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Nicholas was born in 1796, and the rebels himself, but in vain. At educated with care befitting his length, when night approached, rank. Storch, the political econo- the soldiers persisting in their mutimist, was his instructor in the sci- ny, it was found necessary to order ence of government. He is ac- up the troops; who soon dispersed counted of a mild, equable disposi- the rebels, and killed about two tion ; in this respect exactly resem

hundred of their number. Tranbling Alexander, whose measures quillity was quickly restored ; and and temper he seems desirous to all the rest of the troops in the city, imitate. He has several children, remained faithful to their duty. the oldest of whom, Alexander, Nicholas issued a proclamation, was born in 1818, and is heir ap- in consequence of this disturbance, parent of the Russian empire. to justify the measures of severity

Notwithstanding the deliberate adopted. He declared that the caution, with which Nicholas pro- mutineers were not actuated by ceeded previous to ascending the any regard for Constantine. His throne, and the reiterated acts of name was merely a pretext for their renunciation voluntarily executed, disorders. Their object, he affirmby Constantine ; so great a change ed, was long meditated, and main the order of succession, was not tured in darkness ; it being no less effected without disturbance and than to cast down the throne and bloodshed.

the laws, and overturn the empire. Opposition to the new emperor, A special commission was imwas first exhibited by part of the mediately instituted, consisting of regiment of Moscow; who, when the grand duke Michael, and severequired to take the oath of allegi- ral high officers of state and the ance to Nicholas, left their barracks army, to inquire into the causes in martial array, proclaiming Con- and extent of the alleged conspirastantine. They marched to the cy. Numerous arrests followed, square of Isaac, where they were chiefly of military officers. One joined by one or two other corps, of the orders led to another diswhich increased the number of the turbance, more deliberate and perseditious to about two thousand severing than the first. Lieutenant

General Miloradovitch, the colonel Mouravieff Apostol, one of military governor, instantly repair- the accused, attacked and wounded to the square, and endeavored ed his colonel, who attempted to to reclaim the mutineers, but was arrest him, and instigated six comshot at and mortally wounded with panies of the regiment to revolt; a pistol. Nicholas also addressed under pretence of fidelity to Con

men.

Five persons

stantine. After pillaging the mili- all the evidence, the court contary chest, setting free the malefac- victed one hundred and twenty tors imprisoned at Vassilkoff, plun- persons of participating in the condering the town, and committing spiracy. They were classed and various other disorders, the insur- sentenced, according to the aggragents marched towards Bela-Tcher- vation of their respective offences; koff. They were overtaken and five to be drawn and quartered, attacked by prince Scherbatoff, and the rest to various punishwith a sufficient body of troops, ments, from death down to exile and all who were not killed in the and degradation. engagement, laid down their arms, By imperial ukase, the proceedand were taken prisoners.

ings of the court were approved, Arrests continued to be made, but all the punishments commuted pending the sittings of the commis- to less severe ones. sion; until, at length, their pro- only, were ordered to be executed ceedings were concluded and pu- capitally, and they, simply by hangblished; from which it appears, ing, which took place July 25th, that a number of officers, who had 1825.' And thus, in the termina. served in France and Germany, tion of the affair, Nicholas had an and imbibed some notions of liber- opportunity to exercise his clementy, but neither sound nor practica- cy, which he did not fail to imble ones, on their return to Russia, prove; thereby effacing the me. established secret societies for the of scenes and incidents, which purpose of disseminating their prin- threw a gloom over the commenceciples. The parent society was ment of his reign. called the “Union of Safety.” No The rest of the year was occuharmony existed among the differ- pied with events, both at home and ent leaders, whose views were ut- in respect to foreign countries, of a terly at variance. Some proposing more agreeable nature. a republic, some a constitutional Pursuant to previous arrangemonarchy; and no rational plan ments, the coronation of the emof operations had yet been con- peror took place at Moscow, in certed.

September, at which, all the great The report of the commission officers of the crown, and the memon secret societies was made, Maybers of the imperial family assisted. 30th; and was directly followed by Constantine himself, by his prethe appointment of a high court, sence on the occasion, attracted for the trial of the parties accused.

On the day of After a laborious examination of the coronation, Nicholas issued a

mory

great attention.

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manifesto, declaring the succession immediately to appoint plenipotento the Russian throne, as laid down tiaries to meet with Russian comby the emperor Paul, in 1797, to missioners, and settle all the points remain unchanged in principle. remaining in controversy between The grand duke Michael was also the two parties. pronounced regent, during the mi- Ackermann was designated as the nority of any son of Nicholas; and place of conference, where the co

comto him the succession was to de- missioners met August 6th. After volve, in case the latter died with- a month's deliberations, the Turkout issue.

ish commissioners signed a convenPublic expectation had long been tion, providing for executing the anticipating a war between Russia treaty of Bucharest, and almost and Turkey. The sympathies of precisely conformable to the origithe former, it was well known, were nal propositions of the emperor of strongly excited in favor of the Russia. Pursuant to the last artistruggling Greeks. Add to this, cle of it, ratifications were to be that Nicholas seemed to need exchanged within four weeks, some employment for his great ar- which was accordingly done ; the mies, to dispel their discontent and Porte thus acceding, almost unconuneasiness. Every journal, there- ditionally, to the demands of Alexfore, continued to teem with specu- ander and Nicholas. This result lations on the probable event; until was probably hastened in respect May, when the Porte announced to both parties, by their actual sito all the foreign ministers at Con- tuation ; the sultan being fully ocstantinople, the conclusion of a cupied by the reforms in his army, provisional arrangement between no less than by the Greek war, and the two powers. By instructions Nicholas desiring to concentrate from his court, M. de Minziacky, his forces on his Persian frontier. the Russian envoy in Turkey, had In effect, the treaty gave complete presented an ultimatum to the security to the Russian trade in the Porte about a month before, which Black sea, and placed Wallachia, was now accepted.

