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St. Petersburgh ; and that the tribes some, who, for private ends, wisi. of the Caucasus were already in ed to hurry Persia into a war, there arms, to assert their independence. were many of the most influential
It was known that the misrule of her councillors, who anxiously of the Russian authorities in Geor- desired to avoid it. The king himgia, and their wanton interferenccsell was of this number; and though with the religious prejudices of their he had been induced to give a Mahomedan subjects, had produced solemn pledge to the Moollahs ; a feeling of serious discontent. that if Gokcheh was not restored, Proposals had even been made to he would agree to make war upon Persia by the heads of the tribes, Russia, because he would then be and chiefs of districts, to co-operate justified in doing so ; still this with her in a war against Russia. pledge--which had been exacted Letters had been written by the from him by the influence of the Mahomedan population of all the Moollahs on his inability to withRussian provinces bordering on stand their demands--was given Persia, to the head of their religion, under a moral conviction, that the imploring his interference in their envoy of the emperor would rather behalf : and he had come from the relinquish a worthless spot, to sanctuary of Kerbelace, expressly which his government had no just to urge the shah to take up arms claim, than allow the dispute to be in defence of his insulted religion. decided by the sword. The whole ecclesiastics of Persia But, in answer to all demands joined their leader, and the mosques for the evacuation of Gokcheh, the were filled with persons of all class- Russian envoy replied, that he had es, lending a willing ear to the in- no instructions regarding it, and flammatory orations of their Mool- was not empowered to agree to lahs ; while the shah was threaten- its evacuation. It was proposed ed with the curses of the faithful, that it should remain unoccupied and even with everlasting perdition, by either party, until a reference if he failed to take up arms in the could be made to the emperor. holy cause.
This he was equally unable to comIn the midst of this ferment, ply with, and he put an end to the prince Menchikoff arrived in the discussion, by repeating that his royal camp. He was treated with instructions extended to nothing, honor, and even with distinction. beyond some trifling modification Sanguine hopes were entertained of the unratified treaty of Futteh that every thing would be satisfac- Allee Khan. torily arranged ; and if there were Those who had been clamorous
for war, now called upon the shah sians prepared to pursue the Perto redeem his pledge, or forfeit his sians to Karabagh. Notwithstandhopes of heaven. The Mahomed- ing their late defeat, however, the ans of some of the Russian pro Persians attacked a Russian devinces were already in arms, and tachment on the 25th of September. even the Christians of at least one Abbas Mirza himself, and three of of these, had made overtures to his sons, were present ; but their Persia. The troops had been ex- forces sustained defeat, and were cited to enthusiasm by the Mool- pursued, in a disorderly flight, belahs, and the war was commenced yond the Araxes. It should be by the invasion of the frontier pro- remarked, that prince Menzikoff, vinces of Russia. At the same after being deceived with repretime Abba Mirza, the heir pre- sentations of the shah's pacific insumptive to the crown, issued pro- tentions, until his forces had actclamations inciting the Mahomedan ually invaded Russia, was then imsubjects of Russia to revolt, by ap- prisoned and detained in confinepealing to their religious prejudi- ment twenty-five days, in open vioces. Russia then formally declared lation of the law of nations, as war against Persia, and professed practised in more civilized counher determination not to lay down tries, and of his rights as an emarms “ until she obtained guaran- bassador. We must not, however, tee for a perfect security for the fu- expect from eastern governments, ture, and a just indemnity by an that strict observance of those honorable and solid peace.” rights, which civilization exacts
Several actions have taken place, from European nations. some of which, may be mentioned. At the commencement of the The first important one, was Sep war, the irruption of the Persians tember 12th. The Russians were was the signal for an insurrection commanded by prince Madatow; among the Mahometan subjects of the Persians by Mehmed Mirza ; Russia in that region. In conseson of Abbas Mirza, whose forces quence of this, the Russians were completely routed, and driven were obliged to evacuate several beyond Elizabeth Pol. At this provinces, and the Persians peneplace, the Russians took possession trated also a considerable distance of the Persian cainp, with large towards the Caspian sea. These magazines of provisions.
events occasioned great consternaTroops were now ordered to be tion among the Arminian merin readiness to join those already chants, whose business was thereengaged in the war ; and the Rus. by interrupted. But the prompt movements of the Russians, quick- service, consisting, for the most ly changed the face of things, and, . part, of those who accompanied as we have already stated, transfer- Alexander to Paris. In nearly all red the seat of the war to the Per- the engagements, which have thus sian territory. While on one hand, far taken place, the Russians have the Russian government represent- been successful ; though the Pered this controversy, as originating sians have, in some instances, in the perfidy and folly of the shah claimed the victory; and as the and his advisers; the Persian go- numbers of the army can easily be vernment lost no time in notifying increased from other cantonments, the European courts, the English the Persians stand no chance, that particularly, of the propriety of its we can see, of ultimate success. own conduct, ascribing the origin She must, at last, make peace upon of the war to Russia.
