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Colombia, Great Britain, and the improvement, animated by the Netherlands; and her independence spirit of a regulated freedom, and was recognized by Prussia. content with a government of their

Its ecclesiastical affairs were un- choice, and a constitution of their settled, in consequence of the im- own creation. Efforts are making politic compliance of Leo XII. for facilitating internal intercourse, with the representatives of Spain ; by roads and canals ; public instituand his consequent interference tions for the purposes of education with the question of its national and beneficence are protected; independence. The catholic reli- agriculture, commerce, and domesgion being established in Mexico tic industry are fostered, and begin by the constitution, the government to manifest the wholesome influhave despatched a minister to Rome, ences of liberty ; the working of to negotiate an arrangement with the mines is encouraged; and every the apostolic see. But some ap- thing, in fine, is done, which, in the prehensions of the event are enter- present circumstances of the countained, owing to the anti-liberal try, a wise and upright government principles of the present pope, who can devise and accomplish, to enhas addressed a circular letter to the able the nation to enjoy the invaluMexican ecclesiastics, idly exhort- able blessings of liberty. ing them to submit again to the In May, 1826, the government Spanish yoke. Should he continue passed a decree, abolishing for ever to favor Spain so unreasonably, it all titles of nobility, and ordering may end in the total subversion of the escutcheons, arms, and other the papal authority, over the church symbols, which suggested the forof Mexico. ,

mer dependance of Mexico on In addition to its dependant ter- Spain, to be destroyed. Another ritories, the Mexican republic con- important act, was a resolution sists of nineteen confederate states, never to treat with any power, not most of which have already organi- recognizing the national freedom ; zed constitutions of their own; and and farther, never to consent to all are sedulously engaged, in give Spain any indemnity or other imitation of the general govern- recompense, to induce her to acment, in consolidating and regula- knowledge the independence of ting their respective concerns. Mexico. Severe punishments were

With respect, generally, to the enacted against any persons, wlio internal condition of Mexico, we should propose or promote, publicly may observe that it has a popula- or privately, any thing contrary to tion steadily advancing in public the spirit of these resolutions. Such

decided and express acts on this pendence of Mexico. Neither of point, were probably induced by these incidents can be of sufficient apprehension of the efforts of importance; to affect the public France to procure Spain some con- peace, or interfere with the general sideration for acquiescing in the welfare and security of the republoss of her supremacy in America, lic.

So long ago as March, 1825, The Mexican congress, which General Santa Anna projected an assembled September 15th, for invasion of Cuba, from the nearest some objects of merely domestic coast of Mexico ; but the design importance, terminated its extrawas, for that time, abandoned. At ordinary session, December 27th." a later period, troops were assem- Its constitutional period of service bled in the province of Yucatan, expired with that session; and with which it was contemplated to General Victoria, in his speech on land in Cuba, and to serve as a the occasion, congratulated the rallying point for the inhabitants of congress on the valuable effect of that island, who might choose to its labors. It found the republic adopt the cause of liberty. To new and untried ; and left her reavoid the risk of failure, however, spected and great in her exterior the president designed to act in relations, and affording practical concert with Bolivar, and to under- proof of the excellence of her institake a joint expedition, in case the tutions, in her domestic concerns. congress should lend their sanction. The territory now distinguished

The assemblage of troops, therefore as the republic of CENTRAL AMERIwas in anticipation of such a con- ca, the principal province of which cert. Bolivar's occupations in is Guatemala, threw off the Spanish Peru, and the subsequent events in yoke in 1821. Guatemala was Colombia, combining with other then desirous of existing as a sepacauses, must have caused the de- rate government ; but became unisign to be again relinquished. ted, by the intrigues and military

At the close of the year, disturb- power of Iturbide, to the short lived ances existed in the state of So- Mexican empire of that misguided nora, where the ravages committed man. On Iturbide's downfall, by the Yaquis indians were severe, Guatemala raised the standard of and it required great exertions on independence anew. Its inhabitants the part of the government to sub- immediately assembled a constitudue the insurgents. In the territory ent assembly, which after long of Texas, also, the inhabitants deliberation, framed a constitulately have proclaimed their inde- tion for the states, proposed to

be included in the confederacy. The the wisdom of the executive deconstitution was completed Novem- partment. ber 22d, 1824, and is in general a During the session, intelligence close imitation of the constitution was received of the patriot victories of the United States. The repub- in Peru; on the communication lic consists of five original states; of which by the executive, the Guatemala, Salvador, Honduras, members arose simultaneously and Nicaragua, and Costa Rica, and shouted independence and Bolivar. one new one, Chiapa. By the of the political concerns of the constitution, the republic is federal, republic, a full exposition was given the supreme power being vested in in the president's message at the a legislature, and president elected opening of the second congress, by the people. The legislature is March 1st, 1826. In its foreign composed of two branches ; name relations, he said, the prospects of ly, a senate containing two mem- the country, were auspicious. Its bers for each state ; and an assem- independence had been recognized bly to which every 30,000 inhabi- by Great Britain, and the Nethertants, send a representative. The lands, in Europe, and by all the represident is elected for a term of publican nations of America. Disfour years. The constitution abo- putes existed with Mexico, growing lishes slavery, and guarantees per- out of their former temporary consonal freedom and the liberty of the junction ; but these were in the press. Each state has its own course of speedy adjustment. Inlocal government. .

