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ceeding short lived administration, of ephemeral ministers, who preceof which Richelieu was the presi- ded them; and although vigorously dent, M. de Villele regained his in- opposed by Pasquier, Chateaubri- • fluence with the court party by his and, and La Bourdonnaye, among ardent support of the election law, the loyalists, and literally hated by and the laws abridging the liberty the liberal party, seem to have calcuof the press, and the person. In lated well, at least for the duration this manner, he prepared the way of their power. to become the successor of that It is probable, that the indiviministry, when they should be dual character of the king, which driven from their posts.
sympathizes with the ultras, and His associates are M. Corbière, the emigrants, whom M. de Villele, minister of the interior; the marquis and his associates, of necessity de Clermont Tonnerre, of war ; the favor, may contribute to the strength count de Chabrol de Crouzol, of of their ministry. But their sucthe marine ; M. de Peyronnet, of cess, at the election of 1824, in exjustice; the baron de Damas, of cluding many of their adversaries foreign affairs ; M. de Frayssinous, from the chamber of deputies, left of public worship. Of these, Cor. the opposition there, enfeebled, and bière and Peyronnet, both advo- diminished. Accordingly, at the cates by profession, and men of no session of 1825, the ministers prouncommon abilities, are said to posed, and carried measures, which have formed a species of alliance had been long apprehended, by the with Villele, which strengthens liberal party. The measures were and has thus far maintained their au- alluded to, in the speech of the new thority. Beside these, M. de Frays- king, at the opening of the chamsinous, titular bishop of Hermopo- bers, which was looked for, by the lis in Egypt, demands particular nation, at this period, with unusual notice ; because through him the interest. Charles began, by speakministry is connected with the ing of his grief, at the death of a high church party and the jesuits. king, whom he called “ wise, and We shall have repeated occasion to good, beloved by his family, veneobserve the operation of the ultrâ rated by his people, honored and principles of the cabinet, upon the respected, by all foreign governinternal condition and the foreign ments. The glory of his reign, affairs of France, in the course of he continued, “ will never our historical sketch. They have effaced. Not only did he re-estabeen fortunate in obtaining a much blish the throne of my ancestors, firmer hold on office, than the crowd but he consolidated it, by institu
tions, which, bringing together, and late, and the present king, was uniting the past with the present, added to the estates of the crown; have restored to France, repose, and twenty-five millions of francs and happiness.” After expressing were to be paid, annually, to the his satisfaction, at witnessing the orders of the ministers of the housetranquillity of the state, in all its re- hold, during the life of Charles X. lations, foreign and domestic, he The appanage of the royal family, declared, that the present was a fit was fixed at seven millions, annualopportunity for closing the lastly; and the property of the branch wounds of the revolution, and for of Orleans, was to continue, to be effectually protecting the interests enjoyed by the head of that house. of religion. He concluded, by Farthermore, the sum of six millsignifying his design, to be con- ions was appropriated, for the secrated, at the close of the funeral obsequies of the late king, session. “ Prostrated,” he said, and the contemplated consecration 66 at the foot of the same altar of his successor. where Clovis received the sacred The next law encountered warm unction, and in presence of him resistance, but, nevertheless, was who judges nations, and kings, I pushed, triumphantly, through both will renew the oath, to maintain, chambers. It provided for granting and cause to be observed, the laws indemnity to the former proprietors of the state, and the institutions of real estate, confiscated, and granted by the king, my father, I sold, under the revolutionary dewill thank providence, for having crees against emigrants.
A comdeigned to make use of me, in mission was appointed, to investiorder to repair the last misfortunes gate the claims for indemnificaof my people ; and I will beseech tion; and to determine the perthe Almighty, to continue to pro- sons, and the sums to be paid to tect that beautiful France, which I them, respectively, with the maram proud of governing."
shall duke of Tarentum, for presiWhile conceived throughout, dent. The indemnity was to be with much art, in the selection of paid in rentes, a credit of thirty topics, and great happiness of dic- millions being placed at the dispotion, this speech afforded a presage sal of the minister of finance, for of the leading acts of the ses- the accomplishment of this object. sion. The first, was the establish- Thus, although some objected to ment of the civil list, which met the measure, as too anti-revolutionwith very slight opposition. By ary, and the emigrants were disit, the private property of the satisfied, that they could not be indemnified out of those alone, who of deicide. This offence, was the had gained by their spoils, M. de profanation of the sacred utensils, Villele's plan went into operation, and sacred elements (hostie,) dein spite of every obstacle.
clared punishable by death as a For the purpose of diminishing parricide. Ineffectual efforts were the taxes and the amount of public made to procure a milder punisha debt, another law was passed, en- ment; and this sanguinary law was acting the substitution of a stock, at length passed, by a great majoribearing interest at 3 and 4 per ty. But, however successful in this cent, in lieu of the existing 5 per project, the ultra party failed, in an cent stock. The law was passed, attempt to confer on the king, the after a violent resistance on the power of erecting, and suppressing part of M. Pasquier, and M. de nunneries, which the chambers reChateaubriand ; but did not wholly tained, in the hands of the three attain its end ; as, owing to fluctu- branches of the legislature. ations in the price of stocks, The debates of the chambers, and to difficulties made by the free. upon other incidental topics, furholders, the conversion was but nish little of interest, in foreign partially accepted.
