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feated by the insurgents, was obli- nouncing his coming. 5 Colombiged to retreat to Barcelona. bians,” he said, “ the sound of your

General Pedro Briceno Mendez, discord penetrated my ears in the having arrived at Puerto Cabello, capital of Peru.” He declared his November 22d, was prevailed upon devotion to every citizen of the reto remain and take the command ; public to be the same, unchanged, colonel Cala, the governor appoint- undiminished, by their decisions. ed by Paez, having been deposed“ Within your borders,” he said, by the officers on duty there, in con- “ there is but one to blame. I am sequence of the doings of the last the man. I have too long delayed meeting in Caraccas. Paez, as we my return. I present myself the before stated, was desirous to re- victim of your sacrifice ;-let your duce the town; but an attack un- blows fall on me;—they will be dertaken by a few companies be- most acceptable to one, if they salonging to him was ineffectual ; and tisfy your animosity. Colombians, he subsequently made an arrange- I am among you ; let the scandal ment with general Mendez to sus- of your outrages, and the crime of pend farther hostilities, and wait your disunion cease at once! for the arrival of Bolivar.

There is no longer a Venezuela,-Paez continued at Valencia, at no longer a Cundinamarca --let us this time, with the regular troops of all be Colombians !" La Guayra and Caraccas, deter- Bolivar arrived at Bogota a mined to make no hostile movement month later than had been fixed; himself; but only to act on the de- namely, November 14th; and fensive if attacked. Individuals in although received with every token La Guayra and Caraccas, were sub- of enthusiastic welcome, yet indijected by him to the strictest police cations were not wanting of suspiregulations; and all foreigners were cions concerning his fidelity to the forbidden to interfere in political af- constitution. But in his reply to fairs by comments or otherwise; the vice-president's address, he deuntil intelligence came of the actual clared his resolution to maintain it, approach of Bolivar, when the ri- and to restore order by force of gor of military law was relaxed. arms, if driven to that necessity.

He had already reached Bogota. He assumed the extraordinary powAs he approached the capital, heers, which, by the constitution, he restored tranquillity in all the towns was authorised to exercise in cases through which he passed. At of rebellion against the governGuayaquil, he issued a proclama- ment. Commencing by prorogation, dated September 13th, an- tion of the congress, he proceeded to institute various essential re- spect manisested towards the presie forms in the administration ; his di- dent on his return to Colombia, afrect and professed object being to ter so long an absence, were public diminish the expenses and re-esta- addresses from the agents of foreign blish the credit of the republic. governments residing at Bogota. With this intent, he proposed to re- In the course of his reply to colonel duce the army from 40,000 to Watts, the American chargé, he 6,000 men ; to sell or lay up most said; “ This land places its happiof the ships of war; to lessen the ness in imitating the examples of number of persons in office, by uni- glory, of liberty, of virtue, which it ting several departments; and by receives from the United States.”_ these means, so to economize in the If sincere in the expression of these public charges, as to reduce them sentiments, Colombia has nothing from fourteen millions annually, to to fear from 'Bolivar's ultimate dethree. Whatever ulterior motives signs. Bolivar might have, whether true All his public addresses and or false to the liberties of his coun- proclamations continued to breathe try, it was impossible not to feel the same spirit. So pressing was confident, that these changes would the necessity of his presence in have a most salutary effect upon the Venezuela, that he remained but distresses of the country.

ten days at Bogota. Previous to An executive decree, dated No his departure, he issued a proclaveinber 23d, made known the mation dated November 23d, in changes in the president's authori- which he protested against the imty. He assigned, as reasons for putations of ambition, which arose assuming extraordinary powers, from his assuming the supreme three causes ; the civil war in Vene- command, declaring that the destizuela ; the danger of invasion from ny of the liberator was more subCuba, in the distracted state of the lime than the throne. “I return," republic; and the desire of a majori- he said, “ to submit to the insupty of the departments :—for which portable weight of the magistracy; causcs, he declared himself in the for in moments of danger to give it exercise of the transcendant pow. up were cowardice, not moderation; ers emanating from the constitu- yet count on me, only until the law tion ; both for the purpose of re- or the people recover their soveestablishing internal tranquillity, reignty.” and for securing the republic Upon its being known in Veneagainst anarchy and external war zuela that Bolivar was at hand,

Among the testimonials of re- Paez issued a proclamation from

his head quarters at Valencia, full to every one perfect freedom, from of the most extravagant eulogiums of molestation for any thing done or the liberator. “ Prepare yourselves, said, in reference to reform; toit said, to receive him as the dry gether with security to the persons, earth does the fertilizing dews of property, and offices, of those enheaven : hitherto Bolivar was great gaged in that cause, but denouncing beyond admiration, but from this every subsequent act of hostiliday forward, Venezuela owes him an ty, as a state crime, to be punishapotheosis !"

