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part of Spain, excited disturbances ment, and never permit the estaof the apostolic party. Some pro- blishment of chambers under any vinces were constantly infested with modification whatever. This debands of robbers, who rendered it cree was published in August, 1826. dangerous to travel, without the Not long before, a dangerous conprotection of a strong guard. spiracy had been detected by the Others were thrown into disorder, superintendant of police, having by contests between the militia and for its object, to compel Ferdinand troops of smugglers, on the sea to abdicate in favor of Don Carlos. coast.-Guerilla parties took shel- The king was persuaded by his ter in the mountains. Nothing well-wishers, on this occasion, to could exceed the picture of wretch- consent to change the ministry, edness and poverty among the low- proclaim a general amnesty, and er classes, of fanaticism among the convoke the cortes ; but the inpriests and their party, of public trigues of the apostolic party overmisrule every where; presented in came bis better intentions, and preSpain at this period.

vented the execution of the saluThe trial of the members of the tary measures contemplated. late cortes being concluded, the In proof of the alarm and rigor government published a decree, of the government, it may be mencondemning to death sixty-five tioned, that general O'Donnell ismore, in addition to those except- sued a circular to the authorities ed from the decree of amnesty in in the military district commanded 1824. This measure was in uni- by him, peremptorily interdicting son with the sanguinary spirit, all intercourse with Portugal, and which governed the councils of enjoining a strict watch over perSpain.

sons suspected of entertaining senThe affairs of the kingdom were timents favorable to liberty. Plasoon brought to a crisis, by the poli- cards were posted in Madrid, comtical changes in Portugal. No soon- manding every book of a supposed er did the promulgation of a consti- liberal tendency, to be delivered up tution for that kingdom, become to the police. No persons could known in Spain, than it produced enter or leave Madrid, without bethe greatest consternation. Fer- ing reported to the municipal offidinand issued a decree, invoking the cers. loyalty of his people, to preserve Amid these events, the duke del tranquillity. He reassured them, Infantado resigned his place as mithat he would never make any nister of foreign affairs, alleging change in the legal form of govern- that he did not enjoy the king's confidence. His resignation had revolt of Brazil, however, under been repeatedly tendered before; Don Pedro, was an eyent to which but refused.

.. the Portuguese government was · His successor, Salmon, and his not reconciled ; although it could associates, bear the character of do nothing towards regaining its being, some of them, men of ta- lost authority. But strong exerlents and integrity. But the go- tions were made by the English vernment was arrived at a fearful government, through sir William crisis. With coffers empty, troops A’Court, their minister at Lisbon, unmanageable, ill officered, and to bring about a recognition of the only half paid, a marine scarcely independence of Brazil. In Janusufficient for the defence of Cuba, ary, 1825, a change in the cabinet and without authority in Spain ade- took place, and new ministers were quate to repress the infuriated fac- appointed, favorable to the views of tions, which divided the kingdom, - Great Britain. This preliminary under all these disadvantages, any step, was followed, ere long, by a ministry would have a most ar- proclamation of king John's, reduous task to perform.

cognizing the independence of BraSome time elapsed, before the zil, and transferring the sovereignty Spanish authorities manifested their of it to his son, Don Pedro. No hostility to the Portuguese regency, farther difficulty being now interby any overt acts. They began, by posed, the two states accepted the receiving the rebels, who fled into mediation of England ; and sir Spain, from Portugal ; and either Charles Stuart, was appointed furnishing them with weapons, or plenipotentiary of the king of Porat any rate, conniving at their ob- tugal, with powers to conclude a taining arms, and continuing in treaty of peace and alliance, with military array. To the demands of Brazil. He proceeded to Rio, and Portugal, requiring the refugees to accomplished this object successbe disarmed, no attention was paid. fully. The treaty was concluded in

We must now go back, to August, and announced at Lisbon, explain the events, which had in October. previously transpired in Portugal; No other events of historical imand the actual situation of that king- portance transpired in Portugal, dom.

until the death of the king, in At the expiration of the year an apoplectic fit, which happen1824, Portugal was freed from the ed March 10th, 1826. John VI. internal disturbance, which had was born in 1767. From 1792 lately agitated the kingdom. The until 1317, he governed the king. . ' dom, in the capacity of regent, on in regard to the personal liberty of account of the insanity of the the subject, is remarkable in its poqueen, his mother. He succeeded litical features. It confers the her in 1817, at which time he was right of suffrage on all persons posin Rio, whither the government was sessed of an income of 100 milreas, transferred, on Bonaparte's inva- and provides for the annual assem- · sion of Portugal.

bling of a cortes composed of two Previous to the king's death, it chambers, namely: hereditary had been arranged that his fourth peers, and deputies elected every daughter, Isabella Maria, should four years. While it established act as regent, until the affairs of the the Roman catholic religion as the kingdom were settled. When John religion of the kingdom, it permitacknowledged the independence of ted all other religions to foreigners. Brazil, no stipulation was provided Being accompanied with a general against the union of the two crowns amnesty, it excited the liveliest senin the person of Don Pedro, on his sations of joy in Lisbon. father's death. It remained to be It will be recollected that Miguel, seen what course Pedro would take, the brother of Pedro, rebelled now that this very contingency had against his father a few years since, arisen. Wisely preferring the pos- and was now travelling abroad in a session of Brazil alone, to being kind of honorable exile. To secure subject to European intrigues in the permanency of the new politiPortugal, Pedro immediately con- cal arrangements, a dispensation firmed the regency appointed in was obtained for the marriage of Portugal, and abdicated all his Don Miguel with his niece, the rights to the Portuguese crown in queen, although she was but eight favor of his eldest daughter Maria years of age. Miguel was now reda Gloria, who thus became queen siding in the palace of the emperor." of Portugal.

