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from public life, when an enemy years; the slaves imported, either of Colombia was no longer to be to be sent out of the country, or found in America. The victories to remain there free, as they pleain Peru had achieved this glorious sed. result. He was anxious, also, he R umors frequently prevailed, late said, to satisfy the world of his ab- in 1825, and early in 1826, of an horrence of supreme power, by re- intended expedition against Cuba, tiring into the capacity of a private either on the part of Colombia alone, citizen ; thus proving, that his ex- or of Colombia and Mexico, jointly. ertions in the cause of liberty, had They were founded, however, it is not been prompted by ambition. probable, merely on conjecture, or, This apparently patriotic surrender perhaps, on the convenience and of his authority, now made, for the opportunity of invading that island. third time, in the midst of victo- Although a considerable fleet was ries, was not accepted.
in preparation on the Atlantic In May, a treaty of amity and coast, yet it was not believed to be commerce between the United with an immediate view to any exStates and Colombia, was conclu- pedition against Havana ; however ded, on the most liberal principles desirable such a thing might be, of mutual benefit. A similar trea- when the forces of the republic ty with Great Britain was negotia. were better consolidated. Besides, ted in the same year; and Sr. policy dictated that the alliance Hurtado was formally accredited of the new states, projected by the at the court of St. James, as Co- contemplated congress of Panama, lombian minister, being the first should undertake the invasion in ambassador of the Spanish Ameri- concert, if done at all. can states, who received that ho- . The address of the vice-presinor.
dent, Santander, made at the openTo evince the cordial co-opera- ing of the congress in January, tion of Colombia, in establishing 1826, is a valuable state paper, the principles of liberty, it should presenting a full view of the conbe mentioned, that she passed a cerns of the republic during the law for inflicting the punishment of year, which had just expired. death on all citizens of the repub- In March, general Santander lic, engaged in the slave trade. offered to resign his office, assignAll ships introducing slaves into ing for reason, the necessity in a Colombia, were made subject to republic of rotation in office, and confiscation, and the crew, if fo- the peculiar danger of having milireigners, to imprisonment for ten tary men continue in authority for a succession of years. It may be, months of skilful maneuvering on that he anticipated the discords either side, preceded the battle. which were about to agitate his Various marches and countercountry, and wished to escape the marches, and frequent skirmishes, impending storm ; for if the liber- took place in that interval; the ties of the republic had any thing Colombians moving in a retrograde to fear from Santander, as a sol- direction, and the royalists seeking dier ; how much more, then, from to outflank the retreating troops. the overpowering ascendancy of Sucre offered La Serna battle on Bolivar ?
equal terms at Matara, December An extraordinary session of con-' 2d; but the viceroy declined it. gress was convened at Bogota, The next day, however, the royalMay 3d, to provide means for pay- ists attacked the patriots in their ing the interest of the public debt, rear, and under circumstances very in consequence of the failure of disadvantageous to the latter ; but Peru to obtain a loan, for money Sucre sueceeded in extricating his which being due to Colombia, had army after losing 300 men, with his been expected and calculated upon entire park, and one of his two by this republic, in her financial pieces of artillery. This little arrangements. No other source success so elated La Serna, that he of care to the government was then resolved to engage the Colombians. anticipated, except the ordinary The two armies continued in mosubjects of internal administration. tion side by side, for several days ; But events were already transpi- Sucre daily losing men and bagring, which would demand its most gage, and pursuing his retreat. His anxious attention. Before nar- situation was growing more and rating them, however, we must more, desperate every day. The describe the doings of the libera- royalists took strong positions, ting army, sent to aid the Peru- where they could not be attacked vians.
but with a certainty of repulse ; The independence of Upper and and confident of success, sent forLower Peru, was accomplished by ward a detachment to destroy the the decisive victory of Ayacucho, bridges and roads, and thus arrest fought December 9th, 1824. Boli- Sucre's progress. At length, La var was then at Lima, invested Serna deemed, that he had taken with dictatorial powers, and the his measures with so much precaumain body of the liberating army tion, that he could not fail of vicfrom Colombia, was commanded torv. by Antonio Jose de Sucre. Five The morning of the 9th of December, beheld the two armies right endeavoring to penetrate be drawn up in order of battle, to de- tween La Mar and Cordova, the cide the fate of Peru. The dispo- hussars of Junin charged them in sable force of the royalists consisted flank, and obtained a complete of 9,310 men, that of the patriots of victory; while the mounted grena5,780. Both sides felt eager to en- diers of Colombia, quitting their gage. Sucre occupied a position saddles, charged the Spanish infanon the plain of Ayacucho, on a field try on foot, from the right Aank of sloping to the rear, and flanked the patriots, with equal success. Afwith ravines. La Serna, having ter an engagement of one hour and posted his army on the heights in twenty minutes, the Spaniards gave front of the patriots, planted five way in every direction, and the pieces at the foot of the hill, which rout became complete throughout commanded their camp. Sucre, the field. La Serna, the viceroy, giving orders to force this position, was pursued and taken prisoner ; the royalists formed and descended and general Canterac, the second the hill with great rapidity to anti- in command, accounting farther cipate his attack, and defend their resistance mere desperation, capiartillery.
