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ental. When the revolution took own; desirous only, in either place, Monte Video, with its de- event, that it may be released from pendant territory, was utterly averse the arbitrary rule of Don Pedro. to continuing subject to Buenos We do not purpose to attempt Ayres. It was the desire of the giving, at present, a narrative of the inhabitants to have an independent military or naval operations of the government. It was their right, so last year, which have not, thus far, far, at least, as respected any claim produced any decisive result. It of supremacy, from other Spanish has been alike prejudicial to the provinces. Hence arose the suc- affairs of Brazil, and of her ancess of Artigas. He could never tagonist. Whilst Pedro has mainhave maintained himself indepen- tained a blockade, more or less efdent of Buenos Ayres, had not the fectual, of the river La Plata, the wishes of the Orientalists been Patriots, on the other hand, cut up with him. On the other hand, the Brazillian commerce, with their Brazil possesses not the shadow of privateers and swift sailing cruisers. a right to one foot of the territory, The republic, however, acts rather which it is seeking to hold. Hos- on the defensive, except in the tile aggression, invasion, and con- Banda Oriental itself, all of which quest, it is true, gave the king of remained in the hands of the paPortugal a species of title ; but it triots at the last advices, save only was not one, which the conquered, Monte Video and Colonia. These themselves, were under any obliga- two places continued in the same tions to respect. They reluctantly condition, at the end of the year, submitted to the Brazillian yoke, un- as at the commencement of the til a favorable occasion came for war; held by the Brazillians, but shaking it off; and we heartily invested by the Patriots, with such wish they may achieve their in- means of maintaining a siege as dependence of such a govern- they could command. On the sea, ment.

admiral Brown, the chief of the The Banda Oriental, in the hands naval forces of the republic, has of Brazil, will continue to be a compensated, by his bravery, acwild, half-peopled waste, and a tivity, and address, for the infericonstant source of contention to ority of his navy, and obtained the neighboring powers. We care many brilliant advantages over the little, therefore, whether it be- Imperialists. Should he be joined comes permanently a member of by the Chilian squadron, according the Argentine confederacy, or ob- to expectation, their united strength tains a separate government of its would enable him to undertake some enterprize of magnitude. gang into Brazil,-a mode of raisTowards the close of the year, the ing soldiers and mariners well emperor himself sailed from Rio, suited to the genius of that governfor the purpose of prosecuting the ment, which persists to the last in war in person with renewed vigor; sanctioning the slave trade, when it and the Patriot army, in the Banda is declared infamous by law among Oriental, under general Alvear, all other civilized nations. Pe. was preparing for a movement dro's mercenaries, in the prosecuupon the province of Rio Grande. tion of their arbitrary levies, have

By the prosecution of the war, more than once had the audacity as must be readily perceived, the to impress Americans. But this commerce of neutral nations un- abuse is of more limited operation, dergoes much inconvenience. It is than the futile attempts of the emmore prejudicial to France and peror to enforce a paper blockade, Great Britain, than to the United which the United States have stea. States ; but it leads to repeated dily resisted, and, we trust, will collisions, of no very pleasant na- never cease to resist, whatever high ture, between our citizens and the examples of European authority, Brazillian officers. We have men- Pedro may allege in vindication of tioned the introduction of the press a principle so absurd.

CHAPTER X.

GREAT BRITAIN.--MinistersParliament 1825— Address--Catho

lic Association-Catholic Relief. Finance and Trade-Other Laws GreeksTreaties--Pecuniary Distress--Parliament 1826--Currency-Finance-Slavery, Miscellaneous--Pecuniary Difficulties--Sufferings of Manufacturers-Dissolution of Parliament-- Elections.

Of all foreign nations, the policy, have like objects, to wit, most interesting and instructive as the encouragement of the sister a study for American statesmen, is arts of agriculture, manufactures, England. It was the land of our and commerce. We, however, forefathers, who, while they fled enjoy the peculiar blessing of here for refuge from the cruelty, in- a republican government, which justice, and bigotry of their mother ensures to us equal rights, and encountry, brought with them too ables us to employ our resources many of its institutions for their and faculties with the least restraint posterity to lose entirely the feel- consistent with the maintenance of ings of association with a people civil order. Economy, and frugalhaving a common language, a com- ity, also, as much distinguish our mon origin, and kindred laws and administration of affairs, as the opliterature. Our forms of legislation posite qualities do the practice of are borrowed in a great measure, the British empire. But the very diffrom the English. Parlimentary ferences in policy between the two eloquence is the same thing here countries, constitute a source of inthat it is there ; it is embodied in struction to us. We shall therefore the same rich, copious, expressive, devote a larger space to the history nervous tongue ; it speaks to the of Great Britain, than that of any people in either country, through other country will require. the organs of the press, and bears the During most of the period emsame vivid impress of popular ora- braced by our plan, Great Britain tory ; it is attached, in no small de- has been at peace with all the gree, to the same topics of discus- world, if we except some slight sion. We are the rivals each of contests in Western Africa, and the the other in maritime commerce, Burmese war, waged by her dependas we are in naval glory ; and the encies in the East Indies. Her leading measures of our internal measures of foreign policy will,

ters.

