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notwithstanding the separation of in his temper. But, on the other the two crowns.
hand, he is brave and careless of This judicious and liberal treaty, danger; and zealously watches, in placed the independence of Brazil person, over the concerns of his on the secure foundation of public army and navy, with energy deserlaw, and left the emperor nothing ving a better cause. Highly giftto apprehend from Europe. On the ed in personal appearance, he adds death of his father, and the descent to it an enterprise of action, vigor of the Portuguese crown to him- of intellect, and robustness of conself, Pedro wisely renounced his stitution, which well qualify him rights in favor of his young daugh- for the high part which he sustains, ter, Maria da Gloria, well judging in the political drama of South that his condition, as emperor of America. Brazil, was better than to reign in Before he became embroiled Portugal with a divided interest; with the government of Rio de la convinced, also, of the difficulty of Plata, he was in some danger of keeping countries united, which drawing upon him the enmity of nature designed to be sepa- Bolivar, with his victorious Colomrate and independent. In grant- bian troops from Peru. Had not ing to Portugal a constitutional the Brazillian troops promptly evacharter, as the condition of his re- cuated Chiquitos, which they took nouncing the crown, his conduct possession of at the desire of D. seems hardly reconcileable to his Sebastian Ramos, the Spanish roycharacter. But in other respects, alist governor ; there is no doubt as well as in this particular, his Sucre would have led his conquermeasures indicate that he is no or- ing legions into Mattogrosso. Pedinary man.
dro, therefore, anxiously disavowTyrant as he is, it would seem, ed the acts of his officers on the that, in establishing his monarchy frontier, declaring his determinain the new world, he ceased to tion to preserve a strict neutrality partake of the incapacity, which in the contest, between the inhabitmarks so many of the royal fami- ants of Spanish America and the lies of Europe. The blood of mother country. So many acBraganza is regenerated on Ame- · counts, having all the appearance rican soil. Pedro is reputed to be of authenticity, ascribe to Bolivar conversant with science and the a design to pass from Upper Peru arts, more than is becoming in a into Brazil: that we incline to belegitimate prince. He is dissolute lieve he had it in contemplain his morals, it is true, and cruel tion. We do not rely upon a pro
clamation to the Brazillians, which quest, all the territory which that made its appearance, alleging to chief possessed, by admission of be from Bolivar, but bearing in- the government of Buenos Ayres. controvertible marks of forgery. In this state, things remained Other documents, better entitled to in the Banda Oriental for the space credit, and coming to us through of four years. In 1821, the BraBogota and Buenos Ayres, afford zillian government, apprehending, surer ground for the same belief. probably, some weakness in the But the idea, if entertained, was province, summoned a congress at abandoned, and Pedro was left to Monte Video, and induced the depursue his war against the patriots, puties to agree to an act for incorunmolested by so formidable a foe. porating the province with the
To comprehend the origin and kingdom of Brazil and Portugal. merits of this dispute, we must When the Brazillian provinces invireview the previous history of the ted Pedro to mount the throne, region called the Banda Oriental, ly- the cabildos, cities and troops of ing on the eastern bank of the river the Banda Oriental also proclaimLa Plata, bounded towards the south ed him, and took the oath of fideliand west by that river, and its ty. From that period, the empebranch the river Uruguay, and on ror retained possession of the prothe northeast by the Brazillian pro- vince, until the spring of 1826. vince of Rio Grande.
At this time, general Le Cor comWhen the viceroyalty of Buenos manded there for Pedro, with 2,000 Ayres raised the standard of inde- troops, supported by a small naval pendence, it is well known that squadron. But the inhabitants Artigas maintained himself at were wholly dissatisfied with their Monte Video against the troops of situation, preferring independence, Buenos Ayres, and compelled the probably, to any other political latter, by a victory gained at Gau- condition ; but choosing to form a biju, in 1815, to respect his fag, component member of the repuband acknowledge him as independ- lic of the river Plate, rather than to ent chief of the Banda Oriental. be the subject of Brazil. One of the But hostilities arising between him soldiers of Artigas, called Frucand the Brazillians; the king of tuoso Rivera, had entered the BraPortugal, after making great sacri- zillian service, and risen to the fices, succeeded in driving Artigas rank of brigadier. In concert with beyond the Uruguay, and remain- some private individuals in Buenos ed in possession of the Banda Ori- Ayres, he proclaimed independental, claiming in right of con- ence April 27th, and speedily gained possession of Maldonado. Soon of the United Provinces, or at afterwards, a small force, headed least, aid from the inhabitants of by a patriot of some distinction, Buenos Ayres. Whether LavalD. Juan Antonio Lavalleja, set out leja acted upon his sole responsifrom Buenos Ayres, landed on the bility in undertaking the expedieastern shore of the river, and tion, or not, does not appear ; but, forming a junction with Rivera, li- however this may be, the Orienberated the whole Banda Oriental, talists received such assurances except the towns of Monte Video from him and other citizens of and Colonia.
