governcompetition, and 2dly, to ascer- ment, if the United States have tain their capability of supplying suffered the time to pass, at which her islands with those staple com- it might have been an object of modities, which she before had re- greater importance to this country luctantly permitted to be brought to induce the United States to come from the United States.

into their (Anglice its) proposals." By this apparent departure from The further prosecution of this her colonial system, she offered to negotiation, and the final decision the new republics a specious equi- of the question, form a part of the valent for commercial favors, and occurrences of the next year ; but laid the foundation for further cir- the agitation of the controversy,

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and the grounds taken by the re- try. That it is all founded upon spective governments, fall naturally mutual convenience, and that no within the view here taken of the compensation can be considered as colonial system, and belong to a due for a permission to trade with series of events, which transpired the colonies, except that which within the 50th year of American arises from mutual exchanges. independence, and which are of. In this manner, the continuance the highest importance, in a consi- of colonial restrictions is put disderation of the present condition tinctly in issue, and the two governand future prospects of the conti- ments are in direct opposition as nent.

to their propriety and validity. This question concerning the . The long space of time during colonial trade, is connected with which these restrictions have been the right to the navigation of the enforced, with the assent of the St. Lawrence, and with the pre- commercial world, has strengthentensions of Great Britain to the ed the claim of the European powshores of the bay of Honduras, ers interested in maintaining them, from which, about the same time, into a sort of prescriptive right. she undertook to exclude Ameri- An assent, arising from the fact, can vessels. It forms a part of her that Europe was interested in their general plan, to derogate from the establishment, and that America independence of the western he was a mere dependency, destitute misphere, and of course, comes of a sovereign power to declare within the legitimate deliberations its dissent from principles, which of the Panama congress. Eng- placed the rights and privilege of land contends, that the colonial the new world, prostrate at the trade stands upon different grounds feet of European commerce, is refrom that with the mother coun- lied on to prove their admission try, and that all participation in it, into the conventional law of nais to be considered as a boon, for tions. which an equivalent is to be paid. . But this assent, however con

The United States maintain, that clusive, in a discussion between all intercourse between countries, two European powers, cannot whether colonial or otherwise, is have much binding force in an arto be regulated according to the gument addressed to America. views of the respective govern- She may reply, that these princiments, and that the colonial trade ples never received her voluntary does not, in that respect, differ sanction, and that submission to from that with the mother coun- them, while in a state of thraldom

and minority, cannot be construed on the terms upon which they will into an assent to deprive her of the trade, and either of them may, of privileges of independence and course, insist on shackling the inmaturity. The time and mode of tercourse with restrictions, or may asserting and enforcing these privi- decline it altogether. The power leges, must, of course, be regulated of regulating it while vested in by circumstances. Prudence will their hands, ' will never be exerdictate, that no measure be adopted, cised, but with a due regard to which shall lightly compromit the their interests. But a prohibition essential interests of the country, from a trans-atlantic government, and a due regard for the tranquil- rests upon different grounds. It lity of mankind, will prevent any is founded upon false principles, rash disturbance of the established established by power, and submitorder of things. But these rights ted to from necessity, and it exexist independent of, and para- tends itself beyond its rightful ju. mount to, the arbitrary rules of a risdiction, to the injury of the comsystem, invented to foster the inte- menity over which it is exerted, rests of Europe, at the expense of and of all others whose commerce America. They are derived from is circumscribed by it. the nature of man, and from his · It cannot be expected, that such wants and his capacities. The a system will be tolerated one mosame Providence that gave him ment longer than necessary. The the earth to inhabit, and the power colonists themselves have a paraof social and commercial inter- mount interest in overturning it, course to supply his wants and and will demand their indepen. augment his happiness, has placed dence whenever their strength, mea, the means of relieving them within sured with the power of the mohis reach, in proportion to their ther country, will justify such a urgency. He has made the pro- step. ductions of contiguous countries. The citizens of all the indepen. most suitable to the mutual wants dent powers of this hemisphere, and of their respective inhabitants, and especially those of the United a prohibition, from a third power of States, have a less, but still a direct intercourse between them, is an interest in bringing about this event, infringement upon their natural and in sustaining them in that stand, rights. It is a wrong to both par- and their aid will be afforded, whenties. The communities occupying ever their relations with the colothese adjacent territories, have an nial powers of Europe will permit unquestionable right to agree up- them to take part in such a dispute.