tulated on the same day. The Spanish commenced their of the patriots only 370 were assault upon the Colombian left killed. The royalists, on the other wing, commanded by general La hand, lost 1,800 in killed. By Mar, pressing it with great vigor. the terms of capitulation, all the Sucre, observing this, and that the Spanish possessions in Peru were Spanish centre was not drawn up given up, including the castles of in order, sent a reinforcement to Callao, and all the officers, stores, general La Mar, and commanded military magazines, and arms, regeneral Cordova with the Colom- mained in the possession of the libebian right division to charge, un- rating army. Never was a victory der cover of the cavalry of general more complete or decisive. Miller. This division marched The patriot army had retreated with arms supported until within from Cuzco to Huamanga, a disone hundred paces of the enemy; tance of eighty leagues, always in when, being charged by eight Spa- the face of a superior enemy; and nish squadrons, they fired, rushed their success at Ayacucho, came forward, and drove the royalists opportunely to remove the public before them by their impetuosity. despondency. News of the victory In the mean time, the Spanish quickly reached Lima ; and there, as well as all over Spanish Ameri- declaring Callao to be in strict ca, the rejoicings were enthusiastic, blockade ; and that Rodil, by his at this glorious conclusion of the conductin holding the castles should campaign.
be considered as having separated Agreeably to the capitulation, himself from the Spanish nation ; Bolivar caused the Spanish officers and cut off, from all the rights of nato be embarked for Europe, in a tions. Adequate forces were also French vessel. The Spaniards assembled by sea and land, and the were less honorable on their part, castles closely invested. During Rodil, commandant of the castles the first months of the blockade, the of Callao, refusing to surrender, in Liberator was indefatigable in his compliance with the capitulation; personal attendance to the duties of and general Olaneta holding out, the camp; perfectly indifferent on with a small force, in Upper Peru. the score of personal danger. The
Olaneta had acted independent patriots erected a battery within of the viceroy some months prior gun shot of Callao ; and the beto his surrender ; and now publish- siegers and besieged continually ed proclamations at Oruro, decla- fired upon each other, but without ring his design to defend the country much effect. Rodil was well supabove the Desaguaddero. Sucre, plied with stores and ammunition; however, advanced upon him; and and rejected every proposal for his in March, had fixed his head quar- surrender. All the foreign shipping ters at La Paz, and shortly after- on the coast sustained so much inwards, occupied Potosi. Olaneta's convenience for want of the fine force had now dwindled away by bay of Callao; they being obliged desertion and death, to 700 men; during the continuance of the siege, with which he retreated into the pro- to discharge their cargoes in an vince of Salta. At Tamusla, they open road stead at Chorillas, that in were attacked by colonel Medina August, offers of mediation were Celi, in the beginning of April, and made by the officers of the British totally defeated; Olaneta himself squadron on the station, but to no being mortally wounded in the en- purpose. Rodil obstinately persistgagement.
ed in maintaining the castles, withRodil obstinately defended the out any possible benefit to his · castles of Callao, for upwards of a country. The Peruvians were year. Bolivar, so soon as Rodil therefore obliged still to keep up a : refused to abide by Canterac's ca- large force before Callao, at an impitulation, issued a proclamation mense expense, assisted by a Chi
lian squadron under admiral Blan- fused ; and was then urged to acco. At length, after sustaining a cept it, to be dispensed in acts of vigorous siege for more than a year, beneficence. Farther, to attest and being reduced to absolute their gratitude for his services, they famine, Rodil was compelled, on appointed a deputation to repair to the 23d of January, 1826, to capitu- Bogota, and thank the congress late to the Colombian forces com- and government of Colombia for manded by general Salon. The the inestimable benefit Peru had loss of men on both sides had been received from their assistance, and severe. When taken possession of to request that Bolivar might reby the patriots, Callao was in a state main in Peru long enough to conof ruin, and the garrison had un- solidate the liberty which his valor dergone all the sufferings attend- and wisdom had achieved. ant on so long a siege. Among The liberator richly merited all the persons of note, who perished these and other extraordinary proofs in it, were the marquess of Torre of gratitude, which the members of Tagle, and nearly all the members the Peruvian congress were emuof his numerous family. When he lous to evince. In his answer, deabandoned the republican cause, clining a grant of money, he said, he took refuge in Callao, never most nobly, that the confidence reagain to resume his former influ- posed in him, was a sufficient ho. ence in Peru.
nor; the glory conferred in placing Meantime, Bolivar issued a pro- the destinies of the nation in his clamation in December, 1824, con- hands, an appropriate reward for voking a constituent congress for all his exertions. To accept of Peru, to assemble at Lima the treasure as a recompense, he deemensuing February. The libera- ed unworthy of the spirit, in which tor's message announced his de- he had consecrated himself to the termination to repair to Upper cause of freedom. At the same Peru; and signified his resigna- time, he bestowed the warmest tion of the supreme power, con- thanks on the congress, for acts ferred upon him for the liberation which they passed, in honor and of Peru. In consideration, how- recompense of the liberating army, ever, of the still unsettled state of thus manifesting feelings as disinthe country, congress again in- terested as they were lofty. vested him with the authority of After continuing in session about dictator, for another year. They a month, the sovereign congress also voted him a grant of a mill- came to a resolution, that having ion of dollars, which he twice re- conferred on Bolivar full powers to