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at large, who rejoiced to find that “The progressive ,subdivision of the tribunals entertained just no- landed property, essentially contions, of what the high church fac- trary to the principle of monarchition were disposed to do, if it had cal government, must weaken the the power.

securities, which the charter has We mention but one more of the given to my throne and my subincidents of this character, to which jects. Means will be proposed to we alluded. Late in November, you, to restore the agreement that 1825, died general Foy, an op- should exist between the political position member of the chamber of law and the civil law, and to predeputies, and the most eloquent serve the patrimony of families, public speaker in France. His fu- without, however, restricting the lineral was attended by many thou- berty of disposing of property. The sands of the most eminent citizens preservation of families, leads us of Paris, who, in spite of a heavy to expect, and guarantees, political rain, followed his remains to the stability, which is the first want of burial ground of Pere la Chaise. a state, and especially that of Nor did this general and sponta- France, after so many vicissitudes." neous tribute to his worth, stand These words contain the substance alone. That distinguished man of the arguments for the measure. died poor, because he would not Notwithstanding the urgency, with sacrifice his principles for the sake which it was pressed by the ultras, of office; and, immediately after it completely failed. The law of his death, a subscription of a mill. primogeniture, after protracted dision francs was collected for his five cussions, was rejected in the children, sufficient to give them chamber of peers, its ablest oppocompetency for life. Thus it was nent there, being the ex-minister, that the nation seized on the cir- Pasquier. They refused to go any cumstance of his death, to raise a farther, than to allow the father to noble monument to his meinory, entail a portion of his property. and the cause of liberty.

This unexpected result, may be The French chambers assem- considered as a sacrifice made to bled, January 30th, for the year public sentiment, and an indication 1826. Among the topics touched of growing opposition to the policy upon, in the king's speech, the of the jesuits. Great rejoicings most remarkable was, a change took place on the event at Paris. proposed in the law for distributing In spite of the exertions of the poreal estate in descent. On this lice to prevent it, the liberals tessubject, he said:

tified their triumphs, by illumina

tions, which extended into the pro- tions were distributed for the army; vincial towns.

for while 100,000, French troops The revenue of France for the were paid and fed in Spain, the financial year of 1827, was stated same allowance for pay continued to be 916,608,734 francs, and its in France. It was owing to these, excess over the expenditure, about among other causes, that the camthe same as it was in the prece- paign cost France the enormous ding year. In the discussions con- sum of 397,000,000 of francs. " nected with the budget, much M. de Villele, on the first report warmth was elicited, in respect to of these shameful frauds, imprisonthe expenses of the military occu- ed M. Ouvrard, who, in revenge, pation of Spain. Imputations at published a volume of “Confesstached to the ministry, in conse- ions,” narrating his intercourse quence of the disclosure of pecu- with Napoleon, and his life, down lation to a great amount, made by to the entrance of the French into the contractor, Ouvrard, in supply- Tolosa, and threatening, farther, to ing the French army. The gir- expose all liis confederates in the cumstances connected with this af- Spanish expedition, by the publicafair, deserve to be related.

tion of a sequel, unless he should When the French army reached be fully acquitted. His trial in the Bayonne, on their way to Spain, in Cour Royale, and the subsequent 1823, the duc d'Angoulême found investigations in the chamber of the men in want of food and cloth- peers, to whom the Cour Royale ing, and the horses reduced to the referred the matter, produced the lastration of forage. In this deepest sensation. M. de Villele · emergency, Ouvrard stepped in, strove in vain to hush up the busiand by his talent and address, pre- ness; and bitterly repented having served the French arms from dis- so hastily imprisoned M. Ouvrard. grace. By the free use of money, The chamber of peers, at length, he effected wonders. Liberally suffered themselves to be prevailed distributing douceurs, he obtained upon by the ministry, to conclude a contract, which, while it saved their investigation of the transactthe troops from starving, gave him ion, as a branch of the government, an exorbitant price for every ration without convicting the peers impliof bread. The bribery practised cated in it. here, was not the only ignomini. Previous to the close of the ous attendant of the expedition. year, the foreign relations of the Through an extraordinary system country remained as before, with of well planned frauds, double ra- few exceptions. Of these, we re

cord the treaty of navigation and Indeed, the strides of the jesuits commerce, concluded between toward obtaining control of the goFrance and Brazil, which confer- vernment, were now open and vired on each party, all the privileges sible, and publicly denounced. M. of the most favored nation. In Frayssinous admitted, in the chamthus recognizing the independence ber of deputies, that seven colleges of Brazil, the government took were under the exclusive direction care not to compromit its adhe- of the jesuits. They had also orrence to the principles of legitima- ganized a secret society, called the cy; for although Pedro had origi- congregation, having for its pronally revolted, yet his empire being fessed objects, the exercise of pieguaranteed by treaty with Portu- ty; but really animated by a setgal, to acknowledge his sovereignty tled purpose to restore the reign of was in nowise encouraging the re- bigotry and religious terrorism ; volution of the Spanish American and it already numbered in its republics, with whom France still body one hundred and eight memrefused to treat.

