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govern the commonwealth, it was sition from any armed force, unnecessary, and inconsistent with and proceeded to organize the his authority, for them to continue government with the cordial coto exercise their functions; which operation of the inhabitants, they accordingly pronounced to be who seemed resolved neither to at an end. Thus all the power of the unite with Peru, nor the provinces state was once again thrown upon of Rio de la Plata; but to form Bolivar. He was authorised to dele- an independent republic : an obgate his powers to one or more per- ject highly favored by their geosons, and appoint a substitute upon graphical position. To deliberate any unexpected emergency. Unli- on these points, Sucre summoned mited power, executive and legisla- a congress of representatives of tive, was entrusted to him. He might the several provinces, to assemble raise loans, levy extraordinary con- at Chuquisaca. tributions, abrogate or suspend such In the meantime, a body of Bralaws or constitutional articles as zillians, from the remote interior he should think adverse to the se- province of Mattogrosso, quietly curity and liberty of the nation, took possession of Chiquitos, April and promulgate such others, as 26th, by virtue of an alleged cawere conducive thereto; being pitulation of the commandant Racharged, farthermore, to exercise mos, the governor of that province. his discretion in purging the re- Upon being notified of this fact, public of its enemies, of whatever by the Brazillian chief, Sucre imclass or condition they might be. mediately returned for answer, In short, the grant of authority was that the pretended capitulation was absolute and unconditional, and void; and that if the Brazillians could scarcely be warranted, even did not instantly evacuate Chiquiby the exigencies of the country. tos, he would not only compel In Upper Peru, however, still them to do it by force, but would greater honors awaited him, than make reprisals upon the territory he had yet received.

of Brazil, in punishment of the agThe death of Olaneta, extin- gression. guished the last hope of the royal Accordingly, a division of the ists in Upper Peru, who now army left Chuquisaca, June 1st, peaceably submitted to the patriot for Chiquitos ; but the Brazillians army. Sucre took possession of not thinking it best to stand an atthe cities of Oruro, La Paz, and tack, quitted the province. Not Potosi, and all the dependant coun- long afterwards, rumors were try in that quarter, without oppo- abroad, that Bolivar had himself invaded Brazil ; and although some we must consider it ; is prefaced of them may have been premature, by some preliminary general printhere is reason to believe, from of- ciples of government. The form ficial documents, that he contem- recommended by him, and adopted plated aiding the Argentine re- by the constituent congress, is republic, in her contest with the em- presentative, but consolidated, in peror of Brazil. plan of a constitution proposed to issued a decree, dated May 1st, them by Bolivar, as above descri- adopting the measures recommendbed.

opposition to federal. Every ten Among the first acts of the con- citizens choose an elector, who gress of Upper Peru, was an ex- holds the office for four years In pression of gratitude towards the January of each year, the electors liberating army, and its chief offi- meet in the capitals of their recers. They decreed, August 11th, spective provinces, and choose the 1825, to call the new republic by members of three legislative chamthe name of Bolivia ; and its capi- bers, namely, the tribunes elected tal city, Sucre. They conferred for life ; the senators for four years, the supreme executive authority on and the censors for life. The Bolivar, during the whole time he powers of the president of the remight reside within the limits of public resemble those of the prethe republic ; and when absent sident of the United States ; but from it, the honorary distinction of he is without responsibility for the its protector and president. Sucre acts of his administration, and holds was invested with the highest mili- his office for life. Moreover, he tary authority, with the titles of virtually appoints his successor ; captain-general, and grand mare- for the vice-president, nominated schal of Ayacucho. Medals, sta- by him, and approved by the contues, and pictures of both Bolivar gress, is to succeed him in office. and Sucre, were liberally decreed ; In other respects, the constitution the statues to be erected in the is complicated and impracticable ; capital of each department. To so that, if it should long exist, it the liberating army, a million of would inevitably have the effect of dollars was voted, with all the pri- establishing in Bolivia, either an vileges possessed by native citizens irresistible aristocracy, or a desof the republic.

potism in the executive chief. Their most important act, how- General Sucre was proclaimed ever, was to request Bolivar to pre- president of Bolivia, by the conpare the draft of a constitution for stituent congress, until the election the republic; which he consented of a president should be made, 10 do. This singular instrument, under the sanction of the constifor singular and most extraordinary tution. They also accepted the