ed according to law. Paez was Bolivar left Bogota, November continued in command, by name, as 25th, for Maracaybo, which he military and civil chief of Venezuela. reached December 16th, accompa- Thus have we brought the histonied by a numerous suite, where he ry of the interesting events in Cowas welcomed with the greatest re- lombia and Peru, down to the end joicings. Immediately on his arri- of the year 1826, faithfully endeaval, he issued a proclamation, call. voring to present an exact view of ing on the inhabitants of Venezuela, the deeds and declarations, of the to refrain from farther bloodshed, prominent actors in scenes so reand assuring them that a convention markable. On taking a review of should be assembled without delay, the pending revolution there, it for the redress of their grievances. would seem, that its origin was acA decree followed in a few days, cidental, namely, the impeachment setting forth, the existence of civil of general Paez; its progress conwar, and the extraordinary powers firied and hastened by the disconvested in him ; placing the depart- tents of certain departments, on acments of Maturin, Venezuela, count of alleged acts of misgovernOrinoco, and Zulia, under his im- ment, attributable to the central mediate personal orders; com- system-its professed object, the asmanding the instant cessation of sembling of a convention, for the hostilities ; and declaring, that reform of the constitution, immedithe electoral colleges should as- ately. Were all these things simusemble, to determine when, where, lated to afford Bolivar a plausible and in what manner, a great na- pretext for usurping absolute dotional convention should be con- minion ? Or, when they had alvoked.

ready happened, and began to Pursuing his rapid progress, Boli- threaten the overthrow of the var arrived in Puerto Cabello, the state, and the prostration of its last day of December, and immedi- credit, did that all powerful indiately issued a decree, guaranteeing vidual, seize on the occasion to betray the liberties of his too confiding crowding onward, in rapid success-, country? We confess, many cir- ion, we will not seek to anticipate the cumstances, which the attentive crisis, by pronouncing prematurely, reader will have gathered from our a rash opinion concerning it. We narrative, if they do not warrant, at hope the future designs of Bolivar, least encourage, an answer in the are as pure as his present professaffirmative, to one of these two ions. He is in the exercise of those questions.

transcedental powers, provided in Yet, on the other hand, it the constitution, for cases of the last is impossible to deny the evident resort-ne quid detrimenti respublinecessity, in the actual contingency, ca capiat. An extraordinary confor an extraordinary exertion of the vention is to assemble immediately, personal influence of the liberator, instead of waiting until the year supreme as he is, in the estimation 1831, the period fixed for the trial of all parties, to allay their growing of the constitution, in that instruanimosity. Whether his hand was, ment itself. If Bolivar discharges or was not, instrumental in fasten- `his duty to his country, to liberty, ing the knot, it is clear, that he to his fame, to himself, he will truly alone, is able to unravel its tangled have earned imperishable laurels. threads. And it requires no slight, Civil war has already vanished at nor ambiguous proofs, to shake the his word, as before an enchanter's fame of Bolivar. The victorious wand. In Colombia, in Bolivia, in apostle of freedom, the liberator of Peru, he is now supreme ; we shall Spanish America, from transatlan- most heartily rejoice, if he proves tic rule, can he, with the fate of a to have assumed the dictatorship, series of ephemeral usurpers before not as prompted by any bad ambihis eyes, can he prefer the ignoble tion, but solely, and honestly, for career of Iturbide, to the peerless the salvation of his bleeding and glory of Washington? While distracted country. the events themselves are still .

CHAPTER IX.

BRAZIL. - Independence Acknowledged-Character of Pedro-Inva

sion of Chiquitos-Banda Oriental - Insurrection Lavalleja-Battle of SarandiThe Banda united to Buenos Ayres-- Pedro declares War-Progress of it-Future prospects. I

Brazil is little better than a pure of Brazil, as we have mentioned military despotism ; for, although elsewhere, by the representations possessed of legislative chambers, of England. The acknowledgment and a constitution; still the govern- was made known by letters pament is maintained by hired foreign tent, May, 1825, and was folsoldiers, and the emperor's will is lowed up by a treaty, concluded at absolute in all things of a political Rio de Janeiro, August, of the nature. The empire was founded same year, in which John recogniin rebellion of the worst kind, that zes Brazil to hold the rank of an of a son against his father ; but empire, independent, and separate still it had the good fortune to be from Portugal, and yields and transpeaceably recognized, in the first fers the sovereignty of the empire instance, by Portugal, and after to his son, Don Pedro. Perpetual wards by the other principal powers peace between the two countries of America and Europe. Pedro being established, the parties muis now engaged in a war with the tually agreed upon a reciprocity of provinces of Rio de la Plata, for the rights and commercial privileges, possession of the Banda Oriental, for the inhabitants of Brazil and in which both parties sustain heavy Portugal. Farther, to remedy the losses, for the sake of a point of effects of their past dissensions, honor ; and therefore, the present they respectively agreed to restore history of Brazil, including the pro- all property, confiscated or captugress of the war, will furnish us red, to the original owner, or inwith many incidents worthy of nar- demnity in lieu of it ; and stipularation.

ted that the rights of private proJohn, of Portugal, was induced perty, as well before, as since the to acknowledge the independence revolution, should be held sacred,

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