countries, except in regard to some M. de Villele opened the budget of the external relations of the for the year, with a flattering ac- country.
country. The ministry continued count of the state of the finances. averse to adopting the necessary He stated the receipts of 1824, at measures, for the suppression of the 992,333,953 francs, and the expen- slave trade. The mercantile classes diture at 990,119,582 francs, and were anxious, to procure the recogpresented an equally favorable view nition of the independence of of the pecuniary resources of the Spanish America. They petitioned nation, for 1825 and 1826.
the king to follow the example of All these financial measures, and England, so as to enable his substatements, connected with the jects to participate, on equal terms, beginning of the reign, formed the in the lucrative trade of the newsubject, necessarily, of interesting born nations. The ministry saw speculation, to all parties, and per- how useful this would be to the sons, within the kingdom ; but at- commercial interests; and dreaded, tracted less notice from abroad, also, the preponderance in Amerithan the laws of the same session, ca, which England was likely to against a singular crime, the inven- acquire by her superior liberality. tion of priestcraft and superstition, The connections of France, on the to which the jesuits gave the name other hand, with Spain, and the re
cent undertaking of the former to 000 francs, in tive equal yearly inre-establish legitimacy in the latter, stalments. Finally, on these conseemed to preclude the possibility ditions, Charles "grants to the acof formally acknowledging the in- tual inhabitants” of Hayti, “ the dependence of the revolted states. full and entire independence of The government, therefore, con- their
government.” This ordinance tented itself with obtaining from was accepted by President Boyer, Ferdinand, the mere nominal bene- the following July: and thus Hayti, fit of a liberty to trade with Ameri- by the fraud or the weakness of its ca; and consented to admit Co- government, from a state of real lombian and Mexican vessels into independence, became reduced to the French ports, on condition of a kind of qualified subjection to their not displaying their national France. flags. This compromising policy
The coronation of Charles X. has justly caused the Spanish Ame- took place at 'Rheims, the 29th rican states to be extremely jealous of May; but the ceremonies acof France, whose government, they companying this solemnity, awaapprehend, entertains views hostile kened far less attention than was to their emancipation.
anticipated. Reflecting and libeEarly in this year, the French ral-minded men began to regard government concluded an artful the king with disferent sentiments arrangement with the inhabitants from those, with which they hailed of Hayti, of which a full account his accession to the throne. The has been given in the history of pageantry, on this occasion, was that island. We will only observe attended with more frivolities, if here, that, after protracted nego- possible, than the similar consetiations, the king of France secretly cration of the present king of Engmade an ordinance, dated April land. The fanatical agents of the 17th, 1825, which is nominally a jesuits, and the more bigoted recognition of independence, but among the clergy, embraced the substantially an assertion of sove opportunity to impose the most reignty. It declares the ports of idle mummeries upon the people, St. Domingo open to all nations, who, to their credit be it recorded, and the duties on their vessels for the most part, regarded the equal, except that they shall be re- whole with a degree of indifferduced one half in favor of France. ence, which did not escape the noIt provides, that the present in- tice of the king himself. The habitants shall pay to the ex-colo- flourish of relics, and the exhibinists, an indemnity of 150,000,- tion of the sainte ampoule, threw
an air of ridicule over a ceremony, to leave the city. His friends, which could be tolerated only in a nevertheless, contrived to escort country familiar with the courtly him from Havre, in spite of the forms of monarchy, and which, in opposition of the police, who this age, have entirely lost their meanly sought to annoy a man, pristine influence upon the minds vastly elevated, by his character, of men. The consecration amused above their petty resentment. for the time, like other spectacles ; But a matter of greater notoriebut, solemnized even as it was, in the ty, and still more strikingly illuscathedral of Rheims, and in all its trative of the evil influence exerancient state, it failed to produce cised by the jesuits, was, the prosethat impression, which, in any cir- cution of the Constitutionnel, and the cumstances, would be its only be- Courier Français, two of the best neficial effect.
conducted liberal journals printFew political events, of any gene- ed in Paris. By direction of the ral interest, occurred in France, du- ministry, the king's advocate, Belring the latter part of the year 1825. lart, presented to the Cour Royale The period did not elapse, how- a requisitoire, demanding the susever, without some incidents, which pension of those newspapers for served strongly to contrast the libe- three months, for the alleged irrerality of sentiment prevailing among ligious tendency of many passages, the people, with the intolerance and inserted in them from time to time. jealousy of the ultra party in power. The judgment of the court, in reOf this character, was the conduct spect to both, pronounced Decemof the local authorities, towards La ber 3d, was, that although some Fayette, on occasion of his landing expressions and phrases, in the arat Havre, on his return from his vi- ticles complained of, were censurasit to the United States. The citizens ble ; yet the general tendency of of Havre hailed him with great en- the pieces was good, being calcuthusiasm ; but the police saw fit, lated to resist the establishment of in compliance, no doubt, with the religious orders not sanctioned by wishes of the ministry, to order out law, and the ultramontane docthe gendarmerie, and charge the trines preached by part of the clerunoffending multitude with drawn gy. . These decisions, although said sabres ; in consequence of which, to be agreeable to the secret wishes many
of them sustained serious in. of M. de Villele, gave great umjury. They also prohibited his brage to the court party; but equalbeing supplied with post horses ly great satisfaction to the public