Moldavia, and Servia, under the Turkey entered into engage- protection of Russia. ments to re-establish the ancient While Russia has been cultivaorder of things in Wallachia and ting the relations of peace in EuMoldavia ; to release the Servian rope, in Asia she is engaged in a deputies, imprisoned in 1821, and war, which promises to extend the satisfy the demands of Servia ; and boundaries of the Russian empire. and add to its already excessive rious pretexts, to appoint commismagnitude, by new conquests from sioners to adjust the boundary line ; Persia.

and it was not completed at AlexThe political condition of Per- ander's death. In the process of gia is represented as being pecu- this controversy, we find, under coliarly critical. At the death of the ver of great moderation of professreigning shah, Feui Aly, who is ad- ions, on the part of Russia, her vanced in years, numerous aspirants sub-governors entirely regardless of for the throne, threaten to rise and the rights of Persia. involve the kingdom in civil dis- In the summer of 1825, M. Mocord. Its government is notorious- zarovitch, a Russian ambassador, ly weak and inefficient; its finances came to the shah's camp, for are deranged; its king is avari- the purpose of endeavoring to obcious; and his subjects are disaf- tain his majesty's ratification, of fected. Under these circumstances, certain terms agreed upon between it would, indeed, be extraordinary, Futteh Alle Khan and general Yerif Persia should attack her powerful moloff, the governor of Georgia, at neighbor, and involve herself in a Teflis ; but his majesty distinctly war, which may, perhaps, end in refused his consent to the arrangeremoving the greater barrier be- ment. In the autumn of the same tween Russia and the English pos- year, M. Mozarovitch left Persia ; sessions in India, an event which and the government of Georgia, is, very - justly, much apprehended acting on what they called the treaby the British government. The ty of Futteh Alle Khan, which immediate causes of the war are to they had previously endeavored in be found in the following state of vain to induce the shah to ratify, things:

occupied, with a military force, the By the treaty of Gulistan, con- lands which would have become cluded in 1814, Persia ceded to theirs, had this treaty taken effect. Russia certain provinces in Geor- One of these portions of land gia ; agreed to maintain no navy in was an uninhabited stripe, called the Caspian sea ; and the boundary Gokcheh, which borders on the line between the two states was de- lake of Gokcheh or Sevan, and fined: while Russia, on her part, which had been in the undisputed agreed, to sustain the heir to the possession of Persia, ever since the Persian crown against all compe- conclusion of the peace. Russian titors. Difficulties, however, at- picquets had been placed there tended the adjustment of the bu- some years before, to prevent the siness; Russia delaying, under va- desertion of their wandering tribes,

who pastured their flocks in sum- within a few years, a claim, supportmer in its vicinity, and in winter ed by some weighty arguments, had had been regularly withdrawn. To been set up by Russia, and it remainthe remonstrance of the prince ed one of those points,which it would royal against the military occupa- have been the duty of commissiontion of this part of the Persian ter- ers to decide upon. The claims ritory, general Yermoloff had re- of Persia were, at least, as well plied, by admitting the justice of supported as those of Russia ; and the prince's remarks ; but excused some of the Russian official maps himself on the plea, that the mea- had marked Kapan as belonging to sure he had adopted was mutually Persia. It was, therefore, an obadvantageous, and concluded by vions injustice to seize an undisoffering to withdraw the detach- puted possession of Persia ; and to ment, if his royal highness should demand, as the price of its evacuacontinue to think it necessary.

tion, the abandonment of claims, Yet, after all this, on the strength which were probably just, to anof an unratified engagement, conclu- other portion of territory. ded by the agent of a deputed au- At this time the death of the thority, Russia took permanent pos- emperor Alexander was announsession of this very piece of ground. ced, and the confusion which was

As soon as the occupation of caused by the annunciation of ConGokcheh was known to the court stantine as his successor, and the of Tehran, a respectable envoy subsequent abdication of the throne was sent to Teflis, to remonstrate in favor of Nicholas, suspended the against the measure, and to pro

discussions. pose that the Russian detachment After the accession of Nicholas, should be withdrawn, at least until prince Menzikoff was despatched time should be given for an appeal to Persia, to conclude an agreeto the justice of the emperor. This ment, respecting the matters in was refused ; and in answer to the controversy. But, now the Perletters which the shah had written sian court began to suspect the to the governor-general of Geor- intentions of Russia ; and that she gia, he was informed that Gokcheh was determined only to consult would be given up by Russia, if the her own convenience in the settlelands of Kapan were immediately ment of the frontier. evacuated by Persia.

At the same time it was whisThese lands of Kapan had been, pered that the tranquillity of the from the conclusion of the peace, in Russian empire had been disturbed; 1814, in possession of Persia ; but that a civil war was carried on in

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