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Throughout the reign of Louis “Charles, by the grace of God,king XVIII, it was a favorite object of of France and Navarre : To all to his ministry, to regain authority in whom these presents shall come, Hayti. At length, when the Hay- greeting : Considering, &c. we have tian government had indignantly re- ordained, and do ordain, as follows: jected several other overtures, “Art. 1. The ports of the French made by the French, Louis caused part of St. Domingo, are open to Boyer to be informed, that he would the commerce of all nations. confirm the independence of Hayti, “The duties levied in the ports, on condition of being paid an either upon vessels or merchandize, indemnity and acknowledged as whether entering or going out, suzerain. Hereupon, Boyer, shall be equal and uniform, for all decidedly rejecting the last condi- flags, except for the French flag, in tion, intimated his willingness to favor of which, these duties shall comply with the other; and was be reduced one half. therefore invited to appoint an "2. The present inhabitants of agent to treat with France. Gen. the French part of St. Domingo, Boye was accordingly despatched shall pay into the caisse, &c. of to Brussels, in 1823 ; but accom- France, in five equal instalments, plished nothing. Urged again to from year to year, the first of which negotiate, Boyer sent two agents will become due, December 31st, to France, in May, 1824, Larose, 1825, the sum of 150,000,000 of and Rouanez, with full powers to francs destined to indemnify the conclude a commercial treaty. ancient colonists, who shall claim France again renewed her demand an indemnity. of external sovereignty over Hayti'; “3. We grant, on these condiand of course, the negotiations tions, by the present ordinance, to were abruptly terminated. the actual inhabitants of the French
It would seem, however, from part of the island of St. Domingo, the sequel, that some communica- the full and entire independence of tion was still kept up between the their government. Given at Paris, governments of the two countries ; &c.
CHARLES.” for in May, 1825, baron de Mackau, Bearing this extraordinary inof the navy, sailed from Rochfort instrument, baron Mackau appeared the frigate Circe, bearing despatch- off Port au Prince, July 3d. It had es to the French admiral Jurien, been arranged, that admiral Jurien, commanding in the West Indies and with a powerful squadron, should with an ordinance, dated April 17th, be in readiness, to hasten there, on containing the following articles : receiving notice to that effect. As soon as Mackau appeared in sight, political existence which the Haytitwo officers came on board the ans had already acquired.' Circe, and conducted him to a From that day, until the twensuitable residence, in the city. tieth, when Mackau left Port au Conferences were immediately Prince, the French were entertainopened, between him and three ed in a series of brilliant fetes ; by commissioners appointed by Boyer, which the inhabitants manifested to accept this ordinance as a re- their joy at the supposed full accognition of independence. After knowledgment of their independthree days, they not arriving at any ence. Three Haytian agents, result, Boyer himself, took up the Messrs. Daumee, Rouanez, and discussion in person ; and July 8th, Fremont, accompanied the baron wrote to Mackau, signifying his de Mackau to France, for the puracceptance, in the name of the peo- pose of negotiating a loan for the ple of Hayti, of the king's ordi- payment of the first instalment of nance. Boyer, it is said, consulted the indemnity ; which they successsome of his principal officers, on fully accomplished. . the subject, who all declared that Meantime, when the French had they would confide in the wisdom departed and the rejoicings of the of the chief of the republic. people were over, they had time to
A few days afterwards, the sen- reflect upon the nature of this orate convened to confirm the accept- dinance. In fact, it contained no ance of the ordinance, according renunciation of sovereignty. On to the laws of the country. The the contrary, it treated the Hayoccasion was celebrated as a holi- tians as subjects. Charles did not day. A numerous body of troops negotiate with Boyer as sovereign formed a double line from the sea with sovereign : but sold him an shore, to the senate house. Baron empty, urisubstantial, 'nominal rede Mackau, accompanied by admi- cognition of independence, at an ral Jurien, and the officers of his enormous price. Boyer acquired squadron, which was now in port, nothing ; Charles parted with nocarried the ordinance to the senate thing ; the whole was, in fact, an house, where they were received elaborate imposition, either upon with due respect and ceremony. the French, or the Haytians; and Here the ordinance was read and so the transaction was universally confirmed by the senate; and Boyer understood. immediately issued a proclamation, In France, the ministerial jourannouncing the act, which, he said, nals carefully protested that the acadded the formality of a law to the ceptance of the ordinance by Boyer, was, in fact, an acknowledg- mans, whose trade enabled the island ment of sovereignty in Charles. to prosper, were incensed at the con
The net revenue of the colonists, clusion of an arrangement, which they calculated, was fifteen millsold the commerce of Hayti to ions ; and ten years purchase being France. All, who deplored the a fair price for land in the Antilles, past distractions of the country, France, they said, had merely sold , and desired peace and good order, her property at its just price. The apprehended that on some future king, using the full exercise of his occasion the blacks and mulattoes, legitimate sovereignty, opens the who never had been the most corports of St. Domingo. The in- dial friends, might again involve habitants, received the king's the island in bloodshed. orders with respect and gratitude; Indeed, Nord, Prophet, and and after a full submission on their others, the old black officers of part, he acknowledges the inde- Christophe, who lost much of their pendence of their government. Such importance on his death, and who was the language holden in France, had always been jealous of Boyer's in reference to the fact. A com- being under French influence, now mission was immediately instituted loudly accused him of treason, and there, having the duc de Levis engaged in a conspiracy to cut off for president, to decide upon the the mulattoes, in the northern arronclaims of the ex-colonists for in- dissemens. They seized, it is said, demity out of the payments to be the opportunity of the rejoicings at made by Hayti.