bers of the chamber of deputies. Most of the political feeling in All over the interior of the counFrance, during the past year, has try, the jesuits were indefatigable related to the contest between the in sceking to engross authority, jesuits, or high church party, who greatly annoying the gentry, but exercise the national authority, hated most by the small proprieand their opponents, who consti- tors, who had profited by the sale tute the great bulk of the people. of church lands during the revoluOccasionally, the excited state of tion, to purchase little freeholds, the latter, respecting the subject, and now dreaded their being reproduced disorders, one of which claimed. occurred at Rouen, in May. The In this irritable state of public multitude opposed and insulted the feeling, it will readily be perceived priests, who were celebrating the how much impression was producommencement of a mission in the ced by the count de Montlosier's several churches. It became ne- attack on the jesuits, in his elocessary to summon the aid of the quent work, called “ Memoire à gendarmerie to disperse and quell consulter," on a religious and pothe rioters, after they had exhibited litical system; tending to overtheir disrespect for the ceremonies throw religion, society, and the by the most insulting acts. Similar throne. This book is an elaborate disturbances occurred, on a like denunciation of the high church occasion, in Lyons, at a later period. party. Itsinfluence was the greater, as the author belonged to the old The revolution, as it swept over the nobility, and was, in political prin- land, called new energies into beciples, an ultra-royalist. Had the ing. It converted the peasants into the work proceeded from any other small proprietors, freed the tiers quarter, its effect would have been etat from oppressive feudal burless; but the character, station and dens, gave them civil rights, and, party of M. de Montlosier, gave in opening to them the career of it a prodigious political force, useful ambition, infused new life which his talent alone, great as it into the circulation of the body pois, could never have communica- litic, which before was choked ted. Six thousand copies were and stagnant under the sickly influsold in the space of a week; and it ences of absolute monarchy, unrapidly ran through several editions. awed by public opinion, and unin

It was well known, that M. de fluenced by principle. A consoliVillele felt averse, from principle dated territory, and a natural chaand policy, to going all lengths racter peculiarly quick, sprightly, with the jesuits, although he could and intellectual, unite with great not wholly shake off this influence. resources of domestic industry, to Of this, he permitted several indi- make France powerful under any cations to escape ; in the number circumstances. At the present of which we may reckon the ele-' moment, her upper classes are, it vation of the virtuous and tolerant is plain, agitated by a contest for abbe de Cheverus, formerly bishop ascendancy,' between one party of Boston, to the see of Bordeaux, bent on maintaining the great docand the peerage. This appoint- trines of religious freedom, and of ment greatly offended the jesuits, another striving to suppress them. but was extremely popular in the Our sympathies, of course, are with nation at large. Indeed, the dis- the former, and our feelings adsensions existing in France, at this verse to the acts of the government, time, would seem to carry us back so far as they subserve intolerance to the days of Louis XV., and the in religion, or uphold arbitrary old controversies between the je- principles in politics. The devesuits and jansenists appear to be lopment, in France, of the new revived anew in all their bitterness. combinations, associated with the

Our account of the French would Portuguese constitution, must powbe imperfect, did we omit to men- erfully affect the question, interesttion their prosperous condition as ing in all civilized countries, whea people, and their elevation and ther the cause of liberty shall wavigor aggregately as a sovereignty. ver for a while, or fully triumph.

CHAPTER XII.

SPAIN in 1825.- Zea Bermudez-Political condition-Disturbances-

Bessieres rebels--Party of Don Carlos-- Death of el Empecinado and Iglesias-Colombians--Infantado appointed minister-Algerine war

Spain in 1826Disturbances-_J. G. Salmon succeeds Infantado -Proceedings on the Portuguese frontier. PORTUGAL. Brazil independentJohn dies--Constitution and Regency-Incursion from Spain-Chaves--Aid from England.

The mind is inevitably filled with ject to the oppression of a drivelsentiments of deep melancholy in ling prince, and a bigoted priestcontemplating the recent history of hood. Our sketch of her affairs Spain,-once so glorious, as well will, therefore, abound with monifor the chivalrous character of tory examples of the deplorable her inhabitants, as for the splendor effects of bad political institutions. of her external possessions. She The commencement of the year is now stripped of her empire in found Spain as far removed from the new world, and involved in concord and good order, as it was a state of anarchy and misrule, when the French overthrew the which her worst enemies may pity constitution. The banishment of and deplore. Other countries in Mina, the execution of Riego, had Europe, are either teeming with intimidated, without tranquillizing the refinements of modern improve- the people.—England, by acknowment, and every where impressed ledging the independence of the with the march of mind; or else, Ameriran states, appeared to have if destitute of liberal institutions, extings shed for ever the hopes of repose in the tranquillity and or- Spain to regain her empire. Sr. der of despotism. But unhappy Zea Bermudez, who was placed at Spain is deprived of the blessings the head of the ministry, the last of a free government, without en- day of the preceding year, entered joying even the imperfect equi- upon the discharge of his duty in valent of a vigorous one. Her most unpropitious circumstances. bravest sons have perished on the His appointment was attributed scaffold, the martyrs of their pa- wholly to the interference of triotism; her wisest are exiles in fo- France, whose government were reign lands; and the rest are sub- anxious to have Ferdinand try the

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