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line of defence along the river Uru- red in the autumn, which threatenguay; and published a law for or- ed to end in civil war, but were at ganizing a national army of 7599length suppressed. One of them men, and apportioning the levies was at Valparaiso, arising out of among the several provinces. But opposition to some of the measures neither the finances nor the politi- of the minister of finance, which cal condition of the republic, sanc- made it necessary for the director tion the war in which it is now in- to call out the troops. At Santiago, volved. We appreciate the feelings about the same time, the represenof sympathy for the Orientalists, tatives of that province attempted to which induced the government to assume the whole authority of the take their part, and endeavor to government; designing, it was rescue them, from the odious do- said, to remove Freire, and reminion of Brazil. But, considering appoint the ex-director O'Higgins. how greatly the contest retards the A majority of the inhabitants, and moral advancement of the people, also of the troops, together with the the consolidation of their govern- liberal party in the congress, adment, the settlement and cultivation hering to Freire, he dissolved the of the country, we hope it may be congress, and banished eleven of speedily terminated by the media- the persons who had been most tion of those powers, whose com- active in the factious designs. merce it interrupts.

Most of the misfortunes of Chili, CHILI continues in an unsettled were caused by the embarrassed state, although, at the close of the state of her finances, burdened with last year, a prospect of better things immense debts, and managed by opened. In February, 1825, great unskilful or corrupt men. But, excitement was produced by the notwithstanding all the unfavorable discovery of an attempt to assassin- circumstances, in her condition, she ate two deputies, D. Joaquim succeeded, this year, in completing Camfino, and-D. Bernardo Vera; her liberation from Spain. Chiloe, and, on investigating the matter, which, like Callao, and St. Juan de several other deputies were found Ullua, held out against the patriots, to be involved in a plot to commit long after any beneficial purpose the murder.

could be answered by it, surrenIn July, the director, D. Ramon dered, by capitulation, January Freire, summoned a meeting of a 15th, 1826. It was stipulated, constituent congress, to be holden that the province of Chiloe, should at Santiago, in September. be incorporated with the republic

Two popular commotions occur- of Chili, as an integral part thereof; and that its inhabitants should par- consolidated government, like that ticipate in all the privileges of Chi- of Bolivia, described hereafter, as a lians. The staff and troops of the remedy for the anarchy, to which a Spanish army, might remain in Chili, more liberal government subjected subject to its laws, or go elsewhere, the Chilians. Most of the troops as they saw fit; and the prisoners, were blacks, from Peru, and many on both sides, were set at liberty. of the officers Peruvians, whose in

The constituent congress was in- fluence in Chili, created a party stalled July 4th, and immediately professedly for O'Higgins. Hence, decreed to adopt the federal system a strong jealousy of Bolivar existed as the basis of its constitution of in Chili, long before the developgovernment. Meanwhile the di- ment of the revolution, of which we rector, Freire, transmitted a mes- shall give a history in the ensuing sage to the congress, requesting to chapter. be relieved from the executive func- The territory of Chili, has been ditions ; in consequence of which, vided, by congress, into eight provinadmiral Blanco, was temporarily ces, as the probable members of the elected to the office of president. future confederacy, namely, CoAt the last accounts, the congress quimbo, Aconcagua, Santiago, was proceeding with much unani- Colchagua, Maule, Conception, mity and steadiness of purpose, in Valdivia, and Chiloe. the political organization of the Of the independent province of nation. The committee on the con- PARAGUAY, whose modern history, stitution, were pursuing their labors, is not less singular than its ancient, and ere long, the result of them was we have little to record. Under to be presented to congress, in a the administration of Dr. Francia, form, more or less consonant to the peculiar as his maxims of state policonstitution of the United States. cy appear to be, it has, at least,

Chiloe, also, which, subsequent to enjoyed domestic tranquillity, exits capture from the royalists, had empt alike from dissensions within, revolted in favor of the ex-director, and warfare without. O'Higgins, was recovered, and the But, this extraordinary man, insurrection of the troops effectually can hardly be charged with motives suppressed and punished. It was of personal ambition. In July last, universally said in Chili, that the he assembled the representatives, revolt was instigated by exiled Chi- and chiefs of the municipalities, lians, at Lima, acting under the and signified to them his resignaadvice of Bolivar, for the alleged tion of the supreme power ; but purpose of substituting a strong they refused to accept it. Alleging

however, that by reason, of the The latest accounts from Parastate of his health, he needed re- guay, represent the inhabitants as pose from labor, he retired to the being dissatisfied with the seclusion town of Pilar, to reside among of Francia, and the successor he some of his friends. The admini. had nominated, to whom most of stration of affairs would, in the re- the authorities refused to make gular course, have devolved upon oath. Although numerous adgeneral Guarrany, the commander dresses were presented to him, in chief of the military forces. But urging him to resume the reins of he being absent from Ascension, government, he still declined it. the direction of the government was for an account of the congress confided to Sr. Zapidas. When of Panama, whose sessions are Francia withdrew to Pilar, he ad- now transferred to Tacubaya, in dressed a proclamation to the in- the neighborhood of the city of habitants of Paraguay, explaining Mexico, an assembly which seems the reasons of his retirement; and destined to have important influexhorting them to continue in the ence upon the affairs of the new observance of those political princi- American republic—we refer the ples, which hitherto had preserved reader to the appropriate place, in the country from war and commo- the history of the United States. tion,

CHAPTER VIII.

COLOMBIA in 1825.—Bolivar President Recognized by the United

States and England-Rumored Invasion of Cuba-Santander-Congress. PERU.-Battle of Ayacucho-Olaneta-Castles of Callao-Congress-Bolivar--Upper Peru. Constitution of BOLIVIA.State of Peru in 1826— Insurrection of PaezViews of the Government-Proceedings in VenezuelaIn Quito-- Views of Bolivar-Warlike operations in Venezuela--Bolivar arrives at Bogota--Reforms--Bolivar in Venezuela-- Tranquillity restored.

Circumstances have transpired, such have been, at least, the visible within the two last years, which causes of disturbance, which still place Colombia and the new seems to have a deeper foundation. sovereignties of Peru and Bolivia, During the year 1825, few events alike under the absolute control of occurred in COLOMBIA of great hisone fortunate man. Whether historical importance. Conformably acts are dictated by the pure patri- to the constitution, the congress otism, which the world demands of assembled January 2d, 1825; the him, it is for events to show. Those vice-president, Francisco de Paula countries, thus far, have afforded Santander exercising the executive much for the pen of history to re- functions, in place of the president. cord; and the sequel, we venture The session closed the beginning not to predict. Peru and Bolivia of May; and although many useare just emancipated from the Spa- ful laws were passed by congress, nish yoke ; and the republic of Co- it was charged with relying too imlombia has, unhappily, been agita- plicitly in the integrity of the excted by dangerous intestine discords. cutive. Dissatisfaction at the operation At the end of the preceding of the central system on some year, Bolivar was unanimously reof the provinces, augmented elected president. He signified to by local causes, and acting the the senate his wish to renounce the more effectually, on account of presidency; his determination, he the absence of Bolivar in Peru ;-- said,always having been to withdraw

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