' Cape Haytian, as the acknowledgBoyer had deemed it expedient not ment of independence, and intended to print in Hayti, the pretended ac- to strike a decisive blow in the unknowledgmentofindependence. But suspecting moments of general festhe subject necessarily became, very tivity. The conspiracy failed, from soon, the topic of conversation, the want of co-operation in the and produced great dissatisfaction. privates of the garrison, who tired The veteran soldiers, who had bled of civil war, denounced their revoto achieve their independence, were lutionary generals. Boyer was at chagrined to discover that, under Gonaives, when informed of the the insidious guise of a recognition plot; and immediately took effecof it, they had in fact gained no- tual measures for suppressing it, thing; and had substantially mort- and securing the principal conspigaged the whole island to France, rators. for the payment of a heavy idemnity. The friends of Boyer, alleged The Americans, English, and Ger- that Hayti gained a full equivalent for what she paid, in the advanta- king's ratification of the suppleges of increased security to her mentary articles. In eight months ports, and the quiet possession his commissioners returned, having of property ; that she might now fully succeeded in procuring a loan reduce her military force, and for the first instalment; but bringeconomize in her expenses ; that ing a document, in explanation of France was the natural ally of the ordinance, altogether unsatisHayti, and would hereafter faithfully factory, and, in fact, a mere evasupport her interests; and that she sion. Of course, the Haytians, had become entitled thenceforth to who had frankly and confidingly consideration in the political world. treated with the French, findAll these advantages, however, were ing themselves deceived, immenominal. Hayti was more safe diately conceived distrust of the from the dangers of invasion be. future intentions of their old fore, than after the arrangement enemies. The government, there. with France; and to gain the fore, found itself under the ne. friendship and commerce of her in cessity of maintaining all its miliveterate enemy, she cast off all tary force, as a precaution against her steadfast friends, and burthened any breach with France. their commerce with discriminating Nor was this all. Hayti conduties.
tracted to pay France thirty milThus matters stood for a while. lions of francs annually; and borAfterwards, it was disclosed that rowed, of French subjects, that Boyer had been induced to accept sum for the first instalment. But the ordinance, only by the addition how was she to fulfil her contracts ? of certain modifications and expla- The expenses of her government nations to it, tending to make amounted to two and a half millthe acknowledgment of indepen- ions of dollars ; and Boyer must, dence unqualified, and, of course, consequently, raise eight and a half satisfactory; and, also, limiting the millions every year, if he would duration of commercial privileges pay the indemnity. But the whole to the period of five years. On produce of the island is not estithese conditions, Boyer accepted mated at above seven millions ; the ordinance, relying in the good and, therefore, Hayti could not, faith of Charles X. to ratify the and would not, prove able to com. doings of his commissioners. Boy- ply with her engagements; and, er's agents went to France, there- either a new rupture, between the fore, not merely for the purpose of two governments, would have to obtaining a loan ; but to receive the ensue ; or France must make an
other bargain with Hayti, within Port au Prince, in the latter the means of the latter to perform. part of November ; and the stand,
Such were the state of things, which the government was reand speculation upon the subject solved to take, soon became pubin Hayti, when the conclusion of lic. the negotiation opened to them a During the last summer, the poview of the whole ground. France litical circles in France began to seemed, in fact, to have overreach- apprehend a difficulty with Hayti. ed herself, as well as Hayti; for No commercial treaty had as yet the subjects of France having lent been concluded with that island. the islanders six millions, actually The French accused the Amerihad a deeper stake in its welfare cans and English of strenuously enthan before.
deavoring to excite the suspicions In the fall, murmurs of dis- of the Haytians against France, content in Hayti, on account of the and to obtain a monopoly of their operation of the arrangement with trade. The Americans and EngFrance, grew loud and constant. lish, on the other hand, replied, Its commerce was deplorably re- with great justice, that all they want. duced, foreign goods high, and but ed, was exact equality in the trade little produce brought into market for all nations, and exclusive priThe government saw itself reduced vileges for none ; that the French to the ruinous necessity of putting had impoverished Hayti, and driven a paper medium in circulation ; away all other nations from the isand Boyer issued a proclamation, land, by an arrangement, to which declaring that it would be done the they had only obtained Boyer's conbeginning of October. But in con- sent by assurances, which they never sequence, it was said, of the ur- intended to fulfil; and that it was gent representations of the foreign the right of Hayti, as it was her merchants, this disastrous scheme interest and duty, to annul the was at least suspended. The go- whole contract. vernment finding its situation alto- Rumors now prevailed, that gether precarious, summoned a England was actually negotiating ineeting of the generals command- a commercial treaty with Hayti. ing the different arrondissemens, Connected therewith, was a reto devise measures for relieving port, which greatly alarmed the the public embarrassments. In French merchants, that the half consequence of this call, the ge- duties in their favor would cease at nerals and principal military offi- the expiration of the year, and all cers of the republic assembled at vessels be admitted on equal foot