ternally, the situation of the counThe constituent assembly, was try was prosperous, and at that dissolved in February, 1825, and time tranquil, excepting the relics succeeded by the first federal con- of disturbance in Nicaragua, which gress, which the ensuing April,swore state alone had not completed its to maintain the new constitution. constitution. D. Manuel Jose Arce, was elected Scarcely any one of the new refirst president of the republic. A publics is more economical than salary of 10,000 dollars was assign- Central America. In order to ed him ; 2,000 to each senator ; make the government more popuand 1,200 to each representative. lar, some of the taxes were unneThe president's discourse on the cessarily and imprudently abolishorganization of the congress, in- ed; and a loan of seven millions culcated sound republican doc- and a half became necessary to the trines, and inspired confidence in establishment of the republic. Its

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expenses, however, are small, not the committee on constitutional exceeding 600,000 dollars; and affairs, not having yet succeeded in the revenue derived from powder, arranging a plan to their own satispostage, tobacco, and customs, faction, congress passed a vote will suffice to meet all its wants. urging them to a speedy. decision.

In June last, the government of This body had deemed it necessary, Central America, ratified a contract when they decided upon a union of with a company in the United the provinces which they representStates, for constructing a ship- ed, to ask each of the states for a canal across the isthmus, through recognition of their powers. Purthe lake of Nicaragua, so as to suing the same course now, they unite the two oceans; the naviga- resolved, in June, to apply to all tion of the canal to be open to all the provinces for an opinion, conneutral and friendly nations, on the cerning the form of constitution payment of a stipulated toll, and to which each preferred, to be delibebe protected by the naval forces of rated upon and decided in their tethe republic. There is reason, to spective local legislatures. fear, however, that this object, de- Much delay ensued, in obtaining sirable as it is, may not be accom- the determination of the several plished.

provinces ; which decided, some in During the last year, colonel favor of a central form of governWilliams, the American charge des ment, like that of Colombia, some affaires in Central America, con- of a federative, like Mexico, and cluded a treaty between that re- the United States. It was not until public and the United States, of the June, 1826, that the committee were most liberal character.

able to report on the subject; and THE PROVINCES OF THE R10 DE their report was in favor of a cenLA PLATA, were among the first tral consolidated form of governin Spanish America, to claim and to ment. An elaborate statement of achieve their independence ; but their reasons was published by the of the various forms of government, committee, which are more spewhich they have tried, none was at- cious than conclusive, because the tended with complete success. For experience of the other republics of two years past, a constituent con- Spanish America, distinctly recomgress has exercised the principal mends the federative system. A functions of government, whilst de- justly celebrated man of letters, liberating on such a constitutional Dr. Funes, is said to be chairman system, as may unite the voices of of the constitutional committee. the inhabitants. In April, 1825, We hope that, on farther consi.

deration, they may revise their minister of foreign relations ; Caropinion, and renouncing central- los de Alvear, of war; Miguel ism, adopt a form of union, which Soler, commander in chief. possesses stronger hold on the Events which occurred in the infeelings of an American.

terior, previous to the war with In the commencement of these Brazil, showed how necessary it discussions, the executive functions was to hasten the organization of of the Argentine republic, were the constitutional government. In entrusted to the local government Cordova, the legislature regularly of Buenos Ayres. Notwithstanding elected one of their number, Marthe disproportionate exertions and tinez, as governor to succeed the sacrifices made by this province, incumbent, D. Juan Bautista Busgreat jealousy of its intentions ex- tos, who, nevertheless, being sup. isted in the more distant provinces, ported by the military, forcibly rewho dreaded the influence of its tained possession of the supreme greater relative strength. Conscious authority. A conspiracy was formof this feeling, the government of ed in Mendoza, which the governBuenos Ayres, demanded of con- ment suppressed before it was ripe gress to be relieved from the func- for explosion. But in S. Juan, tions of the executive authority. they were less fortunate. There, a This request was unanimously re- faction, headed by a priest named fused by the legislature, who pro- Astorga, arrested the governor fessed their entire satisfaction with Carrel, who was obliged to fly to the zeal and integrity of the state of Mendoza ; and was not restored, Buenos Ayres. Congress, how- but by the assistance of the conever, appreciated the necessity of gress, who sent a force to attack establishing a national executive, and disperse the insurgents. which they appointed so soon as We shall relate the origin and

they found it practicable. D. Ber- progress of the war in the Banda · nardino Rivadavia, late minister in Oriental, on arriving at the history

Great Britain, whose talents, ex- of Brazil. From the very first moperience, and patriotism, every way ments of the rising there, it was qualified him for the office, was anticipated at Buenos Ayres that, chosen president of the united pro- if Pedro persisted in claiming that vinces, February 7th, 1826, and province, a war must ensue. Prepathe next day formally installed by rations were therefore undertaken the congress. Among the great in May, for gradually meeting the officers of government immediately exigencies of the probable event. appointed, were Francisco de Cruz, Congress ordered the support of a

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