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ing. This report was confirmed ting out in Brest, as destined to be by the actual arrival of the British sent on this service. Should France agent in England, carrying home a again attempt the reduction of treaty of commerce.

Hayti by force, she may occaLet us now return to Hayti it, sion the inhabitants of the island self, where, early in December, much misery; but she will find the every thing indicated a state of pre- spirit of independence, which aniparation for defence. The govern- mated Toussaint and Dessalines ment removed their cannon and not yet extinct; and her troops will ammunition to the mountains, ap- have to contend with the same depearing determined upon some de- vouring climate, which annihilated cisive measures. It was soon the veteran army of Le Clerc. made known, that Boyer had con- We subjoin a single remark, in cluded a treaty with Great Britain, regard to the islands belonging, and declined continuing to France to the smaller European powers. the privilege of paying only half Whilst England is drawing tighter duties. Of course, the inhabitants the bonds of metropolitan subjecjustly feared this decision of the tion; and, amid many professions Haytian government, might lead of regard for the principles of to collision with France. To pro- modern commerce, is maintaintect the citizens of their respective ing the old monopoly doctrines countries, in case of hostilities, the of colonial policy; Holland, DenAmerican and British squadrons mark and Sweden, are wisely conin the West Indies, have been or- sulting the welfare of their West dered to visit the ports of Hayti, as India possessions, by making nearer a necessary measure of precaution. and nearer approaches to the al

What the determination of France lowance of a free trade between may have been, on receiving intel- them and foreign countries. The ligence of these facts, remains un- introduction of such liberal maxims known. It is not improbable she in those islands, is, fruitful of adwill endeavor to enforce the pro- vantage to them; while it benefits, visions of her ordinance; and con- though in a less degree, the comjecture points to the fleet now fit- merce of the United States.

CHAPTER VII.

MEXICO.- Victoria President -Congress--Surrender of ship Asian

St. Juan de UlluaGovernment, and Political Condition in 1826– Cuba-Sonora- Texas. CENTRAL AMERICA.-Constitution -Arce President-Political Condition. RIO DE LA PLATA.ConstitutionRivadeira-Political Condition, War with Brazil CHILI.-Commotion-Surrender of Chiloe-Congress--FreirePARAGUAY.-Congress of Panama.

We devote a large space to the ginning with Mexico, we shall proconsideration of the eight inde- ceed through Central America, and pendent states of Spanish America. passing by, in this chapter, the Their recent existence—the simi- republics of Colombia, Peru, and larity of their origin and institu- Bolivia, conclude with a brief notice tions to our own—their commu- of Chili, Paraguay, and the provinnity of interest with ourselves, in ces of Rio de la Plata. many remarkable respects,-con- Mexico commenced her career of stitute claims, on our attention, of independence, under unfavorable the strongest description. As auspices. But in 1825, she was hapemancipated colonies, it should pily freed of the usurper Iturbide, be, we trust it is, their aim, to and after having established a refound, and establish an American presentative federal republic, analapolicy of liberty, an American inter- gous, in essential points, to our national law of justice, which may own; she had completed, and stand in contrast, forever, with the crowned her work, by electing principles upheld by the sovereign- general Guadalupe Victoria, as ties of Europe. Our retrospect of first president of the republic. llis their late history, will not, universal- sufferings in the cause of liberty, İy, present a cheering picture of their which he was among the first to public advancement. Some less assert, and never for a moment, grateful events have happened, in- abandoned, conspired, with his separable from the unsettled con- high reputation for talents, courage, dition of certain districts, and the integrity, and patriotism, to single newness of all, in the important him out, for this eminent distinction functions of self-government. Be- He entered upon the duties of administering the government, with the United States, and being united happy prospects. No intestine dis- internally, saw nothing to apprecords, of any moment, disturbed the hend from Spain. But this power tranquillity of a republic, which was still retained possession of the casfirmly attached to its free institu- tle of St. Juan de Ullua, which comtions, and resolved in its hostility to manded the valuable seaport of the Spanish dominion.