It is easy to foresee the result of zealous for the national interests this state of things. It predicts and honor. Circumstances have with an unerring voice, the separa- now placed this power in opposition of America from Europe. tion to the last relicts of the colo

With the ocean between them, nial system, and at the same mocontending on their own soil for ment have made the new American their natural rights, against forces states deeply interested in the same which must be sent from the other cause, and brought their representaside of the Atlantic, and maintained tives into a joint assembly, to deliat a ruinous expense, the colonists, berate upon the best means of unaided, must in time achieve their promoting their common interests. freedom. In this contest, when- The claim of Great Britain, to ever it shall take place, they will erect the settlements of her logfind natural allies in all the inde- wood cutters, in the bay of Hondupendent powers of America, ha- ras, into colonial establishments, ving at their head, a republic of advanced at the same time, and as 12,000,000 of people, all interested part of the same system, is not from patriotic recollections and merely in violation of the treaties promised advantages in sustaining by which her subjects were perthe American cause.

mitted to cut dye woods within cerA republic, where the means of tain limits, but also in violation of education, by the common school the territorial rights of Colombia, system, are placed within the reach Mexico, and Central America. The of every class, and the avenues to shores of this bay belong to those station and eminence are opened by powers, by virtue of their succesthe constitution, to all, without dis- sion, each within its ancient protinction of rank; where frequent vincial limits, to the sovereignty of elections and constant discussion Spain. This unfounded pretension through an unrestrained press, have of Great Britain to the shores of created a general taste for politics, this bay, and to exclude the naviand made every citizen eager to gation of the United States from its devise and prompt to support pro- ports, is a direct infringement upon positions for the advancement of their rights, as well as upon ours, the common weal, while the system and binds them to resist this attempt of defence has put arms in the hands to perpetuate the old and to create of all, and rendered a whole people, new colonial restrictions. All these who feel the government and its restrictions are inconsistent with the policy to be their own, an army,un- well being of this continent, and disciplined it is true, but still must be abolished.

The progress of events points termination of the several governdirectly to their final abolition. ments, or their joint agreement in The colonial empires of Spain and the Panama Congress ; whether by Portugal no longer exist. Brazil, an interdiction of all intercourse almost without a struggle, has be- between the colonies and the sevecome an independent state. ral states, or between the mother

The Spanish colonies have taken country and all the independent the same rank in defiance of all the states of this continent, until her exertions of the mother country. possessions, both in Europe and Buenos Ayres, Colombia, Mexico, America, are placed upon the Chili, Central America, and the same footing, and governed by the Perus, have successively assumed same rules of navigation, are questheir stations among the nations of tions which must be determined the earth; and while they have by future events. The adoption of achieved their own freedom, they any of these alternatives would be have augmented the independence decisive. The commerce of Great of those who have preceded them Britain with the United States alone, in their glorious career. They have would never be forfeited by that gocontributed to the dissolution of the vernment for the poor equivalent colonial connection of America with which the monopoly of the colonial Europe, and given the pledge of navigation affords; and, if this gotheir national existence against its vernment, upon the expiration of re-establishment. They have open- the commercial treaty, in 1828, ed their ports to the world, and should insist upon the relinquishtheir resources and productions are ment of these distinctions between offered to American as well as to the colonial and other trade, and European commerce.

more especially if the other AmeFrom New Brunswick and Ca. rican powers should take the same nada to Cape Horn, the indepen- ground, and adopt the same prindence of the continent is achieved, ciple in the Panama congress, the and America now demands the ab- total abolition of all colonial rerogation of those rules, by which straints would be effected, and the her equality to other quarters of the independence of this continent fully globe has been denied, and her consummated. resources appropriated, and her Such is the attitude assumed by commerce monopolized by the in- the United States towards Europe, habitants of another hemisphere. at the completion of the first half

How this demand is to be enfor- century after the blow given to the ced, whether by the particular de- colonial system, by their separation

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