of Austria, at Vienna. Acting unAt the same time, Pedro announc- der the emperor's advice, he made ed to the Portuguese his design to oath to the constitution in October, confer on them a constitutional sending to the regent a copy of the charter, whose acceptance by them oath written and subscribed in his he made one of the conditions of own hand-writing. Governed by his resignation :-an act, destined the same counsels, Miguel was also to be followed by momentous con- betrothed to the queen in form, she sequences. This charter, which herself being still at Rio de Janeiro. contains a great number of provi Throughout all these proceedsions of the most liberal character ings, it was plain to discern the

hand of England, on whom, after sponsibility. On his arrival in Lisall, Portugal would have to depend bon, the council of regency, comfor the stability of any form of go- posed of the oldest ministers of the vernment she might possess. Every late king, remonstrated against the where, however, in Europe, the acceptance of the charter ; but, subject deeply interested all poli- nevertheless, the princess regent tical classes. It was so lately that consented to the constitution, and the Portuguese had revolutionized issued a proclamation to promultheir country, and overturned their gate the fact, indubitably proceedformer constitution, scarcely a more ing under the advice of England. liberal one than the present ; it It soon appeared, that the absowas so lately that France had inva- lutists, pretending to support Don ded Spain, to subdue the constitu- Miguel, had a strong party in the tional party there ;—that the adhe- country. Discontent began to rents of absolute monarchy in the show itself among the troops. Inpeninsula and in France, were stances of insurrection occurred, struck with amazement by the oc- in the distant provinces, which currence of an event, which seemed were with difficulty suppressed. to sanction the past acts, and en- The insurgents took refuge in courage all the future hopes, of the Spain, where being cordially refriends of constitutional freedom. ceived, and protected, until they

It was natural to inquire, also, had collected into large bodies, what course would be adopted by they continually threatened the the members of the Holy Alliance, Portuguese frontier. Justly apa body organized for the sole pur- prehensive of an invasion, the Porpose of preventing the institution tuguese government instantly reof constitutional governments. No quired of Spain to disarm the resooner was their head removed by bels, and send their arms to Portudeath, than all the benefit of their gal. This requisition proving inkind labors in Italy, seemed to be effectual, the Spanish court meettotally annihilated by the erection ing it only with empty assurances, of the Portuguese chartered mo- which their acts belied, and intelnarchy.

ligence of the movement of troops, Sir Charles Stuart the agent in the frontier provinces of Spain, through whom Don Pedro convey- arriving continually, the Portuguese ed the constitution to Portugal, minister was ordered to leave Mawas disavowed by the English go- drid,and the diplomatic relations bevernment, who represented him as tween the two countries were susacting altogether on his own re- pended.

CHAPTER XIII.

Political condition of ITALY.Rome--Naples. AUSTRIA.

Hungary. SARDINIA and SWITZERLAND. NETHERLANDS. BAVARIA. SWEDEN. RUSSIA.Death of Alexander Constantine proclaimed- Abdicates in favor of Nicholas SeditionsSecret Societies-Coronation of Nicholas-Relations with Turkey-Persian War.

That overruling destiny, which their lot; or had Napoleon congoverns the affairs of the world, tinued to rule them, they would, at has made Austria the arbiter of least, have had an Italian for a masItaly, and thus associated them in ter, whose vigor and genius were the page of history. Austria, of worthy of his national extraction. all the great governments of Eu- In adverting to the recent acts of rope the least intellectual ; whose the see of Rome, we seem to be emperor will not have learned men restored to older times. Leo XII. in his dominions, if he can avoid it has busied himself in various polilest they should shed a ray of light tical transactions of foreign states, upon the dark despotism of his po where the pretensions of the Rolicy, has bound the chain of her man church came in conflict, with slavish rule around Italy, the land the extension of public liberty. of genius, of poetry, of the arts. Thus, in the disputes between the The kings of the two Sicilies, and ultra catholics, and the more moof Sardinia, reign only by virtue of derate church party, in the Netherthe power of Austria, whose troops lands, which gave rise to great garrison Naples and Piedmont. warmth of feeling, the pope sided Tuscany, Lombardy, Venice, the with the former. So, also, in the Italian principalities, are appanages still more bitter controversy beof the imperial family; and though tween the jesuits in France, and once, and that not many centuries their opponents, whose only aim is ago, the smallest cities of Italy, to create a national feeling, and to were the theatre of grand events; resist transmontane influence ; Leo the history of the whole nation is was not sparing of censure against now almost a blank. Had a stable the journals that supported the federal league united her states, in- liberties of the Gallican church. dependence might still have been But his interference with the in

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