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ed by them. Thus, Bolivar was again Bolivar returned from Bolivia to left in the exercise of discretionary Peru, in the spring of 1826, fixing power. his residence at Magdalena, and The unsettled state of Peru, was afterwards at Lima. Here the Pe- the reason assigned, for pursuing ruvian congress was to assemble ; this course. How far the condition but considerable difficulty occurred of the country may have exacted it, in the organization of the body. It we have not the means of determi. was prorogued once, on account ning. Certain it is, that great of a quorum not being assembled ; jealousy of Bolivar was now enterand again, by reason of an alleged tained, in Peru, and Chili. To irregularity in the powers of the such a height did this feeling reach, delegates. Bolivar manifested dis- that, in July, a large number of satisfaction, at what he considered, officers, Peruvians, and Buenos a factious spirit, on the part of a Ayreans, were arrested by him, for majority of the congress, and an alleged conspiracy, against his threatened to withdraw from Peru, person, and against the Colombiinstantly ; but was prevailed on by ans. Disturbances also broke out them to relinquish his intention. in the interior, for the same These circumstances indicated the cause, professedly. Bolivar, theredanger of anarchy, if the country fore, marched the Peruvian troops was left to its own resources; and out of Callao, and replaced them in April, fifty-two members of the with Colombians; and took other congress made a representation to precautions to preserve tranquillity. the government, setting forth their Whether for the latter purpose only, conviction, of the inexpediency of or for the sake of strengthening his installing it until the next year ; personal authority, he caused a body and the necessity, in the interval, of of Peruvian troops to proceed continuing to Bolivar the dictato- to Panama, cantoning Colombian rial powers he now possessed. soldiers in the various villages They farther recommended, that around the country. These meathe provinces should be consulted, sures augmented the public distrust as to their desire to reform the con- of his intentions among the Peruvistitution, and if so, how far the re- ans, who began to accuse him of form should extend. In compliance designing to unite, permanently, with their views, Bolivar consented Colombia, Peru, and Bolivia. to retain the supreme authority, and Regardless of their dissatisfaction, Bolivar caused a plan of a con- parting proclamation, dated at stitution, for Peru, similar to that Lima, September 3d, he says :of Bolivia, to be drawn up and cir- “ The legislature will, next year, culated in the departments, for their render permanent, by the wisdom examination and approval, under of their acts, all the blessings of the authority of his council of state, liberty. There is but one danger which administered the affairs of which you have to fear; and I proPeru. It is deserving of remark, that vide the remedy. Continue to this form of government, which dread, and shun, the tremendous Bolivar prefers above all others, evils of anarchy, and you are severy strongly resembles the present cure.” Of course, the liberator constitution of the republic of Hayti, himself, remained, virtually, infrom which, when governed by Pe- vested with the unlimited authority, tion, Bolivar received that succor which had been temporarily conwhich enabled him to re-establish ferred on him, and was now liis then almost desperate fortunes. exercised through substitutes, ap

Disorders now existed in Colom- pointed, and removable, by himself, bia, which, whatever might have and accountable to him alone. But been their origin, whether instiga- it may be, and probably is true, as ted by Bolivar, as many supposed, alleged by Bolivar, that at present, and part of a scheme to pave the no Peruvian, possesses sufficient way to absolute rule, or wholly in- personal influence to fix the confidependent of him,-still, in either dence of his countrymen, and supcase, equally made his departure press their factions. from Peru, indispensably necessary. Having thus related the political This event, although daily expected, events in Peru, it becomes necesfor a long time, was at length offi- sary to recur to the period, when cially announced, as about to take those movements commenced, place.

which recalled Bolivar to ColomPrevious to leaving Peru for Bo- bia. The original theatre of the gota, Bolivar, in virtue of the pow- revolution, for revolution it deserves ers granted him by the congress of to be called, was in Venezuela. 1825, invested D. Andres Santa General Jose Antonio Paez, one of Cruz, with the supreme command, the most distinguished officers of the during his absence ; made other revolution, was commanding general necessary arrangements in the ex- in that department. It was charged ecutive authority ; and summoned upon him, that, in the execution of the legislature to meet, in Septem- a law, for enrolling the militia, he orber, of the ensuing year. In his dered a detachment of troops to

bring to his head quarters, by force, Paez, apprehensive that he might all persons subject to the law. For be inclined to punish them, sent a this alleged arhitrary act, he was im- deputation, inviting him to the city, peached before the senate ; and and concurring in the measures being, of course, suspended from adopted by Valencia. He made his his command, was summoned to public entry into Caraccas, May Bogota, to answer to the accusa- 20th, and was now invested with tion. When upon the eve of de- the authority of supreme civil and parture, the soldiers assembled in military chief, to be held by him, Valencia, and committed various until the arrival of Bolivar. At the excesses, demanding their general, same time, colonel Cala, an officer and refusing to serve under his suc- attached to Paez, was despatched cessor, general Escalona. Here- to Puerto Cabello, of which he upon, the cabildo assembled, and assumed the government ; the acreinstated Paez in his command ; tual governor Avendano, either and the result was, that Valencia resigning, or being forcibly disposdeclared the province of Venezuela sessed of his authority. independent of the general govern- Upon these unconstitutional proment, and resolved to seek the ceedings being known at Carthaerection of it into a separate state. gena, the troops which were arriving This event caused the greatest there from Peru were detained, to consternation among merchants, await farther orders, and general and foreigners, who naturally anti- Bermudez, commanding in the decipated all the horrors of civil war. partment of Orinoco, issued a proPaez, however, having a force of clamation, denouncing the conduct more than 2,000 men under his im- of Paez, and the Venezuelians, and mediate command, was competent exhorting the inhabitants of his deto preserve order, unless attacked partment, faithfully to observe the by troops from Bogota ; and imme- laws, and to rely upon the wisdom diately issued a proclamation, dated of Bolivar, to restore concord, and May 3d, guaranteeing to all the in- preserve the constitution. habitants security for their persons The first information of the reand property, while pursuing their volution, was conveyed to the goprivate avocations, and doing vernment, by the intendant of the nothing to interfere with the public department. But May 29th, gepeace.

neral Paez addressed a letter to the On learning these occurrences, vice president, giving a circumstanthe municipality of Caraccas, who tial account of the origin of the had promoted the impeachment of movement. In the course of it, he

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