Buenos Ayres, that, in August, Intelligence of these events they passed resolutions, declaring reached Rio by the middle of May; their acts of submission to Brazil and the government promptly de- void, and demanding to be re-adspatched a reinforcement of 1,500 mitted into union with the promen to the succor of Monte Video. vinces of the Rio de la Plata. Their timely arrival, saved the city. In the meantime, a Brazillian During the summer months, the squadron commanded by admiral hostile operations of the two par- Lobo, arrived in the river, and ties were inconsiderable ; but in despatched a communication to the most of the engagements which executive government at Buenos took place, the patriots were vic- Ayres, requiring explanation relatorious; and their cause constant- tive to the alleged interference of ly and rapidly went on, acquiring the republic, in behalf of the Bansolidity and support. They kept da Oriental. But Lobo having no a body of men near Colonia, proper credentials, the minister of commanded by D. Ignacio Oribe, the republic refused to hold a diwhilst Lavalleja threatened Monteplomatic correspondence with him, Video, and Rivera carried on the repelling, however, the charge of war in the vicinity of the Rio Ne- having assisted the patriots. Here gro.
the correspondence ended, with Under these circumstances, a the admiral's signifying his intenprovisional government was or- tion of remaining off Buenos ganized in June, which held its Ayres, to intercept any supplies meetings in the village of Florida. designed to aid the insurgents, or They appointed D. Manuel Calle- act against Monte Video. ros president of the province, and Without dwelling upon various Lavalleja commander-in-chief, re- skirmishes, and minor actions of no lying upon his influence to procure material consequence, individually, the protection of the government we come to the decisive battle of Sarandi, which gave character and and pushed them in among the Braresolution, at once, to the revolu- zillians, at full gallop, regardless of tionists of the Banda Oriental. On the fire of the latter, so as to enthe 12th of October, a body of gage at once, hand to hand. The Brazillian cavalry, consisting of Brazillians, therefore, being taken two thousand soldiers, and com- unawares, had not sufficient time manded by colonel Ventos Manuel, to throw away their carbines and encountered an equal force of pa- draw their sabres, ere the patriots triots, on the coast of Sarandi, led were in the mislst of them, hewing by Lavalleja. The battle was a down their disordered ranks. mere charge; for the patriots dash- Nothing could equal the rejoicings ed impetuously upon the Brazil- at Buenos Ayres, on receiving inlians, sword in had, and fought formation of this splendid victory. with their sabres alone, until, in a The Argentine congress no longer short time, they gained a complete hesitated what course to pursue. victory. The imperialists lost about At their sitting, October 25th, they 1,000 men in killed and prisoners, decreed to incorporate the Banda together with 2,000 stand of arms, Oriental into the republic. Acten pieces of artillery, their horses, cordingly, the minister of foreign and a great quantity of munitions affairs notified the Brazillian goof war; while the whole loss of vernment of this determination. the patriots but little exceeded 100 He referred to the circumstance, inen. So remarkable a difference that the inhabitants of that proin the loss of the two parties, vince, having recovered, by their might induce the reader to sus- own efforts, the freedom of the terpect some exaggeration in the ritory occupied by Don Pedro's victor's account of the battle, did forces, and established a reguwe not know its peculiar circum- lar government, had announced stances. The fact is, that the Bra- their solemn wish to be reunited zillians advanced at a canter, with to the Argentine provinces. The their carbines ready to discharge, republic could not, without injusand their sabres remaining sheath- tice to itself, abstain from the exed, expecting their antagonists ercise of its indisputable rights to would approach in the same order, the province, nor leave its inhabitand fire previous to coming to close ants to their fate. Congress had, quarters. Lavalleja, on the con- therefore, resolved, that the Banda trary, caused his men to draw their Oriental should be reincorporated sabres, leaving their carbines swung in fact, with the United Provinces, across their backs for protection, to which it of right belonged, and desired to belong ; and stood of the people, who were indiscripledged to provide for its defence minately seized by the soldiers. and security. The republic did Their orders were, to impress and not seek a war with Brazil, and convey to prison, every freeman, would strike only in self-defence; able to bear arms, until the requibut would resolutely exert all the site number should be obtained. means in its power, to maintain the By such cruel means it was, that integrity and inviolability of its ter- Pedro procured the supplies for his ritory.
naval and land service. Pedro did not long delay in ma- Connected with the declaration king a formal declaration of war, of war, was a document of the against the republic. Both among same date, setting forth the reaBrazillians and foreigners, but one sons, in vindication of the measentiment existed, in regard to war; sure. Pedro alleged that the all thinking it impolitic and unjust, province of Banda Oriental, was a and fearing it would be fatal to the member of the Brazillian empire, imperial dynasty, if long continued. by right of conquest from Artigas, Nevertheless, the declaration of war and by the subsequent acts of its was issued, December 30th, and inhabitants, who had voluntarily the most vigorous efforts made for 'annexed themselves to Brazil. He prosecuting it with effect. Pedro denied, that the Argentine republic declared Buenos Ayres, and the had any claims upon the territory, other ports of the republic, in a because Buenos Ayres and the state of rigorous blockade. In Banda Oriental being alike insurRio, all were engaged in fitting out gent Spanish colonies, neither of the navy, and enlarging the army; them possessed any rights of suand to supply them with men, the premacy over the other. Finally, government resorted to the odious he accused the republic, of having expedient of impressment by force. excited Fructuoso Rivera to revolt,
To judge of the lawless and ar- and furnished Lavalleja with rebitrary proceedings of the govern- sources to fan the spark into flame. ment on these occasions, a single These are, in brief, the fundamentincident is sufficient. The pro- al grounds, upon which Pedro vince of Ceara was suffering for rested the justice of his cause, in want of provisions, occasioned by his long and circumstantial manidrought. The president of that festo. province offered Pedro 2,000 re- The simple truth is, that neither cruits ; and the latter immediately Buenos Ayres nor Brazil has any chartered vessels, for the transport substantial title to the Banda Ori