Vera Cruz; and the Mexicans bent The first constitutional congress all their strength to effect its reducconvened January 1st, 1825, and tion. The inhabitants of Vera continued its session until the close Cruz, having deserted the town, of May, assiduously engaged in the the garrison depended wholly on organization of the government, Cuba for their supplies. Still, its and the settlement of the multifa- commander, Coppinger, with exrious affairs, growing out of its re- treme folly, and obstinacy, deter. cent creation. On its termination, mined to hold out, a useless post, the president exhibited a view of to the last. Accordingly, the the national condition, showing that Mexicans erected strong fortificaits credit was good, at home, and tions on the island of Sacrificios, abroad, and the work of consolida- within a few miles of the castle, ting its domestic and foreign rela- and established a close blockade tions, steadily advancing. Its ex- by means of a naval squadron, traordinary session was also holden which completely deprived the in August of the same year. castle of succor. In September,

The Spanish ship of the line the situation of the garrison had Asia, and brig Constantia, which become so desperate, that a strong cruised on the Pacific side of Mexi- expedition was fitted out, at Havana co, had, in the earlier part of the for their relief, having a reinforceyear, excited some apprehension. ment of troops, and provisions, for But in time they both surrendered six months. Laborde commanded to the Mexicans, on condition, that the fleet, which consisted of the the crew should be paid all the frigate Sabina, two large sloops, arrears, due them from Spain, and and other vessels, amply sufficient have permission either to reside in to overpower the Mexicans. But, any part of Mexico, or go else- fortunately, a few days after the where, at their option. These con- fleet set sail, it met with a violent ditions the republic strictly per- gale from the north, which disformed.

masted the frigate, and dispersed Mexico, having her independence her whole convoy. The Mexicans recognized by Great Britain, and now prepared to resist the fleet, should it again assemble ; and by Considering the persecutions enthe middle of December, the garri- tailed on the free masons, for their son was reduced to a handful of connexion with the Spanish constimen, in a famishing state. Cop- tution, the installation of a grand pinger, accordingly, asked, and lodge at Mexico, in September, obtained, honorable terms of ca- deserves to be mentioned. It was pitulation, and surrendered the composed of men among the first castle to the Mexicans, Decem- in the republic, for station or chaber 20th. The Spaniards left the racter, and Mr. Poinsett, the castle with the honors of 'war, American minister, presided over landed at Vera Cruz, and were the ceremonies. transported to Havana by the con- At the assembling of the Mexican querors. This event utterly anni- congress, in January, 1826, a comhilated all the remains of Spanish plete exposition of the affairs of authority in Mexico.

the nation, was given by the seThe English minister, Mr. Ward, veral heads of department; exhibitand Mr. Poinsett, the American, ing a circumstantial statement of were publicly accredited in June, in its domestic and foreign condition. the presence of all the principal At that time, Gomez Pedraza was citizens, and foreigners; and the secretary of war; Miguel Ramos occasion was celebrated, as a testi- Arizpe, of justice and ecclesiasmonial of the admission of Mexico tical affairs ; and Sebastian Camato its place among nations. Both cho, of exterior and interior relaministers proceeded to negotiate tions. treaties with Mexico, for their re- The military forces then consistspective governments; but the im- ed of a ship of the line, a frigate, portance of the subject, and a a corvette, six brigs, four schooners, difference in regard to some essen- and eight gun boats, for the sea; tial points, delayed their comple- and for the land, 22,750 standing tion for some time.

troops, and 21,577 effective militia. Mexico was fixed upon, by the The duties of the latter have been first congress, as the federal capital. chiefly defensive. Great exertions This decision of congress occa- are making by the government, to sioned much dissatisfaction in the provide means for the education of city; and threatened serious un- officers, in which the chief deficieasiness ; but ended in merely a ency of their military force consists. formal protest against the act, on Mexico had exchanged diplomathe part of the state of Mexico. tic agents with the United States,

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