such terms as she can obtain from The Russian army of the Cau- the moderation of Russia ; and as casus is under the command of ge- the policy of that power has unineral Yermoloff, an officer of great formly pointed to the extension of reputation and talents, who, in that her frontier, on the side of Persia, remote region, with an army of it is obvious, that the results of the 60,000, or, as some say, 80,000 war will only hasten the period, men, is in the possession of great when the colossal power of the power. His head quarters are at north, and Great Britain, will come Teflis, the ancient capital of Geor- in collision, upon the plains of gia. His troops are accounted India. among the finest in the Russian
GREECE.- Dissensions-Government - Insurrection in the Morea
Patras-Preparations of the Egyptians and Turks--Messolunghi invested--Siege of Navarino— Engagements --Splactina taken-and Navarino-Ibrahim advances to Tripolizza-Ulysses— Events at Messolunghi— French faction at Napoli-Egyptian fleet, burnt at Modon - The Greek fleet-Hydra threatened-Attempt at Suda--Massacre at Hydra— Attempt at Alexandria.
Long suffering Greece, again re- sions, which prevented their accomsumes a place in the history of na- plishing any important movement tions. The seas, and shores, cele- in the war. But for this, they might brated in classical song, now attract have effected the reduction of Pathe attention of mankind, as the tras, and been prepared to meet theatre of a sacred war, in which their enemies in the spring, with the Greeks, no longer conquer- redoubled vigor. Divided by situaors of Asia, are contending for tion, the modern Greeks of Roumelife and liberty, on their own lia, of the Morca, and of the soil. It is a struggle which enlists islands, are not less the prey of all the sympathies of civilized man, cabals, and factions, than their verin favor of those, who profess our satile and restless ancestors. The own religion, and who possess like same fickleness of temper; the tastes with ourselves, and against same thirst of distinctions, which the inveterate enemies of christian- the ancient Athenians indulged, at ity, of education, of letters, and of every hazard ; the same indefatigapolitical improvement. In relating ble spirit of intrigue, reigns in the the vicissitudes of this war, during breasts of their descendants ; and the year 1825, we shall confine our- on the other hand, if the genius, selves to a plain simple statement of quickness, activity, and patriotism, the well authenticated facts, of most which also characterized the Greek importance, without indulging our of olden time, had not survived, feelings in any observations of a through all the reverses of the nageneral nature.
tion, we should not witness their The winter preceding the cam- present glorious struggle for freepaign of 1825, was consumed by dom. But their differences, at the the Greeks, in disastrous dissen- period under consideration, were
peculiarly unfortunate; because injurious preference for the Roumethe emergency demanded the united liots ; and hence the probable oriexertions of all their strength. gin of the subsequent dissensions.
As then constituted, the govern- Irritated by some alleged strong ment, unfortunately, did not enjoy instances of such partiality, and the unqualified confidence of the jealous of not possessing their due people. George Conduriotti, a influence in the government, the man of strict honor, and of unsha- chiefs of the Morea rose in-arms, ken integrity, it is true, but of little in the autumn of 1824, headed by talent, was president of the execu- the celebrated Colocotroni. The tive body, to which station he was government exerted itself, with exalted in part, to conciliate the great energy, to suppress this unHydriots. He, and his brother, lucky ebullition of anarchy. Cowere the most opulent merchants letti, aided by the Roumeliot geneof Hydra, which has acted so noble rals, Izonga and Goura, marched a part in the revolution. His prin- against the insurgents, and succipal adviser, and secretary of state, ceeded in reducing them to subjectMavrocordato, is variously repre- ion. Two of the leaders, Zaimi sented ; but although his purity of and Londo, left the Morea, and character is questioned, there can took refuge in Kalamos ; the rebe no doubt of his talents, address, mainder surrendered to the governfamiliarity with politics, and other ment; and Colocotroni himself general qualifications, for his post. was confined to a monastery among Being a Fanariot, and without con- the hills of Hydra. nections in Greece, he labored. The rebellion being thus effectuunder disadvantages, which con- ally quelled, the government unsiderably diminished his usefulness. dertook the blockade of Patras in Of the other four members of the earnest, and under most favorable executive body, namely, Botazi, auspices. All the Morea, except Speliotaki, Mavromichalis, and Patras, and the small fortresses of Coletti, the latter was accounted Coron and Modon, was in the posby far the most clever and intel- session of the liberators ; and so ligent ; although his manners, and was most of Western Greece. By some measures ascribed to his means of the English loans, the agency, had procured him the re- finances of the government were putation of dangerous ambition. placed in a condition to carry on This government, (whether justly or the approaching campaign with spinot, is less material,) was accused rit. Thirty ships, acting in conby the Moreots, of partiality, and cert with a suflicient body of land