therefore, demand less of our atten- complaints. The appointments of a tion, than the internal condition of vice chancellor and a speaker of the the country, and the state of its house of lords, are expedients lately great pecuniary interests, which adopted for his relief from a part of have undergone essential changes. the multifarious duties of the chanA large portion of the matter be- cellorship. longing to the national history, The acknowledged head of the either consisting of acts of parlia. ministry in point of talents is Mr. ment, or of incidents very fully dis- Canning, secretary of state for focussed in that body, we shall begin reign affairs. He was born in 1771, with a brief review of the parlia- of respectable, but not opulent or mentary proceedings of the year distinguished parentage ; and after 1825, premising an account of a legal education, he devoted himsome of the principal cabinet minis- self to the career of politics. He

came into parliament at an early The earl of Liverpool, is first age in 1793, under the patronage lord of the treasury, and prime mi- of Mr. Pitt; and being distinguishnister. From his advanced age, heed for his literary acquirements and is not presumed to bear so large a abilities, he speedily rose into notice. share of the duties of administra- Under Pitt's ministry, he was introtion as some of his colleagues ; but duced into office. On that great is the principal organ of the minis- man's retirement in 1801, Mr. Cantry in the house of lords.

ning also resigned his places ; but Lord Eldon has held the office of resumed office on Mr. Pitt's restolord chancellor for a quarter of a ration, and held it until his death in century. He, like his brother, sir 1806. Afterwards he was a secreWilliam Scott, now lord Stowell, tary of state a short time, but rehas been eminently successful in signed in consequence of a misunlife ; and though the earl of Eldon derstanding with lord Castlereagh. cannot be denied the gifts of great Towards the close of this nobleacuteness and learning, yet he man's life, Mr. Canning and he seems to have outlived much of his seem to have become reconciled ; ! usefulness, and injured his fame by the former being made president of too great tenaciousness of office. the board of control, and also acIn his political character, he sturdi- cepting a mission to Portugal. ly opposes improvements in trade, When lord Londonderry suddenly in law, and in foreign policy; and died by suicide in 1822, Mr. Canthe intolerable delays of his court, ning was preparing to go to India, are the subject of great and merited in the capacity of governor general.

But in September, he was crea- office to the present time, with vated foreign secretary, although not rying fluctuations of popularity, acwithout opposition from some cording to the stormy vicissitudes members of the cabinet; and it of Irish politics. By the splendor was said from the king himself, of his achievements, when lord By the liberality of his foreign poli- Mornington, and governor-general cy in that office for the last four of India, he is widely known; alyears, he has, on the whole, and as though since outstripped, in the cacompared with his immediate pre-, reer of fame and fortune, by his decessors, obtained the general ap- younger brother, the duke of Welprobation of his countrymen. lington. A succession of decisive

Mr. Huskisson, president of the victories over Tippoo, Sindia, and board of trade, and Mr. Robinson, Holkar, and other great advanchancellor of the exchequer, have tages gained from the native chiefs, acted in unison in their views of render lord Mornington's adminis. trade and finance, which accord, tration of India, one of the most in some respects, with those of the brilliant epochs in its history. political economist of the liberal The year 1825, was signalized school. Their plans have been, as by a political event, which had yet, but partially introduced ; and been for some time anticipated,-the merit of them is still in the the recognition, by Great Britain, course of trial.

of the independence of the states The home secretary, Mr. Peel, of Mexico, Buenos Ayres, and Cois chiefly remarkable for parlia- lombia. They were already indementary talents, and those are ge- pendent, in fact; and the acknownerally exerted on the high church ledgment of their sovereignty, by side, of all political questions. the United States, drew after it a

The other members of the ca- similar act of justice from Engbinet are, lords Harrowhy, West- land. Indeed, the commercial inmoreland, Melville, Wellington, terest of the kingdom loudly deBathurst, Bexley, and Sidmouth, manded the measure ; the expediand Mr. Wynn. To these person- ency of which, was not less maniages, public opinion ascribes a part fest, than its justice and generosity. subordinate, in some degree, to that It excited much speculation in of their colleagues, in the great France; and Sr. Zea Bermudez, measures of public policy. the Spanish prime minister, pro

The marquis of Wellesley, ap- tested against it, in a long state pointed lord-lieutentant of Ireland, paper, which was ably answered by in December, 1821, has held that Mr. Canning.

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